Close switch 3 to connect feed wires 1 and 2 to transformer leads 6 and 7. Adjust spark-gap 10 and variable capacitor 11 so that a frequency of 500 KHz and 100 KV is delivered from secondary leads 14 and 15 of step-up transformer 8 of Fig.1. Next adjust spark-gap 21 of transmission antenna 14 so that all nodes and peaks are eliminated in the transmission of the 100 KV and 500 KHz frequency along antenna 14. The surges which occur, pass over gap 21 through lead 22 to variable capacitor 23 and then on to ground 24' via lead 24.
The high frequency current of 500 KHz returns through the ground, to ground connection 18, up lead 17 to the variable capacitor 16 and via lead 15 to the secondary winding 13 of transformer 8 of Fig.1. The alternating current produced by the 100 KV 500 KHz supply is the same frequency as the earth generated currents, and being in tune with them it picks up additional power from them. Being the same frequency as the output from transformer 8 along wires 14, this produces a reservoir of high frequency current which can be drawn upon by a tuned circuit of the same 500 KHz frequency, as shown in Fig.2.
Antenna 25 is tuned to receive a frequency of 500 KHz which produces a current that passes to lead 26 through winding 27' of transformer 27, through wire 28, variable capacitor 29 and wire 30 to ground connection 31. The high frequency currents of 500 KHz pass through to winding 32 and by variable capacitor 33 and windings 34 and 35 of the frequency transformer 27 are stepped down to a voltage and frequency suitable to operate motor 38 via leads 36 and 37. This makes available a current supply for any purpose whatsoever, such as the operation of aeroplanes, cars, railway trains, industrial plants, lighting, heating etc.
The return of current through the earth from transmission antenna 14 is preferable to a metallic return as a higher percentage of accumulation of earth currents is noticeable on receiving antennae of Fig.2 than from a metallic return, caused by the capacitance of the grounded circuit. I also prefer under certain conditions to use a single antenna receiving wire in place of the closed loop shown in Fig.2. Under certain operation requirements I have found it expedient to have the transmission antenna elevated and carried on poles many feet above the earth and in that case a different voltage and frequency were found to be necessary to accumulate earth currents along the transmission antenna 14.
This system of Frank's effectively applies very sharply pulsed DC pulses to a long length of wire supported in a horizontal position not far above the ground. The pulses are sharp due to both the spark gap on the primary side of the transformer, along with the spark-gap on the secondary (high voltage) side of the transformer. An input power of 500 watts gives a 3 kW power output from what appears to be an incredibly simple piece of equipment.
Dave Lawton. A solid-state semiconductor circuit which has proved successful in producing pulses like this is shown as part of Dave Lawton's replication of Stan Meyer's Water Fuel Cell. Here, an ordinary NE555 timer chip generates a square wave which feeds a carefully chosen Field-Effect Transistor the BUZ350 which drives a water-splitter cell via a combined pair of choke coils at point "A" in the diagram below.
Stan Meyer used a toroidal ferrite ring when he was winding these choke coils while Dave Lawton uses two straight ferrite bars, bridged top and bottom with thick iron strips. Chokes wound on straight ferrite rods have been found to work very well also. The effects are the same in all cases, with the waveform applied to the pipe electrodes being converted into very sharp, very short, high-voltage spikes. These spikes unbalance the local quantum environment causing vast flows of energy, a tiny percentage of which happens to flow into the circuit as additional power. The cell runs cold, and at low input current, quite unlike an ordinary electrolysis cell where the temperature rises noticeably and the input current needed is much higher.
John Bedini uses this same pulsing of a bi-filar wound coil to produce the same very short, very sharp voltage spikes which unbalance the local energy field, causing major flows of additional energy. The figure shown here is from his US patent 6,545,444.
John has produced and generously shared, many designs, all of which are basically similar and all using a 1:1 ratio bi-filar wound transformer. This one uses a free-running rotor with permanent magnets embedded in it's rim, to trigger sharp induced currents in the windings of the coil unit marked "13b" which switches the transistor on, powering winding "13a" which powers the rotor on its way. The pick-up coil "13c" collects additional energy from the local environment, and in this particular circuit, feeds it into the capacitor. After a few turns of the rotor (dictated by the gear-down ratio to the second rotor), the charge in the capacitor is fed into a second "on-charge" battery.
