## Free Energy Unbalanced

Freedom Particle System

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intensifies, the magnetic field along its length increases, further directing the flow of "cold" electricity which we want. The zero-point field energy flow is created by the imbalance of the local energy field by the magnetic "dipole" created by the current flowing through the pulse coil.

This is exactly the same situation as arises when a battery "dipole" unbalances the local field, creating broken symmetry and causing massive energy flows to radiate out from each pole of the dipole. A minute fraction of this massive energy flow happens to ride along the magnetic field around the toroidal wire coil, which is exactly what we want.

However, the strategy is to have minimum current flow in the pulsing coils, so the idea is to cut off the voltage applied to the pulse coil before actual current has an opportunity to flow. In theory, we should get the drive which we want, without any current flowing at all - drive from just voltage potential alone. From an electronics point of view, this is a very tall order indeed, especially since there must be no reverse voltage at the time of switch off. Nikola Tesla used a spark gap for pulses of that duration, but operating a spark gap is a very long way from a current-less drive pulse.

Anyway, tao's idea is to have three, six, nine or twelve pulse coils around the circumference of the toroidal coil. These coils should overlap slightly at each end. For the purpose of this explanation, just three coils are shown here:

If pulse coil 1 is powered up, it causes an energy flow in a clockwise direction, through the pulse coil and therefore, along that section of the toroidal coil. This is a pulse of very short duration. The energy flow will be at 186,000 miles per second or about 300,000,000 metres per second. If the circumference length of the toroidal coil is one metre, then the energy flow through that third of the circumference will be completed in just under one nanosecond.

The idea is then to cut off the drive to pulse coil 1 and power pulse coil 2 in order to continue the drive for the energy which has just flowed through pulse coil 1. Then, after one more nanosecond, pulse coil 2 is powered down and pulse coil 3 is pulsed. This is to produce a continuously rotating magnetic field around the circumference of the toroidal coil.

This is a nice theory, but there is no obvious way of implementing it in practice. Even providing a separate circuit for each pulse coil, each circuit would need to generate a 1 nanosecond pulse every 3 nanoseconds. That will not be done with a mechanical switching system, and no solid-state solution springs to mind. The waveform needs to have very sharply rising and falling edges and a frequency of some 900 MHz, which is not an easy circuit to produce.

The Ed Gray Power Tube. The power tube presented to the public by Ed Gray snr. (but designed by Marvin Cole) operates by generating a series of very short, very sharp pulses using a spark gap.

Edwin Gray worked as a US Air Force engineer and machine-shop technician. Having discussed the matter with an associate of Nikola Tesla, in 1958 Ed discovered that the magnetic field generated by the very fast discharge of a high voltage source could pick up additional energy. (This was not actually a new discovery as Nicola Tesla had already burnt out a power station when he tried this on a large scale). It is said that in the seventies, Edwin built a device to capture this extra energy, however, it is almost certain that Ed Gray did not build the original system, nor did he understand how it actually operated. The designer and builder, Marvin Cole, unfortunately died, leaving Ed in a difficult position, which he tried, fairly ineffectively, to overcome.

There is no doubt that the original power-generating system and motor operated exactly as described, and both have been replicated by others since then. A rapid and abrupt electrical discharge is produced by generating a spark, and power pick-up is achieved by two copper cylinders surrounding the conductor which carried the spark current. There is more than one way of doing this, and as mild beta-radiation is generated, it is advisable to encase the tube in a metal housing.

The extra power generated is used to drive opposing electromagnets in an electric pulse motor, generating eighty horsepower output. His patents can not be relied on as Ed did not understand the basic principles of operation of the system, and as well as that, he did not want to disclose anything if he could. The patents were just to encourage investors. The patents show the pulses passing through the driving coils of the motor, charging a second battery via a current-limiting capacitor. Running this powerful motor was essentially free as the battery used to generate the spark voltage was switched periodically with the battery under charge. The result is a powerful motor which needs no fuel to run. Ed Gray received US Patent No 3,890,548 in June 1975 and Patent No 4,661,747 in April 1987. A full and detailed description of how it is believed that "Ed Gray's" system works is given in Peter Lindemann's book "The Free Energy Secrets of Cold Electricity" which is available via http://www.free-energy.ws/products.html.

