Patent for Processes and Equipment for the Conveyance of Liquid Gaseous or Aeriform Media

Processes and equipment for the conveyance of liquid, gaseous or aeriform media, as well as for the control of molecular separation and reduction, transformation and synthesis in moving media and the achievement of increased mechanical power

VIKTOR SCHAUBERGER PATENTS - 1953

(The following text has been compiled by the editor from Implosion Magazine No. 41 and the Patent documents listed below.)

Portugal: No. 29,729 - 1953 - France : No. 1.057.576 - 1953 - Brazil: No. 43,431 -1953

T his invention (see fig. 18) relates to a process for the conveyance of media in a liquid, vaporous, gaseous or aeriform state and which can be described, for example, as emulsions or suspensions, etc. Moreover, it also relates to the equipment required to carry out such processes. The invention also concerns processes for controlling molecular separation or reduction, transformation and synthesis with or in the media moved in accordance with the invention. It further relates to the procedures for achieving increases in mechanical efficiency and output as well as equipment for the carrying out of such

processes.

Pursuant to the invention itself, it is essential that the media to be conveyed are imparted a movement which conducts them inward towards the centre, in the course of which the media are conveyed through grooves, pipes, etc. By means of such laminar, inwinding, and especially a multiple inwinding motion, significant advantages can be achieved in comparison with the methods of conveying such media in use today. This occurs through the transport of the media in channels, grooves, fluting, pipes or vessels with a cross-section in the form of an egg, or more accurately part of an egg, having a curved indentation, which is twisted like a screw in the direction of flow. If pipes are used, then these should take the form of the longitudinal cross-section of an egg, but with a curved indentation incorporated on one side at the more pointed end and which encompasses a quarter or less

22 Where the word Figure occurs in the following text in italics, this refers to the various numbered figures shown on the actual patent drawing shown in fig. 18 and not to those elsewhere in the book. - Ed of the total circumference. In open conduits, the cross-section corresponds to a portion of such an indented egg-section. Under the term 'egg-shape' is to be understood the classical egg-shape or an approximative egg-shape. The imparting of an inwinding motion can also be induced through conduction along appropriately shaped surfaces.

The conduits, pipes and vessels as well as the guiding surfaces can have a straight axis, although a meandering or screw-form axis is preferable.

Through the combined orbital and rotational motion thus imparted, the conveyance of the media is facilitated and improved, and in this way a series of specific effects are achieved. Thus it was, that Professor Dr. Ing. habil. Franz Popel of the Institute of Hygiene at Stuttgart Technical University was able to establish through comparative experiments, that in an indented or fluted, egg-shaped profile, wherein the indentation is twisted like a screw in the direction of flow, the level of friction did not increase with increased volume and velocity of flow. On the contrary, at certain velocities the friction diminished and overall it was significantly less than in conventional pipes of circular profile.23

In liquids conveyed by this invention, the frictional resistance of the liquids on the inner wall-surfaces of the conducting pipe is reduced to a remarkable degree. It has also become evident that any variety of copper enhances or facilitates the inwinding motion catalytically. Instead of being wholly made out of copper, copper facings can also be used, which are affixed to the inside of the pipe. The desired results are achieved simply because the liquid comes in contact with the copper from time to time, the more frequently the better. Alloys of copper can also be used to equal advantage. Instead of copper, other metals belonging to the same electromotive series can be used, such as silver or gold.

The best effect corresponding to the intent of the invention, is achieved with the use of doubly twisted pipes. These are pipes in which the indented, egg-shaped, cross-section is first twisted along the length of the pipe and the whole then wound into a coil.

Apart from this, the desired effect can also be intensified by the application of magnets. These are either laid continuously or spaced at certain intervals along the length of the pipe.

To date it has not been known that it is possible to move liquid, gaseous or aeriform media in such a way that molecular activity can be controlled at will.

With today's conventional systems of movement, e.g. in straight-drawn, smooth pipes, the through-flowing media will indeed be transported. However, a reactive, structure-loosening tendency evolves as a secondary effect, which provokes further molecular disintegration. This cannot be controlled. These disintegrative events increase quite considerably with an

23 See the Popel Report on p. 219 of this book. — Ed.

increase in velocity caused by increased pressure, additional warming or mechanical centrifugating, etc.

If the molecular structure of a moving liquid, gaseous or aeriform medium is to be maintained or a process of molecular synthesis actually inaugurated, then the aforesaid structure-loosening tendency must be prevented as a first priority.

The aim of the invention includes processes and appliances, which not only prevent unwanted molecular disintegration and the de-energising of the moving liquid and gaseous media, but also enable the achievement of molecular synthesis and a build-up of energy. These also lead to increases in mechanical efficiency and output.

In certain cases these molecular processes have to take place in a certain, special, rhythmical interplay of forces, in which expansion and contraction alternate with each other. By preventing molecular disintegration or separation, a condition can be achieved in which encrustations and sedimentation in the moving water or other liquid can be eliminated.

