Small Constructional Volumes

A turbine engine of this type with a horizontal shaft, could be installed in vehicles to provide the mechanical drive via a standard clutch and gear transmission. On the other hand, since electricity has so many different uses, this engine could readily be used to drive an electrical generator. The electricity produced by such an arrangement could readily be used for both powering a pump and it's control units. Mind you, electrical generation can also be achieved quite easily with a vertical shaft turbine.

In general, we tend to think that a larger throughput volume will be needed to produce a greater level of performance. Here, however, the performance is based on centrifugal forces and inward acceleration and since these are inversely proportional to the radius, the usual idea that performance increases with increasing size, just does not apply. At any given speed, the centrifugal force at a small radius is much greater than at a large radius, and the vertical lifting component is also correspondingly stronger in smaller turbines.

The turbine T shown in Figure 07.05.16, has a wide exit-level radius of only 18 cm. The conical inner surface of the housing KW (shown in grey) angles downwards in a straight line to a snail-like inlet-area E. Water exits from the top of the turbine through outlet A and flows back down through the backflow-conduit R. This backflow winds spirally downwards and enters pump P (shaded green) which pushes it through conduit C back into the snail-like inlet at the base of the turbine. The path of the water through the turbine and subsequent backflow conduit is shown here shaded in light blue, while the water path within the pump and the turbine inlet is shaded in dark blue.

The pump shown in this schematic diagram is an impeller type of pump which operates in a similar way to the previously mentioned slide-pump where each revolution of the pump represents a known volume of water throughput. This turbine is controlled by the revolutions of the pump. When the pump is stationary it operates very nearly the same as a stop-valve. In addition, the suction produced by flow at the conical wall has an effect back through the inlet to the pump. When the turbine is running, the pump effectively acts as a 'moderator' which does not require much in the way of energy input.

It is also possible for all of the internal space of the turbine to be filled with water, including the area at outlet A, thus producing a completely closed circuit of water. This design of turbine could also be arranged to have a horizontal shaft. In addition, this general principle of combined movements can be applied to most variations of turbine design.

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