Tesla used this spark gap method with spark quenching provided by a strong magnetic field at right angles to the spark, in order to get really high-quality DC pulses with durations of one microsecond or less. Pulse trains of individual pulses with very short durations produce heat, spontaneous lighting, cooling, etc. depending on the frequency of the pulsing. The power tube is placed around a heavy-duty copper conductor which is pulsed, unbalancing the zero-point energy field and a tiny part of the resulting energy flow as the field moves back into equilibrium again, is captured by the surrounding perforated copper shells. The power output available from the tube is said to be a hundred times the input power needed to make the device work. The circuit used with this device is:

You will notice that the power driving the load does not come from the battery as the battery circuit produces the spark and nothing else. The load is driven by power picked up on the copper shells around the half inch (12 mm) diameter copper rod spark-gap electrode with its silver coated tips. Edwin Gray is famous for his electric pulse motor, which generated eighty horsepower, but the really important item which he demonstrated was the power tube which could power lights and other devices. It was frequently demonstrated that the output from the power tube was not conventional electricity and powered light bulbs were operated under water and at the same time, it was quite safe for a hand to be put into that same water along with the lit bulb. You do not do that with conventional mains electricity, nor is it normal to be able to operate a light bulb underwater when using conventional mains electricity.

The construction of the pick-up tube is not particularly difficult. It is comprised of a teflon (plastic) cylinder of about 80 mm diameter with teflon plates at each end, grooved to hold the pick-up cylinders in place. A pair of 12 mm diameter copper rods are positioned down the centre of the cylinder and provided with a means to adjust the gap between them where they meet. The rod ends form the spark gap and these ends are plated with silver. One rod has a graphite block inserted in it, using a push-fit connection into slots cut in the bar. This carbon insert is supposedly a resistor, but in fact it is an important part of the excess energy generation system. In some successful constructions of the tube an 8-inch long, half-inch diameter carbon rod with a silver tip, is used for one of the electrodes.

The two or three cylinder shells which pick up the Radiant Energy, are constructed from copper sheet. The gap between the outside of one cylinder and the inside of the surrounding cylinder is about 6 mm. These cylinders are more effective if they have a matrix of holes drilled in them. They are connected together electrically and the connection is led out through the teflon casing to feed the load circuit. The cylinder contains air rather than a vacuum or an inert gas. The copper cylinders are held in place by push-fit supports, one set positioned between the outside of the smaller cylinder and the inside of the larger cylinder. The second set are placed between the outside of the larger cylinder and the inside of the housing tube:

The power tube is constructed this way because the Radiant Energy wave generated by the sharp pulse of current through the electrodes, radiates out at right angles to the electrodes.

Peter Lindemann points out that Ed Gray's power conversion tube circuit is effectively a copy of Nikola Tesla's circuit for doing the same thing:

This was disclosed by Tesla in his 'Philadelphia and St Louis' lecture in 1893 and shows how loads can be powered when a high voltage source is pulsed by a magnetically-quenched sparks - this creates DC pulses of very short duration.

The diagram above, illustrates the difference between the Magnetic field generated around a conductor fed with a pulse of Direct Current and the Radiant Energy waves created by that pulse. If a sharp current pulse is driven down a vertical wire, it causes two different types of field. The first field is magnetic, where the lines of magnetic force rotate around the wire. These lines are horizontal, and rotate clockwise when viewed from above. The magnetic field remains as long as the current flows down the wire.

The second field is the Radiant Energy wave. This wave will only occur if the current pulse is in one direction, i.e. it will not occur if the wire is fed with alternating current. The wave radiates out horizontally from the vertical wire in every direction in the form of a shock wave. It is a one-off event and does not repeat if the current in the wire is maintained. The Radiant Energy briefly unbalances the zero-point energy field and that causes an energy flow as the field moves back into equilibrium again. A tiny fraction of this massive, brief energy flow can be picked up and that collected energy is more than 100 times greater than the energy needed to generate the spark which triggered the energy flow in the first place. This is the energy which the tube was designed to collect. Consequently, the tubes are fed with a train of high-intensity, short-duration, DC pulses to generate repeated waves of Radiant Energy. It is the pick-up of the resulting excess energy which allows the motors run without the need for the batteries to be charged by any conventional source of current.

The Radiant energy wave is not restricted to a single plane as shown in the diagram above, which is intended to indicate the difference between the electromagnetic field circling around the wire, and the Radiant Energy field which radiates away from the wire. Both of these fields occur at all points along the full length of the wire as shown here:

Radiant Energy, when converted to electrical power, produces a different kind of electrical power to that produced by batteries and by the mains supply. Power a motor with conventional electricity and it gets hot under load. Power the same motor by Radiant Energy electricity and under load the motor gets cold. Really overload it by stalling it and the motor housing is likely to be covered with frost. That is why this form of electricity is referred to as "cold" electricity.

