The Liquefaction of Coal by Means of Cold Flows

Vienna, May 1941, Implosion Magazine, No. 121, pp 37-47

It is a known fact that there are infertile humans, animals unable to reproduce and plants incapable of propagation. This is usually ascribed to an organic defect, but can also happen when any old donkey interferes with the normal course of development. Or it might even be a unique phenomenon. Infertility or inability to reproduce, however, is not merely limited to increase in a purely quantitative sense; it can also be of a purely intellectual nature. People who are mentally limited or who have no natural creative ability as a rule are said to be bird-brained. This is a bird, however, that can grow into a veritable bird of prey, which here is to be interpreted as mindless greed, idiocy or other similar traits.

To the latter breed belong those, for example, who bore holes into the organism - Earth - in order to obtain oil, which they then distil so as to make use of the distilled product, petrol (gasoline) to fuel conveyances on land, water and in the air.

Crude oils belong to the genus of physical manifestations that are incapable of reproduction. They are formations that missed their way on evolution's developmental path and rightly belong to the genus of mules, in which connection the donkey is also known to have made a mess of the normal progress of development. Seen from this angle, distilled crude oil is to be considered as a kind of super-mule, produced by humans who think they can cleverly outsmart Nature.

Apart from those who are happy to extract Nature's failed products such as oil, directly from the ground, there are others who make it their life's work, so to speak, to earn their living by meddling in wise Nature's affairs. These species of human being are commonly called chemists, who are known to produce products of fermentation without taking Nature's dynamic processes into account. Without this there is no possibility for reproduction and further development of any kind, because things possessing these properties have come into being through movement, during which differences in temperature arise that initiate intermediate metabolic processes. These then give rise to flow-alternating processes that engender products of organic synthesis, which is what concerns us here.

The last paragraph is already rather difficult to understand, because today nobody knows the true meaning of the expression 'product of organic synthesis'. Such a person is therefore unable to understand that here too, as elsewhere, differences also exist.

Differences are very noteworthy things, and for this reason: Without differences in charge or potential, for example, there would be no motion of any kind, and therefore in terms of the above interpretation, there would be no reproduction or further development; in a word, there would be no evolution.

Conversely, this means that the generation or ur-procreation of natural-esque differences actuates naturalesque forms of motion through which, for example, 'evolution' can be formed and fashioned in countless ways.

At this point the creation or ur-generation of naturalesque potential differ ences should be examined in more detail in order to wr-create the driving forces and propellants, which neither burn, nor stink or make a loud noise.

That life is a battle is beyond dispute. Men are also inveterate fighters, who believe they can dupe wise Nature and thereby rank themselves amongst the most cunning. If one looks at the matter very closely, however, they are actually poor wretches, who put their existence, their heads and their necessities for life at risk, because it is dangerous, particularly in time of war, to attempt to lead persons in authority around by the nose.

After this introduction we shall now attempt to describe the enormous difference between differences in potential in the only way possible for an unscientific observer of Nature.

There are two observations that afford an insight into natural processes, which if taken to their proper conclusion, open up unimaginable possibilities.

1. It is a known fact that in high-pressure boilers a reflux from high to medium pressure takes place under certain circumstances without the hermetic seal being broken10. Up to now this occurrence could not be explained and because of it the manufacture of miniature pressurised boilers was abandoned, which meant, of course, that veritable mechanical monsters had to be put up with, which consumed a great deal of space and material.

2. It is also known that minute bubbles of carbon-dioxide (carbonic acid gas) appear in good high-spring water, if the water is exposed to the influence of light and heat. If the water is again cooled under the exclusion of light, then the bubbles disappear. The crystal-clear water, however, tastes empty and insipid even when cool. Its former full-bodied wholesomeness has therefore vanished without trace.

A third case will be mentioned here, albeit briefly. If under very particular external influences good high-spring water is rotated at high speed in turbines with blades inclined at a certain angle, then on occasion the effective force rises exceptionally high; by calculation to peak pressures of about 32,000 atmospheres, leading to corrosive damage to the turbine blades. More detailed elaboration would take too long here, and therefore it should be enough to point out that these three phenomena are known facts.