The rotor is desirable but not essential as the coils marked 1 and 2 can self-oscillate, and there can be any number of windings shown as 3 in the diagram. Winding 3 produces very short, sharp, high-voltage spikes, which is the essential part of the design. If those sharp pulses are fed to a lead-acid battery (instead of to a capacitor as shown above), then an unusual effect is created which triggers a link between the battery and the immediate environment, causing the environment to charge the battery. This is an amazing discovery and because the voltage pulses are high-voltage courtesy of the 1:1 choke coils, the battery bank being charged can have any number of batteries and can be stacked as a 24-volt bank even though the driving battery is only 12 volts. Even more interesting is the fact that charging can continue for more than half an hour after the pulsing circuit is switched off.
It can be tricky to get one of these circuits tuned properly to work at peak performance, but when they are, they can have performances of COP>10. The major snag is that the charging mechanism does not allow a load to be driven from the battery bank while it is being charged. This means that for any continuous use, there has to be two battery banks, one on charge and one being used. A further major problem is that battery banks are just not suitable for serious household use. A washing machine draws up to 2.2 kilowatts and a wash cycle might be an hour long (two hours long if a "whites" wash and a "coloureds" wash are done one after the other which is not uncommon). During the winter, heating needs to be run at the same time as the washing machine, which could well double the load.
It is recommended that batteries are not loaded much beyond their "C20" rate, that is, one twentieth of their Amp-Hour nominal rating. Say that 85 Amp-Hour deep-cycle leisure batteries are being used, then the recommended draw rate from them is 85 Amps divided by 20, which is 4.25 amps. Let's push it and say we will risk drawing double that, and make it 8.5 amps. So, how many batteries would we need to supply our washing machine assuming that our inverter was 100% efficient? Well, 2,200 watts on a 12-volts system is 2,200 / 12 = 183 amps, so with each battery contributing 8.5 amps, we would need 183 / 8.5 = 22 large, heavy batteries. We would need twice that number if we were to treat them right, plus twice that again for household heating, say 110 batteries for an anyway realistic system. That sheer size of battery banks is not realistic for your average householder or person living in an apartment. Consequently, it appears that the Bedini pulse-charging systems are not practical for anything other than minor items of equipment.
However, the really important point here is the way that when these short pulses are applied to a lead-acid battery, a link is formed with the environment which causes large amounts of energy to flow into the circuit from outside. This is extra "free-energy". Interestingly, it is highly likely that if the pulses generated by Dave Lawton's water-splitter circuit shown above, were fed to a lead-acid battery, then the same battery-charging mechanism is likely to occur. Also, if a Bedini pulse-charging circuit were connected to a water-splitting cell like the Lawton cell, then it is highly probable that it would also drive that cell satisfactorily. Two apparently different applications, two apparently different circuits, but both producing sharp high-voltage pulses which draw extra free-energy from the immediate environment.
The Tesla Switch. It doesn't stop there. Nikola Tesla introduced the world to Alternating Current ("AC") but later on he moved from AC to very short, sharp pulses of Direct Current ("DC"). He found that by adjusting the frequency and duration of these high-voltage pulses, that he could produce a whole range of effects drawn from the environment - heating, cooling, lighting, etc. The important point to note is that the pulses were drawing energy directly from the immediate environment. Leaving aside the advanced equipment which Tesla was using during those experiments and moving to Tesla's simple-looking 4-battery switch, we discover the same background operation of sharp voltage pulses drawing free-energy from the environment.
Consider the circuit built and tested by the Electrodyne Corp. for a period of three years:
This simple-looking circuit needs to have an inductive load, preferably a motor, but that aside, consider the results of that very extended period of testing. If the switching rate and switching quality were of a sufficiently high standard, then the load could be powered indefinitely.
The batteries used were ordinary lead-acid batteries, and after the three years of tests, the batteries appeared to be in perfect condition. Their tests revealed a number of very interesting things. If the circuit was switched off and the batteries discharged to a low level, then when the circuit was switched on again, the batteries returned to full charge in under one minute. As no electrical charging circuit was connected to the system, the energy which charged those batteries had to be flowing into the batteries (and load) from outside the circuit. The similarity with the Bedini pulsed battery charger circuits immediately springs to mind, especially as no heating occurred in the batteries in spite of the massive charging rate. If the circuit was switched off and heavy current drawn from the batteries, then heat would be produced which is quite normal for battery discharging. The system operated lights, heaters, television sets, small motors and a 30-horsepower electric motor. If left undisturbed, with the circuit running, then each battery would charge up to nearly 36 volts with no apparent ill effects.