If a light bulb powered by conventional electricity is placed in water and you put your hand in the water, then you will almost certainly receive a severe electrical shock which may even kill you. Power the same light bulb with Radiant Energy electricity and place it in water. The bulb will continue to shine and putting your hand in the water will have no ill effects at all, quite the reverse in fact, as "cold" electricity has healing properties

Here is a cross-section of the motor. The electromagnets marked "1" are powered by the first capacitor charging circuit, those marked "2" are powered via the second charging circuit and those marked "3" are powered by the third charging circuit. The motor is driven by a brief pulse of high current being applied to the rotor electromagnets and one the numbered sets of fixed ("stator") electromagnets. This is done so that they repulse each other and the timing is arranged so that the pulse occurs just after the rotor electromagnets have passed over the fixed electromagnets. This way, the rotor gets a strong rotary push nine times during each revolution - or it would do were it not for the extra electromagnets shown in blue in the diagram. The designer opted for a more complicated switching arrangement which gives 27 drive pulses per revolution by using the extra electromagnets and nine electronic circuit copies but this is not important for understanding the operation of his motor. He also designed an ingenious speed control where the electromagnet spark gaps are physically moved to advance the pulse timing (which slows the motor) or

It may be a little difficult to visualise the electromagnets from the above diagram, but consider them to be about 200 mm (6") long, running into the screen, with a wire wound around them, lying in a slot which runs all round the whole of the four sides. The advantage of using an electromagnet is that the power is controlled by the current running through the winding and is not limited by what permanent magnets are available at the time. The power of an electromagnet increases with the number of turns, the strength of the current pulse and the core material (air, soft iron, laminated iron,...). The disadvantage is having to pass current to the moving electromagnets which is done by brushes which generates noise and wear - but neither excessively. One detail which does not show in the patent is the fact that the electromagnet laminations were machined with a fifteen degree angle across their width. This created a sloping face on both the stator and rotor magnets, with the slope facing the direction of rotation. When the magnets fired, the magnet faces are parallel but not facing towards the centre of the shaft. This gives the rotor extra torque without needing extra current.

Conclusion: This motor has a very clever mechanical throttle which operates by rotating the pulsing coils slightly. It is very efficient and may produce more output than its electrical input, but the main source of power is the power-conversion tube which taps the zero-point energy field power flow when that field is unbalanced by Radiant Energy pulses and supplies the resulting collected energy to the motor. It should be stressed that the motor, clever and all as it is, is not a necessary part of this invention as the power-conversion tube has been demonstrated on its own, powering lights and other loads via an air-cored (high frequency) transformer wound on a four-inch diameter plastic pipe, using very heavy duty wire such as is used for vehicle spark plugs.

In his book "Cold War Secrets - HAARP and Beyond", Gerry Vassilatos quotes research work done in this area by Tesla and others:

Tesla's Experiments: In 1889 Tesla began experimenting with capacitors charged to high voltages and discharged in very short time intervals. These very short pulses produced very sharp shockwaves which he felt across the front of his whole body. He was aware that closing a switch on a high-voltage dynamo often produced a stinging shock. This was believed to be static electricity and it occurred only at switch-on and only for a few milliseconds. However, in those few milliseconds, bluish needles of energy stand out from the electrical cables and they leak to ground, often through the bodies of any people standing nearby, causing immediate death if the installation is large. While the generators of that time were rated at some thousands of volts, these discharges were millions of volts in intensity. The generator problem was eliminated by the used of highly insulated switches which were provided with a very large ground connection.

Tesla was intrigued by this phenomenon which appeared to match the effect of his capacitor discharges. He calculated that the voltages produced were hundreds of times greater than could be supplied by the capacitor or generator. It was clear that the power supplied was being amplified or augmented in some way, but the question was, from where was the extra energy coming?

Tesla continued to investigate through experiments, taking precautions against the high voltages being produced. He was soon able to produce these shockwaves whenever he wanted to. The shockwaves produced a stinging sensation no matter where he stood in his laboratory, and hands and face were particularly sensitive to the wave. These waves radiated out and penetrated metal, glass and every other kind of material. This was clearly not an electromagnetic wave, so he called the new wave 'Radiant Electricity'.

Tesla searched the literature to find references to this radiant energy but he could not find much. In 1842, Dr. Joseph Henry had observed that steel needles were magnetised by a Leyden Jar spark discharge located on a different floor of the building. The magnetising wave had passed through brick walls, oak doors, heavy stone and iron flooring and tin ceilings to reach the needles located in a vault in the cellar.

