## Suction Effect through Centrifugal Force

It was mentioned above, that centripetal (inward) acceleration is stronger than the acceleration under gravity at relatively low speeds within a radius as narrow as this. Since centrifugal force increases with the square of the speed, the outward pressure is a multiple of the weight of the

water. With the inclination of the conical housing wall shown here, about one third of this force results in an upward push along that wall.

Because of this, the upward water flow gets shifted on to an increasingly steeper track and consequently it exits from the turbine outlet at a rather acute angle. But if the cross-sectional area of the intake is too small, then a sufficient mass of water is prevented from flowing into the turbine and the upward movement is hindered. This causes the free-flowing component of the water to move along a flatter track, which again results in increased centrifugal forces. So, finally, an inlet with too small a cross-sectional area creates enormous suction forces and the inlet water is pulled upwards very strongly.

The turbines described in previous chapters, could only use the flows generated by pumps. With an air-driven machine, it is possible to generate areas of relative void into which air particles move through their own normal molecular movements. Autonomous acceleration up to the speed of sound is possible with a minimum of input energy.

Water is not compressible, so pressure is transmitted through water immediately. Suction pressure also acts immediately with no delay. Consequently, if the water in the upper areas of the turbine is pushed upwards by centrifugal forces, these forces also exert an upward pull on the water lower down in the turbine. So unlike all of the machines described earlier, in this turbine, flows are generated based on the effects of centrifugal force alone. Experiments with similar machines has confirmed that more water was pulled upwards than gravity would have been able to move downwards when acting on the same mass of water, even when just simple cones with plane surfaces were used.

## Getting Started With Solar

Do we really want the one thing that gives us its resources unconditionally to suffer even more than it is suffering now? Nature, is a part of our being from the earliest human days. We respect Nature and it gives us its bounty, but in the recent past greedy money hungry corporations have made us all so destructive, so wasteful.

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