Here we have spectacular battery charging and performance, quite outside the normal range associated with these ordinary lead-acid batteries. Are they being fed very short, very sharp pulses, like the previous two systems? It would look as if they were not, but one other very interesting piece of information coming from Electrodyne is that the circuit would not operate correctly if the switching rate was less than 100 Hz (that is 100 switchings in one second). The Electrodyne switching was done mechanically via three discs mounted on the shaft of a small motor. It is distinctly possible that the brushes pressing on those rotating discs experienced the equivalent of "switch bounce" which plagues mechanical switches used with electronic circuits. Instead of a single, clean change over from Off to On states, there is a series of very short makes and breaks of the circuit. If this happened with the Electrodyne mechanical switching, then the circuit would have experienced very short, sharp electrical pulses at the instant of switching. The fact that the switching speed had to reach one hundred per second before the effect started happening is certainly interesting, though not proof by any means.
One other detail reported by the Electrodyne testers, is that if the switching speed exceeded 800 times per second, that it was "dangerous" but unfortunately, they didn't say why or how it was dangerous. It clearly was not a major problem with the batteries as they were reported to be in good shape after three years of testing, so definitely no exploding batteries there. It could well be as simple a thing that the voltage on each battery rose so high that it exceeded the voltage specifications of the circuit components, or the loads being powered, which is a distinct possibility. In my opinion, considering the way that the batteries responded, it would be perfectly reasonable to take it that short pulses were being generated by their mechanical system. If that is the case, then here is another system drawing fee-energy from the environment via sharp voltage pulses.
The Tesla Switch circuit has some very interesting features. Pupils in school are taught that if a bulb is connected across a battery, a current flows from the battery, through the bulb and back to the battery. This current causes the bulb to light, and after a time, the battery runs down and is no longer able to light the bulb. This is completely correct.
However, this teaching gives the wrong impression. It implies that the "work" done in lighting the bulb, uses up the electricity coming from the battery and that the battery somehow has a store of electricity, something like the sand in an hourglass or egg-timer, which when it runs out will no longer be able to light the bulb. Interestingly, those same teachers will show the correct picture of the circuit, drawing it like this:
You will notice that the 1-amp current flowing out of the bulb is exactly the same as the 1-amp current flowing into the bulb. Exactly the same amount of current comes out of the bulb as the current which flows into the bulb. So, how much current is "used up" in doing the work of lighting the bulb? Answer: None. Energy is never destroyed, the most that can happen to it is that it gets converted from one form to another.
So why does the battery end up not being able to light the bulb any more? Well, that is a feature of the way that batteries operate. If the current flow is in one direction, then the battery gets charged up, and if it is in the other direction, then the battery gets discharged:
The battery getting run down, has nothing to do with the current flowing through the bulb, the battery would get run down if the bulb were left out of the circuit. The useful "work" of creating light by having the current flow through the bulb, does not "use up" any current, and more importantly, it does not "use up" any energy. Energy cannot be "used up" - it just gets transformed from one form to another. This is difficult to understand as we have been taught that we have to keep buying energy from the electricity supply companies to power our equipment. The false idea is that we buy the energy, and it then gets "used up" in the equipment, so we have to buy some more to keep the equipment going. We accept it because that's what we were taught. It isn't true.
The current flowing through the bulb can be arranged to be a charging current for another battery. It can both light the bulb and charge another battery without needing any extra current:
Here, the circuit is powered by battery 1 as before, but this time the current goes on to charge battery 2. Yes, battery 1 gets discharged just as before, but the plus side is that battery 2 is getting charged up all the time. The final step is to swap the batteries over:
And now, the newly charged battery 2 lights the bulb and charges up battery 1 again. Seem impossible? Well it isn't. Nikola Tesla demonstrates this with his "4-battery switch" system where he chooses to use four identical batteries to implement this circuit:
With 12-volt batteries as shown here, the bulb has the same 12 volts across it as it would have had with the single battery shown in the first diagram, as batteries 1 and 2 are wired "in series" to give 24 volts, while batteries 3 and 4 are wired "in parallel" to give 12 volts. The Tesla switch circuit swaps the batteries over with 1 and 2 taking the place of 3 and 4, hundreds of times per second. If you wire a simple manual changeover switch and use it to change the battery arrangement as shown above, tests show that the batteries can power the light for a longer time than if they were not switched over. The snag is that batteries are not 100% efficient and so you can only take about half of the charging current back out of the battery again. For a Tesla 4-battery switch to operate indefinitely, there has to be inflow of outside energy to offset the poor efficiency of a lead-acid battery. NiCad batteries are more efficient and so they are sometimes used in this circuit, where they can work well.