In 1872, Elihu Thomson took a large Ruhmkorrf Spark Coil, attached one pole of the coil to a cold-water pipe and the other pole to a metal table top. This resulted in a series of massive sparks which electrified the metal door knob of the room and produced the stinging shockwaves which Tesla was investigating. He found that any insulated metal object anywhere in the building would produce long continuous white sparks discharging to ground. This discovery was written up briefly in the Scientific American journal later that year.

Tesla concluded that all of the phenomena which he had observed, implied the presence of "a medium of gaseous structure, that is, one consisting of independent carriers capable of free motion - besides the air, another medium is present". This invisible medium is capable of carrying waves of energy through all substances, which suggests that, if physical, its basic structure is much smaller than the atoms which make up commonplace materials, allowing the stream of matter to pass freely through all solids. It appears that all of space is filled with this matter.

Thomas Henry Moray demonstrated this energy flow passing through glass and lighting standard electric light bulbs. Harold Aspden performed an experiment known as the "Aspden Effect" which also indicates the presence of this medium. Harold made this discovery when running tests not related to this subject. He started an electric motor which had a rotor mass of 800 grams and recorded the fact that it took an energy input of 300 joules to bring it up to its running speed of 3,250 revolutions per minute when it was driving no load.

The rotor having a mass of 800 grams and spinning at that speed, its kinetic energy together with that of the drive motor is no more than 15 joules, contrasting with the excessive energy of 300 joules needed to get it rotating at that speed. If the motor is left running for five minutes or more, and then switched off, it comes to rest after a few seconds. But, the motor can then be started again (in the same or opposite direction) and brought up to speed with only 30 joules provided that the time lapse between stopping and restarting is no more than a minute or so. If there is a delay of several minutes, then an energy input of 300 joules is needed to get the rotor spinning again.

This is not a transient heating phenomenon. At all times the bearing housings feel cool and any heating in the drive motor would imply an increase of resistance and a build-up of power to a higher steady state condition. The experimental evidence is that there is something unseen, which is put into motion by the machine rotor. That "something" has an effective mass density 20 times that of the rotor, but it is something that can move independently and take several minutes to decay, while the motor comes to rest in a few seconds.

Two machines of different rotor size and composition reveal the phenomenon and tests indicate variations with time of day and compass orientation of the spin axis. One machine, the one incorporating weaker magnets, showed evidence of gaining strength magnetically during the tests which were repeated over a period of several days.

This clearly shows that there is an unseen medium which interacts with everyday objects and actions, and confirms Tesla's discovery. Tesla continued to experiment and determined that a very short uni-directional pulse is necessary to generate the radiant energy wave. In other words, an alternating voltage does not create the effect, it has to be a DC pulse. The shorter the pulse time and the higher the voltage, the greater the energy wave. He found that using a capacitor and an arc discharge mechanism with a very powerful permanent magnet placed at right angles to the spark, improved the performance of his equipment by a major factor.

Additional experiments showed that the effects were altered by adjusting the duration of the electrical pulse. In each instance, the power of the radiated energy appeared to be constant irrespective of the distance from his apparatus. The energy was in the form of individual longitudinal waves. Objects placed near the equipment became powerfully electrified, retaining their charge for many minutes after the equipment was switched off.

Tesla was using a charging dynamo as a power source and he found that if he moved his magnetic discharger to one side of the dynamo, the radiant wave was positive. If he moved the magnetic discharger towards the other side of the dynamo, the radiant wave became negative in sign. This was clearly a new electrical force which travelled as light-like rays, showing them to be different in nature to the electromagnetic waves of Maxwell.

Investigating the effects of adjusting the duration of the pulses, Tesla found that a pulse train which had individual pulses with durations exceeding 100 microseconds, produced pain and mechanical pressures. At this duration, objects in the field visibly vibrated and were even pushed along by the field. Thin wires subjected to sudden bursts of the radiant field, exploded into vapour. When the pulse duration was reduced to 100 microseconds or below, the painful effect was no longer felt and the waves are harmless.

With a pulse duration of 1 microsecond, strong physiological heat was felt. With even shorter pulse durations, spontaneous illuminations capable of filling rooms with white light, were produced. Even shorter pulses produced cool room penetrating breezes with an accompanying uplift in mood and awareness. These effects have been verified by Eric Dollard who has written about them in some detail.