10 T he following excerpt from "Pregnant Water" (Schwangeres Wasser) in Implosion Magazine, No. 117, pp. 60-61, explains this process: "It is a known fact that no free oxygen is present at normal temperatures, but that in the form of ozone it is loosely bound to nitrogen in the ratio of 3O2 to 6N6. Were it otherwise, then it would not be beneficial to living things. It is only at +40°C (+104°F) that the individual O2 molecules appear, which trigger life-threatening chemical reactions in the human body and are the cause of heat-stroke for example. At about 1,000°C (1,832°F) single-atom molecules of O, identical to the oxygen atom, appear, which naturally have very specific effects. This is why, despite the hermetic seal, the high pressure in high-pressure boilers drops to medium pressure once the above atomic transformation has taken place. Similarly, it is a fact that N (= nitrogen) is not a uniform basic element, but in reality is CH2, i.e. a carbone composed of He3 (helium), wherein two atoms of hydrogen play the role of carrier-substance as it were. Furthermore, it is known that gaseous water and liquid water are quite different things. Gaseous water is OH2 and liquid water (OH2)6 The strong action of gaseous water, for example, follows from this, because two free action quantities or points become active, whereas liquid water has no action quantities, because all the action points are filled with H." Viktor Schauberger. - Ed.

What science cannot measure or weigh exactly, exists just as little as what the farmer cannot grasp, see or feel.

Because of this curious attitude, conventional science has made a serious mistake, which we have to thank for the general economic decline, the world-wide unease and unrest, and not least, the constant wars. As long as this mistake remains uncorrected, any lasting peace is unthinkable, for owing to the serious disruption of natural development, the quality of the soil is declining, the shortage in raw materials is increasing and the various sources of food and fodder are dwindling in the same ratio that the population is increasing. It is therefore obvious that under such circumstances no lasting peace can come about.

Viewed from a naturalesque standpoint, evolution or reproduction and further development should be seen as a sexual process. Only thus can the truth be established and practical progress made.

Truth is an approach towards probability. The closer we come to the truth, the more bitter the realisation that today's science is a fallacy with serious consequences, because it operates with values that are no values, but utter worthlessnesses.

Nature is careful and operates with real values, and the more valuable they are, the less they manifest themselves.

Let us consider, for example, a fully-developed ovum in the body of a fertile woman. The reproductive product, the child, can only be woken to life through a particular forward motion, which takes place first. This leads to the influx of the fertilising substance, to independent life and thus to autonomous movement. For this process wise Nature made provision for certain changes in shape associated with aroused or excited states without which the coming to life of a child is impossible.

The actual formative instrumentalities are always present and only come into play under very particular preconditions. Any human with the organic capacity can make use of one or the other attribute in order to beget the 'crown of creation', a young child for example, provided he or she is at all capable of becoming aroused and surrender themselves to the particular motion ordained by Nature for reproduction and further development.

We have to follow precisely the same modus operandi if we wish to reproduce or further develop a given water, so as to ur-produce qualities and properties that can be applied to the widest variety of purposes. Naturally the same is true for other organisms, amongst which air is also to be included.

These two organisms (air and water) contain various ingredients that differ both in nature and kind. It is common knowledge that science regards these interstitial substances as the impurities of a substance, which it considers to be just as chemically inert as it does the carrier-substance itself.

These supposed impurities are the carriers of bipolar energetic factors, which in their interaction with other factors in their environs manifest themselves as reproduced and evolved ethericities. These always appear as individualities and while similarities occur, identicalities never do. This fact alone suffices to show that any rigid conformity to law or dogma-derived process is just as impossible as an identically formed product, for the form and type of the product of synthesis is determined by a process of constantly changing change. It was Heraclitus, who long ago stated that one cannot bathe in the same water twice, because it is in continual motion even when apparently still, and is thus in a constant state of metamorphosis.

What could be more desirable than to move water or air in such a way naturalesquely that the beneficial and valuable inner factors attain their relatively highest state as ethericities, which on their part lead to the most beneficial processes of reproduction and further development.

In order to clarify what has been stated in the last paragraph, books would need to be written. Here we are especially concerned with the production or ur-creation of higher formative and dynamic agencies (dynagens), whose essential nature will be described here to the extent necessary to enable miniature machines to function more naturalesquely and therefore better than is presently the case. Everyone has a free choice either to adopt these new methods or to continue to believe that the scientific system, devised by rationally-minded individuals, is the very last word in mechanical motion. The practical aim of this explanation is the production or ur-creation of a hydrocarbon that neither burns, nor smells or makes noise, the essential point here being that it is of a much higher grade and therefore functions far more efficiently as a propellant than oil, which has been cleverly manipulated, or the synthesised product that the chemist calls synthetic petrol (gasoline). Everyone knows that so-called petrol (gasoline) is an explosive substance. That the creation of precisely the opposite is what is intended here, stems from the fact that we wish to proceed im-scientifically. With this tm-scientific product of synthesis we are therefore concerned with no ex-plosive product, but only with an im-plosive factor.