There is another important factor involved in battery-charging circuits to be used with normal lead-acid batteries and that is the characteristics of the materials involved. The charging process in this switching circuit is carried out by electrons flowing down the connecting wire and into the battery. The electrons flowing along the outer surface of the wire, move very rapidly indeed. The main current inside the battery is carried by the charged ions inside the lead plates inside the battery. These ions are hundreds of thousands of times heavier than the electrons. This doesn't matter at all once the ions get moving, but in the initial split second before the ions get going, the incoming electrons pile up like in a traffic jam tail-back. This pile-up of electrons pushes up the voltage on the terminal of the battery, well above the nominal battery voltage, and so the charging starts off with a high-voltage, high-current pulse into the battery.
This is not normally noticed when using a standard mains-powered battery charger, as switch-on only occurs once during the whole charging process. In the Tesla switch shown here, and in the Bedini circuits shown earlier, this is not the case. The circuit takes advantage of this difference in momentum between the electrons and the lead ions, and uses it repeatedly to great advantage. The technique is to use very short duration pulses all the time. If the pulses are short enough, the voltage and current drive into the receiving battery is far greater than a quick glance at the circuit would suggest. This is not magic, just common-sense characteristics of the materials being used in this circuit.
A person unfamiliar with these systems, seeing John Bedini's many advanced circuits for the first time, might get the impression that they are just crude, roughly-built circuits. Nothing could be further from the truth. John often uses mechanical switching because it gives very sharp switch-on and switch-off times. John is a complete master of this circuitry and knows exactly what he is doing
The Electrodyne Corporation tested the Tesla 4-battery circuit over a period of three years. They found that at the end of that period, the batteries did not show any unusual deterioration. The batteries used were ordinary lead-acid batteries. The system operated lights, heaters, television sets, small motors and a 30-horsepower electric motor. If the batteries were run down to a low level and then the circuit switch on with a load, the recharging of the batteries took place in under one minute. No heating was experienced during this rapid charging. Heat was only produced during discharge cycles. If left undisturbed, each battery would charge up to nearly 36 volts. Control circuitry was developed to prevent this over-charging. They used mechanical switching and stated that below 100 Hz there was not much advantage with the circuit and above 800 Hz it could be dangerous.
They didn't mention why they consider that higher rates of switching could be dangerous. If we consider what exactly is happening, perhaps we can work out why they said that. The charging situation is like this:
At Time "A" the switch closes, connecting a voltage source (battery, charged capacitor, or whatever) to a lead-acid battery. Electrons start flowing down the outside of the connecting wire. Being very light and having little obstruction, they move very fast indeed (the electrons inside the wire only move a few inches per hour as getting through the wire is difficult). All goes well until Time "B" when the leading electrons reach the lead plates inside the battery. Here, they have a problem, because the current flow through the plates is carried by lead ions. Lead ions are very good at carrying current, but it takes them a split second to get going due to their inertia. That split second is critical and it opens the door to free-energy. In that split second, the electrons pile up because they are still arriving down the wire at very high speed. So, at Time "C" they have built up into a large body of electrons.
This large body of electrons has the same effect as if there had been a sudden connection to a much higher voltage source capable of supplying a much higher current. This situation only lasts for a very short time, but it has three very important effects. Firstly, at Time "D", it drives a much larger current into the battery than could reasonably expected from the original voltage source. Secondly, this high voltage pulse alters the Zero-Point Energy field (the space-time continuum) in which the circuit is located, causing extra energy to flow into the circuit from the outside environment. This is a bit like sunshine generating current flow in an electric solar panel, but instead of visible sunshine, the energy flow is not visible to us and we have no instruments which react to this excess energy. Thirdly, the excess energy flows into the battery, charging it much more than would be expected, and at the same time, some of the excess energy flows into the load, powering it as well, and further, some of the flow goes back into the driving circuit, lowering its current draw.