In 1890, Tesla discovered that if he placed a two-foot long single-turn deep copper helix coil near his magnetic disrupter, the thin-walled coil developed a sheath of white sparks with long silvery white streamers rising from the top of the coil. These discharges appeared to have much higher voltages than the generating circuit. This effect was greatly increased if the coil was placed inside the disrupter wire circle. The discharge seemed to hug the surface of the coil with a strange affinity, and rode up its surface to the open end. The shockwave flowed over the coil at right angles to the windings and produced very long discharges from the top of the coil. With the disrupter charge jumping one inch in its magnetic housing, the coil streamers were more than two feet in length. This effect was generated at the moment when the magnetic field quenched the spark and it was wholly unknown at that time.

This train of very short uni-directional pulses causes a very strange field to expand outwards. This field resembles a stuttering electrostatic field but has a far more powerful effect than would be expected from an electrostatic charge. Tesla was unable to account for the enormous voltage multiplication of his apparatus using any of the electrical formula of his day. He therefore presumed that the effect was entirely due to radiant transformation rules which would have to be determined through experimental measurements. This he proceeded to do.

Tesla had discovered a new induction law where radiant shockwaves actually auto-intensified when encountering segmented objects. The segmentation was the key to releasing the action. Radiant shockwaves encountered a helix and "flashed over" the outer skin, from end to end. This shockwave did not pass through the windings of the coil but treated the surface of the coil as a transmission path. Measurements showed that the voltage increase along the surface of the coil was exactly proportional to the length travelled along the coil, with the voltage increase reaching values of 10,000 volts per inch of coil. The 10,000 volts which he was feeding to his 24 inch coil were being magnified to 240,000 volts at the end of his coil. This was unheard of for simple equipment like that. Tesla also discovered that the voltage increase was mathematically linked to the resistance of the coil winding, with higher resistance windings producing higher voltages.

Tesla then began to refer to his disrupter loop as his special "primary" and to the long helical coil as his special "secondary" but he never intended anyone to equate these terms to those referring to electromagnetic transformers which operate in a completely different way.

There was an attribute which baffled Tesla for a time. His measurements showed that there was no current flowing in the long copper 'secondary' coil. Voltage was rising with every inch of the coil, but there was no current flow in the coil itself. Tesla started to refer to his measured results as his "electrostatic induction laws". He found that each coil had its own optimum pulse duration and that the circuit driving it needed to be 'tuned' to the coil by adjusting the length of the pulses to give the best performance.

Tesla then noticed that the results given by his experiments paralleled the equations for dynamic gas movements, so he began wondering if the white flame discharges might not be a gaseous manifestation of electrostatic force. He found that when a metal point was connected to the upper terminal of the 'secondary' coil, the streamers were directed very much like water flowing through a pipe. When the stream was directed at distant metal plates, it produced electronic charges which could be measured as current at the receiving site but in transit, no current existed. The current only appeared when the stream was intercepted. Eric Dollard has stated that this intercepted current can reach several hundred or even thousands of amps.

Tesla made another remarkable discovery. He connected a very heavy U-shaped copper bar directly across the primary of his disrupter, forming a dead short-circuit. He then connected several ordinary incandescent filament bulbs between the legs of the U-shaped bar. When the equipment was powered up, the lamps lit with a brilliant cold white light. This is quite impossible with conventional electricity, and it shows clearly that what Tesla was dealing with was something new. This new energy is sometimes called "cold electricity" and Edwin Gray snr. demonstrated how different it is by lighting incandescent-filament bulbs directly from his power tube, submerging them in water and putting his hand in the water. Cold electricity is generally considered to be harmless to humans. Ed Gray's power tube operates by generating radiant electricity waves by using a spark gap, and collecting the energy using three encasing copper cylinders surrounding the spark gap. The cylinders are drilled with many holes as that enhances the pick-up and the load is driven directly from the current in the cylinders. When lighting bulbs, Ed used an air-cored transformer made of just a few turns of very heavy wire. I, personally, am aware of two people who have independently reproduced Ed's power tube.

Tesla viewed the streamers coming off his coils as being wasted energy so he tried to suppress them. He tried a conical coil but found that this accentuated the problem. He then tried placing a copper sphere at the top of his coil. This stopped the streamers but electrons were dislodged from the copper sphere, creating really dangerous conditions. This implied that metals generate electron flows when struck by the coil streamers (as had been seen when the streamers had been aimed at remote metal plates and current was generated as a result).