If we study the inner processes involved in synthetic fuel production, then we can establish that, together with supplementary catalytic factors, strong pressure and high temperature play the leading role.

Just a small heat-influence is enough to separate the higher factors from more inferior ones contained in good water. As the condensing reversionary elements of retro-development, the latter appear and become visible in the form of substantial physical matter. It should therefore be quite obvious that with the high temperatures known to be necessary for contemporary methods of coal liquefaction, the identical processes of separation and concentration must take place in increased measure.

At this point it should be noted that this always involves a law of reciprocity, or that the bipolar basic substances are inversely related both symmetrically and proportionally.

The inner ingredients contained in carbon (carbone) can be compared to the unfertilised reproductive or formative substances of a mature woman immediately after menstruation.

Like the beads of carbon-dioxide in water that has been warmed, through the strong influence of heat the residual substances shrivel up after the separation and precipitation of the higher quality constituents11. Due to the high pressure the outer envelope or the carrier substance will be crushed and in this way the de-energised elements released.

The opposite primary elements, the varieties of so-called oxygen, will be physically released at higher temperatures, i.e. they attain the so-called charged state that enables them to consume, or as the scientist says, to bind their as it were 'devoted' condensed counterparts.

Through this metabolic process a transformation takes place that ultimately gives rise to a motion leading to a higher and a lower product of synthesis. This further results in two different current flows and the products associated with them. In the first case, this logically leads to the formation of a higher energy-form, which pierces through any enclosing walls and expresses itself as an emitted charge.

In the second case, a marriage takes place between the residual substances. In short, the inferior product of synthesis that science calls synthetic petrol (gasoline) is produced. The moment this second, inferior synthesising process happens, a pressure recoil (cavitation) takes place due to the emission or discharge of the higher constituents (viz. the pressure reflux in high-pressure boilers).

Further examination of this uninteresting process will be discontinued here, because the naturalesque and hitherto entirely unknown process is far more interesting than this scientific derailment of natural processes.

When two people do the same thing, it is never exactly the same, and all the more so, if something is initiated under completely different preconditions, which is here the case in a practical sense.

The two bipolar inner constituents, which appear in a nascent state in every organic substance, should be viewed as latent energy-compounds, which require appropriate prior preparation in order to be combined (married) naturalesquely. As a result a product of synthesis is produced that is substantially different from what science describes as 'synthetic petrol (gasoline)'.

In a pipe, which is described in greater detail in the patent application to the Reich's patent office12, specially shaped resistance-inducing vanes are incorporated, which are made of a potential-increasing material and are installed and aligned along very particular curved paths on the inner periphery of the

1 In the conversion of carbonic acid (H2CO3) to carbon dioxide or carbonic acid gas (CO2) with heat, molecular hydrogen (H2) is released. Therefore a kind of vacuity is created, causing a reduction in the inner 'volume'. — Ed.

12 See descriptions of Patent Nos. 134543 and 138296 (pp. 201-203) and associated figures Nos. 8 & 9, p.63 in The Water Wizard, Vol. I of the Ecotechnology series. - Ed.

pipe-walls. The patent extension for constructing these vanes is included with the patent application under separate cover. In the patent claims particular reference is made to the pipe's insulation. Details of the angular configuration, etc. of the above vanes were omitted, because they have already been included in earlier patents.

Details concerning the initial procedures for catalysis and catalytic effects appear in the application only to the extent necessary for the preliminary establishment of the novelty and the technical feasibility of this pioneering patent. It is not the examiner's brief to adjudicate on the practicality and other aspects (see patent regulations) of the application and therefore nothing has been excluded that is required or prescribed for the patent examination. It should be emphasised here that the mechanical processes in this pipe are totally uninteresting and therefore my own earlier applications and those of others, which give prominence to the advantages of the mechanical motion, are peripheral to the present application.

This pipe should be laid to a particular gradient and oriented in certain direction13. It should then be charged with water - the best kind being sea-water thoroughly irradiated by the Sun - to which coal dust, carbonic acid and other things have been added.