In accordance with the invention, the desired effect is achieved through a particular process, as a result of which the medium is primarily imparted a definite laminar, multiple-inwinding motion. It is the special construction of these pipes, conduits or vessels that makes this form of motion possible.

The molecular synthesis, recombination and transformation, energetic upgrading, bio-catalytic reduction, etc. is achieved with the processes associated with this invention:

(a) through the laminar, multiple inwinding of the media to be moved in these involution enhancing forms, fabricated with certain materials, and if necessary,

(b) through the addition of substances of diverse molecular and atomic structure or if need be, of trace-elements, active substances and the like, and

(c) through the energetic bonding (coupling) of the media and the added material by means of catalysts. This can also be effected by directly or indirectly incident rays of light of different frequencies, e.g. blue, ultraviolet light, etc. The stimulation of pulsation or vibration by means of ultra-sound is also possible. Excessive structure-loosening influences of light of certain frequency bands must be reduced to the minimum value prescribed for each medium.

By way of example, the design of a conduit producing a multiple-inwinding flow-motion, which at least maintains the molecular structure of media to be moved, is to be provided with an 'open profile' and must exhibit the following features:

(a) it must have a variable cross-sectional profile, which is envisaged as having been derived from the pointed end of an egg-shaped form, whereby in one of its longitudinal halves the near-identical profile is incorporated as a concavity. (see Figure 1 - 'open profile')

(b) It must have a longitudinal profile that is so shaped as to take the form of a wave, or meander, as shown in Figure 2a.

The form of the conduit itself must be so constructed that along the length of the meandering longitudinal profile the convex portion of the 1/2 egg-shaped profile migrates from the right-hand of Section A-A1, via the neutral point of Section B-B1, rising to its extreme value again on the left-hand side of Section C-C1. In this process of migration the size of the indentation gradually reduces and displaces laterally.

In natural channels (streams, rivers, etc.) the previously described channel shape is the prerequisite for inwinding motion. Natural channels are therefore the prerequisite for the regeneration of the watercourse and for the maintenance of the biological laws of bio-hydraulics.

If the previously described, partial egg-profile containing the convex indentation is supplemented by fully rounded, longitudinal portion on the opposite side, then the cross-sectional form of the 'closed profile' is produced (Figure 3 ).

In Figure 4, by way of example, an arrangement is depicted in which a pipe with a closed profile is wound around the outer face of an imaginary cylinder.

This design can be usefully applied, for example, to drinking water pipelines, the reticulation of industrial water and for pipelines of all kinds.

If in addition an acceleration of the flow is desired, i.e. for purposes of reducing the cross-sectional area and the resultant savings in costs of the pipes themselves, then these specially profiled, closed pipes, either singly or severally, can be wound around and attached to a cylindrical core (Figure 4), which is then made to rotate. The volume conveyed and the increase in mechanical efficiency and output can be regulated by varying the rate of rotation. This arrangement is particularly suited to the conveyance of liquid, gaseous and aeriform media.

A further example of the design, which serves for certain syntheses (transformative, recombinant and upgrading processes), is depicted in Figure 5a, 5b, In these configurations the closed profile shown in Figure 3 can also be used. In this design a pipe possessing the said profile is wound around a conical, rotating core.

Depending on the desired purpose, the cross-sectional profile either reduces in size towards the point of the cone (Figure 5b), for example, for the conveyance and transformation of seawater into freshwater, or towards the base of the cone-shaped core (Figure 5a), for example, for the separation of mixtures.

For particular applications, several such pipes can be connected top to top, or bottom to bottom (for example, in the stimulation of pulsations for processes of synthesis).

Likewise several such twisted pipes can be grouped about a common axis. Open, slotted, perforated or partially open and closed pipes and pipe systems of the above type can also be used, for example, to achieve diffusive or filtering effects.

With the possibility of regulating the rotational velocity of such pipes or pipelines, not only can the discharge velocity of the media be increased and with it an increase in mechanical efficiency and output, but also the speed of the molecular transformation can be controlled.

On the other hand, with a non-rotating pipe configuration of similar nature, the process of molecular transformation takes place over a correspondingly longer pathway.

Experiments have shown that a particularly useful shape of vessel can be developed from the egg-shape and is especially suited to the mixing, stirring, etc., of media, or the carrying out of biochemical processes and fermentation processes. This shape can also be developed from rotating egg-shaped or ovoid bodies or if necessary from paraboloid or hyperboloid, rotating bodies and the like, whereby these vessels can likewise be set in regulable rotation as the case demands.

The driving mechanism for all these rotating bodies can also be designed in such a way, that these bodies are imparted a rhythmically alternating direction of rotation. Drives of this nature require no further elaboration here, since they are already well-known to technology.

The inclusion of additives can take place in any desired fashion and relates to substances in a solid, liquid, gaseous or aeriform state, and is ordered according to the nature of the desired molecular synthesis or organisation.