Tesla designed, built and used large globe lamps which required only a single external plate for receiving the radiant energy. No matter how far away these lamps were from the radiant source, they became brilliantly lit, almost to the level of an arc lamp and far, far brighter than any of the conventional Edison filament lamps. By adjusting the voltage and the pulse duration of his apparatus, Tesla could also heat or cool a room.

Tesla's experiments suggest that a method of extracting free-energy is to use a Tesla coil which has a metal spike instead of the more common metal sphere at the end of the 'secondary' coil. If the Tesla coil is fed with sufficiently short uni-directional pulses and the 'secondary' coil pointed at a metal plate, then it should be possible to draw off serious levels of power from the metal plate, just as Tesla discovered.

The energy drawn from the surrounding field is not electricity and it does not flow through the wire of the 'secondary' coil, but instead, it runs along the outside of the coil and through space to strike the surface of the metal plate, where it generates conventional electric current which can be of serious amperage. Thomas Henry Moray demonstrated that this energy flowing along the outside of the wire can pass through glass without being affected in any way.

While Tesla's experiment used a metal plate, he patented (US 512,340) a coil type which he said is very effective in picking up this radiant energy. This coil type goes by the rather impressive name of "bi-filar serial-connected coil":

If a strong magnetic field is positioned across the spark gap as shown above, it sharpens the cut-off of the spark and enhances the uni-directional character of the pulse of current. It should be remembered that if a very short sharp pulse of uni-directional current such as is produced by a spark jumping across a spark gap as in the arrangement shown above, occurs in a conductor, then a strong wave of radiant energy radiates out in a plane at right angles to the pulse of current.

This radiant energy wave is quite different from the electromagnetic field generated around the wire carrying the pulse of current. In the Tesla coil arrangement shown above, it should be possible to gather additional free energy through one or more co-axial (like layers of an onion) cylindrical coils around the spark gap leads. These coils will be better if they are would as bi-filar serially-connected coils, which just means that the wire used to wind them is doubled over from its mid point before the coil is wound. The reason for this arrangement is that the magnetic field component of the coils is (nearly) zero as the current flowing through the wire is flowing in opposite directions in alternate turns, and so the magnetic fields produced should cancel out:

Tesla was granted US Patent 685, 957 "Apparatus for the Utilisation of Radiant Energy" in which he shows various ways of handling the energy collected by the metal plate. It is likely that the pick-up techniques shown in the patent of Hermann Plauston, which is in the Appendix, would also work very effectively with this collected energy. Old patents sometimes mention a "condenser" which is the original term for what is nowadays called a "capacitor".

After careful consideration and many experiments, Tesla concluded that the radiant rays which he was utilising, radiated out so rapidly that electrons were unable to keep up with them. The rays were being carried via a medium consisting of extremely mobile, almost mass-less particles, very much smaller than electrons and which, because of their size and speed, could pass easily through most materials. In spite of their small size, their extreme speed caused them to have considerable momentum. A fact which is very difficult to come to terms with is that these rays seem to propagate outwards instantly, with no time delay at all, as if transmitted through matter which is wholly incompressible. It is sometimes called "Radiant Energy" or "RE" for short and appears to have no net charge in conventional terms. This is a unique feature of the universe, with unique characteristics, which if utilised, provides a whole host of new applications and capabilities.

Tesla considered that this newly discovered field acted like a fluid. A hundred and fifteen years later, the cover story of the December 2005 edition of the 'Scientific American' journal states that experimental models hint that space-time could be a kind of fluid. It has taken a long time for modern science to start catching up with Tesla. In actual fact, it was Michael Faraday (1781 - 1867) who came up with the idea in the first place.

The Alberto Molina-Martinez Generator. US patent application US 20020125774 of 6th March 2002, shows a self-powered electrical generator. Like that used by Bob Boyce, this is a toroidal (ring-shaped) frame with several windings on it, as shown in the diagram below. Once it has been powered up with AC mains frequency voltage, it produces so much power that it can supply it's own input power requirement as well as powering other loads such as light bulbs. This patent application is shown in full in the Appendix.

It is said that the Toroid device built by Stephen Mark and shown in web videos, is a replication of this generator design. The forum at present at http://www.overunity.com/index.php/topic,2535.0.html is dedicated to replicating Stephen Mark's device and considerable progress has been made. This group is operating on the basis that instead of a metallic toroid core as shown here, that a Mobius-loop toroidal wire core is used. At this point in time, their efforts have not yet produced a circuit which exhibits a COP>1 performance

You will notice that very many different devices, aimed at doing different things, all operate by generating very sharp DC pulses