Together with its ingredients, the onrushing water proceeds along two completely different paths. The peripheral water-masses follow a centrifugal developmental path, while the core water-masses take a centripetal one. Bodies heavier than water move down the centre. Bodies lighter than the carrier-substance migrate towards the periphery, where they are thrust against the wedge-shaped guide-vanes, which deflect them towards the pipe-walls14. These guide-vanes are placed at certain intervals so that mechanical pressure is alternately increased and decreased continuously. This results in the cooling of the whole water-mass, similar to the Linde process15, only that here

13 See description of the north-south and west-east orientation of pipes on p. 175 of Nature as Teacher, Vol. II and in "Increase In Soil Productivity", in The Fertile Earth, Vol. III of the Ecotechnology series. — Ed.

14 See explanatory figures Nos. 10 & 11 on p.4 of The Water Wizard, Vol. I of the Ecotechnology series. — Ed.

15 Linde process: (1) "A high-pressure process for the production of liquid oxygen and nitrogen by compression to about 200 bar (20 MN/m2) followed by refrigeration and fractionation in a double column. - Penguin Dictionary of Chemistry, Penguin Books, Great Britain, 1983, p.399). (2) "A process for the liquefaction of gases by the Joule-Thompson effect. In this process devised by Carl von Linde (1842-1934) for liquefying air, the air is freed of carbon dioxide and water and compressed to 150 atmospheres. The compressed gas is passed through a copper coil to an expansion nozzle within a Dewar flask. The emerging air is cooled by the Joule-Thompson effect as it expands and then passes back within a second copper coil that surrounds the first coil. Thus the expanded gas cools the incoming gas in a process that is said to be regenerative. Eventually the air is reduced to its critical temperature and, at the pressure of 150 atmospheres (well above its critical pressure), liquefies. The process is used for other gases, especially hydrogen and helium. Hydrogen has first to be cooled below its inversion temperature (see Joule-Thompson effect) using liquid air; helium has first to be cooled below its inversion temperature using liquid hydrogen." (Collins Dictionary of Science. Oxford University Press, Great Britain, 1984, ISBN 0-19-211593-6). — Ed the arrangement is substantially different from all other known cooling processes.

Through the indirectly engendered cooling the density increases, whereby the frictional pressure is intensified by the mechanically-induced increase in velocity. The arrangement of the guide-vanes causes a spiral circumvolution, so that the bipolar ingredients, which rub against one another flow all the faster as their volume is reduced by the constant abrasion. Apart from the circumfluent motion another form of motion is also active which causes the bodies of the ingredients to swirl about their own axes and ensures their abrasion on all sides.

Here it should be noted that experiments established that all substances of terrestrial origin16 react to centrifugence, whereas the higher refluent or inward-falling substances, namely all forms of so-called oxygen, react to centripetence.

This results in the spacial separation of the two bipolar substances, i.e. the oxygen proceeds down the centre and the carbones along the sides, where with increasing slip-pressure against the resistances (guide-vanes) and rotating about their own axes, they continue to be ground off. As a result the inner constituents are freed and separated out according to their centrifugal or centripetal characteristics.

We therefore arrive at the following transformative phenomena:

1. The inner constituents freed through mechanical abrasion (removal of the outer envelope) are transferred into two different states due to the cooling of the carrier substance. Through this increasing cooling the terrestrial substances or carbones attain their relatively highest potential.

2. The stocks of all forms of so-called oxygen travel down the middle and with increasing cooling become inactive and shrivel up like their counterparts, the beads of carbon-dioxide in warmed water. At the same time these increasingly indifferent17 fertilising substances (oxygen) are accelerated mechanically along the unrestricted (no guide-vanes) and shorter central axial path and are thereby dispersed, or dosed as it were. (see fig. 16)

3. Through the rising acceleration of the axially moving core-water-masses, the centrifugence of the swirling peripheral water-masses intensifies. This in turn increases the slip-pressure exerted by the suspended ingredients on the naruralesquely shaped and alloyed potential-increasing slip-resistances (guide-vanes). Due to the rising velocities the oligodynamic effect also increases, i.e. more and more supplementary influences are freed by the potential-intensifying frictional resistances and due to the water's careful

16 Terrestrial: In relation to oxygen, which Viktor Schauberger viewed as a lower form of sunlight, this refers to substances that specifically belong to the Earth (carbones). - Ed.

