The Popel Report

The Preliminary Investigation of Helicoid Pipes: Foreword

Extracts from the Foreword to the Report concerning the Preliminary Investigation of Helicoid Pipes with Various Forms of Wall Structure

Stuttgart University of Technology - Professor Franz Popel. SUBJECT:

Negotiations on the 9th of February 1952 at the Stuttgart University of Technology concerning investigation of prototypes of straight and spiral helicoid pipes of various materials developed and made available to the Stuttgart University of Technology by VIKTOR SCHAUBERGER.

WITH REFERENCE TO:

The report of the Institute of Hygiene at the Stuttgart University of Technology Stuttgart, dated the 15th of March 1952. (Director: Prof.Dr.-Ing.habil. Franz Popel)

1.0 Present at these negotiations on the 9th of February 1952 at the Institute of Hygiene at the Stuttgart University of Technology were:

11 Prof. Dr.-Ing. Franz Popel.

12 Assistant Secretary KUMPF, as representative of the Federal Ministry for Water Resources in Bonn.

1.3 Viktor SCHAUBERGER, Salzburg, Austria.

1.4 Dipl. Ing. Walter SCHAUBERGER, Bad Ischl, Engleithen, Austria.

2.0 The object of the negotiations was the comprehensive complex of themes and questions concerning:-

2.1 Water supply and its scientific and technical problems.

2.2 A paper of Viktor Schauberger's, with particular reference to his previous research findings, developments, projects and the performance oi completed projects in the sphere of near-natural hydraulic engineering, including a number of observations, explanations and assertions concerning agriculture, forestry, water and energy supply.

2.3 A short paper of Walter Schauberger's concerning non-Euclidean (Gauss) concepts in Nature, the basic assertions of quantum physics, and facts incorporated in the Theory of Relativity, which taken altogether, emphasise the centripetal dynamics of Nature's energetic and resonant processes with their universal sphere of action.

2.4 Professor Popel made a statement opposing Viktor and Walter Schauberger's statements and opinions. He expressed the view that the crucial areas of technology were founded on the legitimacy of classical mechanics and hence the laws governing the flow of liquids and gases should also be dealt with from this point of view. Moreover, it had likewise been determined that in hydraulic engineering optimal results had been achieved with Euclidean elements. He could therefore state at the outset that Schauberger's desired investigation of such pipes, would achieve no useful results for technology. Also, in view of the relatively high costs to Schauberger arising from such investigations, he asked permission to withdraw from this task.

2.5 Kumpf agreed unreservedly with Professor Popel's opinion and added that Bonn was interested in this scientific investigation inasmuch as it would at last put a stop to Viktor Schauberger's unqualified attacks, which were directed primarily against the sphere of water resources management. Bonn would therefore make some financial contribution towards the costs of the investigation.

2.6 Thereupon Professor Popel declared that his institute would carry out the various investigations on straight and rifled helical pipes and that the results of the investigations could be expected in about two month's time, Viktor Schauberger's request that his son, Dipl. Ing. Walter Schauberger, be present at these important series of tests, was accepted by Professor Popel.

2.7 The scope of the investigation and its subsection concerning the format of the series of experiments and the catalogue of questions to be settled, was fixed. This referred, with significant reductions however to the complex of questions, namely points 1 to 5 quoted in the investigation report.

2.8 In point 6, the crucial area which Schauberger stressed and wished to be settled, namely 'Technical hydraulic engineering and its destructive consequences', was on the one hand deferred by Prof. Popel, and on the other, rejected by Kumpf as serving no purpose. Point 6 was concerned not only with the specifically targetted formulation of questions, attempts at interpretation and facts, but also empirically substantiated findings. These concerned such aspects as:-

(a) That to the most massive intrusions into Nature's biological balance, must be added the purely mechanical correction of river embankments. (Proof: The regulation of the Rhine, Danube and other 'hard-edged' rivers and streams.

(b) That despite the consequential damage occurring everywhere due to this unnatural and therefore incorrect regulation of watercourses, why is this practice still continued?

(c) That indisputable evidence (and these are not merely assertions or opinions) show unmistakably, that the execution of such erroneous corrective measures in relation to embankment works, i.e. mechanical methods of regulation, results in an even more drastic sinking of the watertable, a far more widespread drying up of springs and the increasing disappearance of water.

(d) That a farm report (Third Reich) dated 4th of February 1939 indicated that the repercussions due to the vanishing of the watertable had become so evident, that development of steppe-land over large areas was greatly to be feared. The already projected re-routing of rivers mentioned in this report and their attendant dams for the storage of irrigation water, would only accelerate steppe-development and desertification.

(e) The smallest causes have unforeseen effects in Nature.

(f) The warming up of water through unnatural motion and containment leads to the loss of its carrying capacity and tractive force, and in further consequence, to its disappearance.

(g) Despite its slow rate of flow (meander), naturally flowing water has a greater carrying capacity and tractive force, which decrease, however, with steep, technically contrived gradients.

(h) Nothing is more absurd than to intensify the geological gradient by a shortcut, because in such instances, due to its own weight, the water throws itself out of its course and the preconditions for natural motion diminish.

