Figure 07.05.11 shows sections of the area between the cone wall KW (shown in grey) and the turbine cone T. Free-flowing water moves alongside the cone wall, moving upwards and outwards. At the surface of the turbine, the turbine blades TS (light shading) are arranged in the shape of saw tooth-like notches. Water flowing within these grooves is guided outwards along the ever steepening track. Turning momentum is generated by the redirection of this part of the water flow.
On the pressure-sides of these grooves, there is also the additional pressure of the free flowing water B. This component of the water flows along a path which is not so steep and so it moves faster in the direction of rotation, i.e. it sweeps over the grooves. This generates a revolving movement C, in the water flowing inside the grooves. This increases the pressure on the pressure-sides of the grooves. So, this free-flowing component of the water flow, contributes indirectly to the turning momentum of the turbine.
The diagram at the lower left hand side of the Figure is a sketch of the outlet at the top of the turbine. The inner wall of the cone is curved slightly inwards as shown. This guides the free-flowing component of the water flow into the grooves. It should also be noted that as this part of the water is redirected, it is also decelerated which contributes further to the turning momentum of the turbine.
At the lower right hand side of the Figure, both the cross-sectional and longitudinal views of the outlet are shown. Here, the groove is no longer saw tooth-like but instead it has a constant width, and this causes the water to exit in a continuous jet. The groove here is rather wide and could well be divided by the introduction of additional blades ZS, which would allow the water pressure to be applied to a greater surface area.
To summarise; with this arrangement, not all of the water flow is forced into the grooves and immediately redirected and decelerated. The free-flowing parts of the water are allowed to move in its natural direction and under the influence of the centrifugal forces they follow a steeper path as they flow outwards and upwards. Moving along this track causes the water to cross over the water flowing in the grooves. This in turn, causes the water in the grooves to rotate as it flows upwards and this additional revolving movement add to the torque being generated by the water flow. Finally, as it nears the outlet, the free-flowing component of the water is directed into the grooves
and this redirection causes a deceleration which adds even further to the rotational drive of the turbine.
One further beneficial effect which is easily overlooked, is the fact that the water in each groove forms a long stretch of rotating water. This length of rotating water rotates faster in the upper sections of the groove and a twisting vortex of this type generates a strong suction which pulls the water entering the turbine inlet, strongly upwards towards the outlet of the turbine. This has been described in detail in earlier chapters and is further discussed later on in this document.
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Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.