## Pump and Control

Before water reaches the turbine intake area, it flows through pump P (shaded green). It's pump-blades PS (dark blue) are arranged at right angles to the previously mentioned fins, to produce an angle of 60 degrees opposite to the direction on rotation of the turbine. During normal operation, this pump 'idles' within that diagonal flow. Suction of the water at conical wall reaches back diagonally through the pump to conduit H, and from there, radially into ring F and so to it's inlet E.

So because of the resulting thrust-forces along the cone-wall, water is pushed from the turbine outlet A into backflow-conduit D. On the other hand, because of the general flow within the closed circuit, water is dragged into turbine-inlet E. Because the water within fins E and ring F and first part of fins H, is not rotating around the system axis, no centrifugal forces hinder that radially inward movement. So this redirection of water exhibits almost no resistance to the flow.

The pump has important control-functions. Under normal operation, the pump turns at the same speed as the water flow. If greater performance is required, then the pump is powered up and it accelerates the water flow, speeding up the water jet feeding the turbine inlet which immediately creates an enhanced level of thrust.

Alternatively, if the rate of rotation of the pump is reduced, the intake water jet is reduced in effectiveness, reducing the centrifugal forces, which reduces the performance of the turbine. If the pump is stopped completely, then water flows into the turbine in the reverse direction, thus lowering the turning momentum to zero.

That pump is therefore in effect, a 'control' device which starts the system, controls it's running mode, deals with brief additional performance demands and can be used to bring the system to a halt. Once more, let me point out that the system is self-accelerating provided that it is not loaded excessively. It is absolutely vital to establish the maximum rate of revolution of the turbine and to prevent this value from being exceeded. Let me again point out that this document only presents the theoretical considerations needed for the general design of such machines, however, all responsibility for any risks involved in actually producing or using any such machines resides exclusively with the people who construct or operate them.