The intrinsic qualities of the material required to upgrade the water must be introduced in doses in accordance with the findings of the analyses of the said drinking, medicinal and /or mineral water.

The energetic coupling, the actual bonding of these additives to the media, is achieved through the interaction between the aforesaid types of motion. The bonding takes place by way of bio-catalysts inter alia through the appropriate choice of materials from which the previously described pipes, channels or vessels are made. In such applications, copper, silver and gold and their alloys have proved to be particularly suitable. However, synthetic resins (plastics)

with or without mineral or metallic inclusions or crystals, or natural stone, woods such as larch, fir, etc. and combinations of such materials can also be used.

For example, in a vessel made with an appropriate copper alloy, water with a corresponding valency (healing property) can be produced.

Catalysts and materials, elements, etc. to be incorporated must naturally have a specific, energetic proportional relation, which in any event is sufficiently well understood in the field of catalysts and their application.

In addition, the energetic coupling (bonding) can take place through direct irradiation by light of various frequencies (blue, ultra-violet, etc.) or through the mechanical stimulation of vibration, as has already been stated.

The distinctive, multiple-inwinding motion, characterised above by the orbital and rotational, inwinding tendency of the moving medium (water, earth, air, etc.) leads to a drop in temperature towards the anomaly point of +4°C (39.2°F) and its specific densation, which is the case with water in particular.

These effects are integral to the possibility of controlling the induced molecular processes and to the achievement of a substantially higher output and performance. They can be applied to drive turbines, propel ships, locomotive devices, aircraft, the conveyance of all kinds of media, to the raising of the carrying capacity and tractive force of the water in small, artificial channels, conduits or flumes, etc.

The increase in performance itself is to be attributed inter alia to the substantial elimination of the centrifugally-acting, reactive wall-pressures. In all systems of motion of this nature, the speed of motion is increased. The process of molecular syntheses is strengthened through the increase in specific density.

In the case of rotating pipes, pipes systems and vessels, a regulable reversed flow and/or counter-rotation occurs between the rotating forms and the media moving through them, which accelerates and augments the aforesaid processes as well as the mechanical increase in output and efficiency.

Accordingly, the areas of application of the invention are manifold and of extremely wide scope. The implementation of this process and the associated appliances has proved to be particularly effective in the prevention of encrustation in pipes, sedimentation in channels, the transformation of seawater into freshwater with a range of properties, the biological purification of polluted drinking water and general purpose water, and in high-grade molecular syntheses. It is equally suited to processes of energetic concentration and transformation, for example, in the transformation of molecular structures of liquid nature into gaseous, etheral or volatile states and vice versa. It demonstrates the nature of the build-up of blood, and sap in the world of plants.

It should also be mentioned that, as a result of this invention, new designs for turbines, propulsion systems for ships and aircraft, and differently designed water reticulation and transfer installations can be developed.

With more specific reference to the invention itself, it should also be noted with reference to Figure 6, that the movement mentioned above (which can equally take place in the opposite direction), and multiple inwinding movement in particular, should be conceived as the tendencies represented in

Figure 6. In this figure, which depicts a closed profile, D is the direction in which the profile itself rotates and E is the direction of the tendency to inwind.

As inwinding forms, apart from the inwinding motion described above, equal consideration should be given to the coiling of the profile shown in Figure 6 about various other forms depicted schematically in Figures 4, 5c & 5d.

These other forms can also include an extended egg-shape (tear-drop shape) or a contracted (extreme) egg-shape.

Amongst the base core-forms mentioned above, inwinding tubes or systems of inwinding tubes of a special design can be incorporated (as in Figure 7).

Curved or inwinding tubes of a special shape can likewise be attached to the external envelope or the internal periphery of the bodies of the rotating conical shapes or the others described above, whose spiral configurations rotate in opposite directions, for example, a left-hand external spiral and a right-hand internal spiral configuration, or vice versa.

Patent Claims

The invention is characterised notably by the following features and possible permutations and combinations:

1. Procedures for the control of processes of molecular decomposition, transformation or composition taking place in the moving media, liquid, gaseous or aeriform through which an increase in mechanical performance and output can be achieved; Procedures characterised by endowing the media with a particular laminar movement, which then inwinds upon itself several times in the above conduits, tubes or receptacles of a certain shape and material conducive to such form of movement.

2. Given that different media have different molecular and atomic structures, these are transformed into molecular organisations of different nature through the interactions occurring during such laminar multiple-inwinding movement by means of energetic coupling.

3. Elements existing as trace-elements, active substances and such like are incorporated into the said processes in order to contribute or participate in the energetic interactions.

4. The energetic interaction (coupling) between the media or substances is produced, for example, by way of catalysts, which amongst other things, desirably correspond to the base material of the artefact, or through the direct or indirect production of oscillations (for example, light of different frequency regions or ultra-sound), the said interaction being additionally assisted by the production of mechanical oscillations.

Fig. 18: Double spiral pipe diagram - multiple patents
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