17 indifferent: relates in this instance to a condition similar to lethargy. - Ed.

insulation against heat are bound into the water, which is swirled in towards the central axis by the inclined angle of the resistances - guide-vanes. 4. Having been drawn there by the increase in axial velocity, the watermasses inwinding towards the central axis now bind the highly active dynagens, which have been released through the mutual abrasion of the carbones. No longer reacting to any mechanical centrifugence, these energised terrestrial elements then begin to encircle the centrally moving oxygenes. Through the continuous approach of the through-flowing water-masses towards the anomaly point of +4°C (+39.2°F), on the one hand the terrestrial elements attain their relatively highest energetic state and on the other, the oxygenes become increasingly indifferent and more dispersed, thus reaching the condition proper to a fertilising substance. If this state is reached at the anomaly point, then the highly energised terrestrial residues (the former carbones) bind their fertilising counterparts, and the naturalesque product of synthesis is complete.

This product of synthesis is characterised by the fact that the ratio between oxygen and its carbone counterpart is 4% : 96%, because all the remaining oxygen has been transformed into fertilising substances and then bound. Therefore the new product of synthesis has the highest negative valency and is of geospheric character.

Certain factors relating to these processes should be noted: In the scientific synthesising process heat has a shrivelling effect on the decisive formative substance in its nascent state, while physical pressure ruptures its outer envelope. In the case of coal liquefaction by means of cold flows the increasing cooling on the developmental path acts to increase the potential. However, since the increase in the potential of the true formative substance is of a purely energetic nature, it would be unable to break through the outer envelope had this not been mechanically abraded through the circumvolution and inner rotation (about itself and its own axis) caused by the increasing frictional pres-surre arising from the doubly increased velocity of the whole water-body. These differences demand the closest attention and consideration. The product of synthesis obtained by means of cold flows, binds itself into its own waste product (juvenile water). Therefore apart from a new, fresh and more highly cultured energy, an associated carrier-substance of the highest order is also created at the expense of the gradually transforming (internally reconstituted) stocks of old water. This two-fold transformation represents the increase and the qualitative improvement of what has been quantitatively increased (the growth of water).

The finished product is a crystal-clear water that has neither taste, nor smell, nor colour, because in this product of synthesis all kinds of things are on the loose or have been loosed (emancipated), i.e. they have been raised to the relatively highest evolved state, which is of energetic nature and therefore non-spacial. This water has the relatively highest density and specific gravity, attained through cooling towards the anomaly point, which is marginally less than+4°C (+39.2°F)18.

If this product of synthesis, almost exclusively composed of geospheric energies, is atomised and atmospheric oxygen simultaneously infused through nozzles (viz. other forms of fertilisation), thus charging it with fertilising substances (these become passive at high centripetal velocity) and if this whole mixture is lightly compressed (warmed) by a descending piston, then the mixture is instantaneously transformed into the next higher state of development or aggregation, namely into air.

Due to this new organism's roughly 1,700-fold increase in volume, an exploitable expansive pressure equal to about 2,000 atmospheres per litre (0.264 gal.19) of such water is produced.20

That this tremendous pressure expresses itself silently requires no special comment. That, as a high-grade air, this product of transformation has a more beneficial effect on the environment and development generally than the waste matter of explosive processes, also goes without saying. That this highgrade product of transformed air does not smell, is without doubt. In this way what was striven for has been achieved, namely a far higher exploitable pressure than is produced by any form of petrol (gasoline). Moreover, it is an incombustible pressure-creating substance that neither stinks nor creates a din, and its beneficial effect can be raised to any desired level, so that in practice the smallest quantities are enough to achieve any desired effects.

This ideal pressure-producing substance is the driving medium for powering the centrifugal Repulsators, which ur-generate the bio-electromagnetic vacuum, the most powerful suctional force of Nature's that could ever be imagined. These centrifugal Repulsators are described in the patent application at the Reich's Patent Office in Berlin21. Their more detailed description will be undertaken at an appropriate moment in the future.

Patent for: Pipe for Liquid and Gaseous Media AUSTRIAN PATENT OFFICE DESCRIPTION OF PATENT No. 196680

19 Gallons: Where values in gallons (gal) are referred to in the text, these are US gallons, where 1 US gallon = 3.785 litres, or 1 litre = 0.264 gallons. — Ed.