Remember Dave Lawton's Water Fuel Cell? Well Dave also connects a bulb across the cell to extract additional energy:
A really interesting feature of this extra power draw-off is that when Dave adjusts the frequency to the optimum value, the supply voltage remains unchanged but the input current drops noticeably and the brightness of the lamp increases markedly. Less input power at the same time as greater output power - the circuit hasn't changed, so where is the extra power coming from? One possibility is certainly that it is flowing in from the environment.
So, returning to our excess energy is collected from the environment and used to both charge the battery and at the same time, perform useful work. The old saying "you can't have your cake and eat it" just does not hold in this situation as that is exactly what happens. Instead of the battery being run down from powering the load, the load gets powered and the battery gets charged up at the same time. This is why, with this system, a discharged battery can be used to apparently run a motor. It works because the plates in the discharged battery are made of lead which forms a bottleneck for the electron flow, causing the environment to charge the battery and run the load at the same time. That is why you get what looks like the magical effect of a discharged battery appearing to power a load. In passing, the more discharged the battery, the faster it charges as the environment adjusts automatically to the situation and feeds greater power into a flat battery. The environment has unlimited power available for use. John Bedini who is expert in this field has had motors running continuously for three or more years with the battery never running down and the motor doing useful work all the time. Great battery? No, - great environment !!
Not necessarily exactly the same effect, but Joseph Newman's motor exhibits this same result, much to the discomfort of a conventionally taught scientist, who measured the motor at a minimum of 400% "efficiency"
(really COP = 4) and probably nearer 800% when all the major factors were taken into account. One thing which really bothered him was that when powering the motor on almost completely discharged dry cell batteries, the voltage measured at the motor was some three times the voltage at the batteries. That is very upsetting for a scientist who is not aware of the zero-point energy field and considers most systems to be "closed" systems, when in fact, there are practically no "closed" systems in our universe. Surprise, surprise, the Newman motor operates on electrical pulses.
Anyway, returning to the Tesla 4-battery switch. For the vital build up of excess electrons to take place, the switch closure has to be very sudden and very effective. A thyristor or "SCR" might be suitable for this, but the sharp switching of a PCP116 opto-isolator driving an IRF540 FET is impressive and a TC4420 FET-driver could substitute for the opto-isolator if preferred. It is likely that the Tesla 4-battery switch circuit switching in the 100 Hz to 800 Hz region operates in this way.
This drawing in of excess energy from the environment can be further enhanced by suddenly cutting off the electron flow from the original voltage source while the excess electron pile-up is still in place. This causes a sudden (very brief) further surge in the excess power, building up the voltage and current even further and increasing the battery charging and load powering drive.
An even greater effect can be had if the next, short, sharp pulse is applied to the battery/load combination, just before the effect from the last pulse dies away. It may be that this is the situation which the Electrodyne Corporation people encountered when the pulse rate went over the 800 Hz rate. It may not be so much a case that the battery and load could not take the power, but more a case that the components which they were using were not rated high enough to carry that level of power. They do mention that if they went further, that they found that some of their circuit components started failing through not having high enough ratings (notice that the output capacitors are rated at 100 volts which is eight times the nominal battery voltage). This was hardly a problem, considering that they had 12-volt batteries operating happily at 36-volts if they wanted that. They ended up building circuitry to hold the voltages down to a convenient level.
To summarise the situation. The Tesla 4-battery switch appears to do the impossible through:
1. Catching the current coming out of the load and using it to charge another battery instead of wasting it.
2. Providing very short, sharp, and rapid switching pulses which exploit the momentum of the lead-ions current flow.
3. Pulling extra energy in from the local environment to both charge the batteries and power the load at the same time
This leaves aside the possibility of two further gains available through very precise timing of the switching pulses (mainly to make the power available more easily and cheaply handled). So, it should be borne in mind that the practical issues involved in getting this circuit operating effectively are primarily about very fast, clean and well-timed switching. Stranded, very large diameter, high-current rated wire will be helpful in getting the draw of excess energy into the circuit.
Here is the switching sequence for the Tesla 4-battery switch system:
As you can see, this is essentially the same circuit with batteries 1 and 2 swapping over with batteries 3 and 4. But he has added in two capacitors and a diode bridge of four diodes to power the "load" which needs to be inductive for this circuit (transformer, motor, etc.). The circuit used by the Electrodyne Corp. testers was:
This circuit was reported to have excellent results using six On/Off switches on a motor-driven cam arrangement:
Switch closed 60 degrees, GO degrees
3 Discs on one shaft 6 pairs of brushes
Switch open END VIEW
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