20 "At a temperature of 15°C water is 819 times heavier than air at the same temperature. Water-vapour, on the other hand, absorbs a 1,700-fold volume of water. With the evaporation of 1 litre of water, about 600 heat units become latent (stored, bound)." Walter Schauberger, Implosion Magazine, No 9, p.26. — Ed.

21 Unfortunately no details of this patent are available. - Ed

Class 47 f, 1 Issued 25th March 1958.

VIKTOR SCHAUBERGER IN LINZ

PIPE FOR LIQUID AND GASEOUS MEDIA Application date: 30th May 1951 - Patent applies from: 15th August 1957 The named Co-inventor is Dipl. Ing. Walter Schauberger of Lauffen (Upper Austria)

Many suggestions have already been made as to how losses in energy, pressure or velocity arising in the transport of liquids or gaseous media can be reduced. Thus for the purposes of inhibiting the formation of air-bubbles, which provoke an increase in the resistance to flow, a British Patent No. 409,528 for a pipe has been published, which is wound in a screw-form manner and its cross-sectional surfaces are formed by two arcs of a circle. From the British Patent No. 28,5343 of 1913 AD, the application of a pipe with an egg-shaped cross-section was made known, which was provided with flow-directing slats to inhibit the formation of vortices. In the U.S. Patent No. 1,655,197 as well as in the Swiss Patent No. 126637, cylindrical or conical pipes were proposed with the object of reducing friction by converting it into rotation, for which the pipe axis served as the rotational axis. Lastly, the Austrian Patent No. 28099 depicts the use of indented and twisted pipes.

This invention (see fig. 17) relates to a conduit or pipe for liquid or gaseous media, which is intended to prevent encrustation and to reduce flow losses, wherein the pipe cross-section is formed of several curved arcs of a circle and the pipe is coiled in a screw-form manner. The invention also consists in the fact that the cross-section is egg-shaped with an indentation on one side adjacent to the pointed end of the egg and that the pipe is first twisted upon itself before the whole is formed into a coil. With the aid of such a pipe, the conveying capacity and efficiency is improved due the reduction of frictional losses and the prevention of encrustation. In order to increase the conveying capacity, the coiling of the pipe around an imaginary cylinder has proved to be particularly effective. For the same reason, the pipe can be rotated in a normal manner, whereby the central axis of the coiled pipe arrangement is also the axis of rotation. It is also advantageous to narrow the cross-section of the twisted pipe.

In the attached drawing the cross-sectional form and the coiling of the pipe are depicted schematically. Figure 1 shows the cross-section of the pipe and Figures 2-4 the pipe in its coiled configuration.

In Figure 1 the cross-section of the pipe in question is shown with a curved indentation on one side adjacent to the smaller end of the egg-shape. The coiling of the pipe can be effected by winding it round an imaginary cylinder,

Figure 2, or around an imaginary cone, Figures 3 & 4, prior to which the pipe is first twisted about itself. If the pipe is wound around an imaginary, circular cone corresponding to Figures 3 & 4, then pipe cross-section can be narrowed either towards the point or towards the base of the cone. Furthermore, for purposes of reducing frictional losses and the avoidance of encrustation, the whole arrangement can be rotated by suitable means, wherein the central axis of the coiled arrangement is also the axis of rotation.

Patent Claims

1. The invention of a pipe for liquid and gaseous media for the prevention of encrustation and the reduction of flow losses, whereby the pipe cross-section consists of several arcs of a circle and the pipe is wound in a screw-form shape, is characterised by the fact that the cross-section of the pipe is egg-shaped with a curved indentation on one side adjacent to the pointed end, and that before being coiled, the pipe itself is first twisted.

2. In accordance with Claim 1, the pipe is characterised by being wound around an imaginary cone.

3. In accordance with Claims 1 & 2, the pipe is characterised by the fact that the coiled arrangement as a whole can be rotated about the central axis of the same.

4. In accordance with Claims 1 to 3, the invention is characterised by the fact that the pipe cross-section narrows in one direction.

Fig. 17: Double spiral pipe diagram - patent No. 196680

Solar Stirling Engine Basics Explained

Solar Stirling Engine Basics Explained

The solar Stirling engine is progressively becoming a viable alternative to solar panels for its higher efficiency. Stirling engines might be the best way to harvest the power provided by the sun. This is an easy-to-understand explanation of how Stirling engines work, the different types, and why they are more efficient than steam engines.

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