(i) Hydraulic engineers have neglected:

• the interplay between the tractive force and the carrying capacity of water

• the normal profile arising spontaneously from a bio-dynamic form of motion

• the rotation of water about its own axis, which again is the result of a normal profile.

• the proper insulation (from heat, Sun, etc.) through the natural placement and deposition of the layers of sediment.

(j) The natural regulation of a watercourse is never possible through mechanistic restructuring or realignment of the riverbank. (k) Water, sap and blood are all accumulators and transformers in which analyses and syntheses constantly take place. These further intensify, the more water, sap and blood are caused to move in a natural way. In the course of this, the outer velocity has almost no effect, whereas the inner balancing velocity plays a very important role. (1) The origins of carrying and tractive power, at otherwise equal velocities, lie in the water's inner metabolic processes. (m) Quantity can be transformed into quality. This requires a corresponding organisation of the material, in form as well as in qualitative relationship. Dipl. Ing. Walter SCHAUBERGER

Report Concerning the Preliminary Investigation of Helicoid Pipes with Various Shapes of Pipe-Wall carried out at the Institute of Hygiene at the Stuttgart University of Technology, Germany.

During negotiations on the 9th of February 1952 the Biotechnical Study Group made various prototypes of straight and spiral helicoid pipes of different materials available to the Institute of Hygiene at the Stuttgart University of Technology in order to clarify fundamentally the following problems:

1. Can water be brought into a multiple in-winding, convoluting, spiral motion when flowing through pipes?

2. Does the form of the conducting pipe play a decisive role in the attainment of this convoluting motion?

3. Does the material of the pipe play a decisive role in achieving this in-winding spiral motion?

4. Do changes in the molecular structure of the water occur during this in-winding flow process?

5. Could these in-winding flow processes be utilised in the prevention of pipe-encrustation?

To Question 1:

The Multiple In-Winding, Convoluting Flow Process.

If water containing coarse suspended matter is first stirred around in a glass beaker and afterwards left to rotate by itself, then the suspensions concentrate themselves in the axis of the rotating cylinder of water caused by the stirring. This well-known natural phenomenon is already being evaluated technically in the circular sand-capture machine by the Geiger Company, Karlsruhe and in the 'Hydro-Cyclone' of the Stami-Carbon Company for the separation of suspensions from water. In both cases the contents of the circular containers is caused to rotate by the tangential supply of the liquid, which can be considered to be the cause of the self-ordered concentration of suspended matter in the axis of the vertically rotating cylinder of liquid. However if water is conducted from a large container into an inlet pipe and is set in a faster or slower rotation above this, a suction funnel is formed, which is deeper or shallower according to the velocity of flow prevailing in the outlet pipe. Attentive observers can often watch the formation of such vortexial funnels at the outlets of basins and baths. The spiralling of the water in the pipe, evolving from the inlet in the direction of the outlet pipe and the forward motion of the water in the outlet pipe itself, now generate as a result of these reciprocal influences, a flow-through process composed of the simultaneously combined effects of several 3-dimensional space-curves, which can be made visible in the following manner.

Water flows from a vessel with a constantly maintained water level (levelling vessel) into a glass pipe of 40 mmOID1 and onwards by means of a rubber hose of 19 mmOID to an overflow. Whereas in Test Stand 1 (Diagram 1) the levelling vessel and the water supply were so arranged that only a very weak spiralling motion at the inlet of the observation pipe was able to develop, in the case of Test Stand 2 (Diagram 2) the build-up of spiral motion was intentionally assisted by the trumpet-like form and a tangential inflow of water. The 40 mmOID test pipe with a flow section of 0.125 dcm2 was supplied with a quantity of water between 0.2 and 0.21 litres/sec, so that this would flow through at a calculated velocity of 1.6 to 1.68 dcm/sec. This already lies within the region of turbulent flow. A thin silk thread, weighted at the end, hanging straight down into the test pipe at a state of rest, was set

1 To aid readers unfamiliar with the metric system of measurement and to avoid over-complicating an already complex text by inserting Imperial or US equivalents, the following correspondences have been provided by the editor:

1 millimetre (mm) = 0.03937 inches 1mm2 = 0.00155 in2 1mm3 = 0.00006102 in3

1centimetre (cm) = 0.3937 inches 1 cm2 = 0.155 in2 1 cm3 = 0.06102 in3

1 decimetre (dcm) = 3.937 inches 1 dcm2 = 15.5 in2 1 dcm3 = 61.02 in3

1 metre (m) = 39.37 inches (3.28ft) 1 m2 =10.764 ft2 1 m3 = 35.315 ft3

Efc 720 Camera

in a slow rotation corresponding to a slightly convoluted 3-dimensional space-curve by the flow of water through the pipe. In Test Stand 2 the curvature of the thread was greater than in Test Stand 1, due to the greater spiral motion at the inlet. Since apart from this, it was observed that fine hydrophobic suspensions, very evenly dispersed over the water surface with the aid of a finely meshed sieve, were concentrated into little clusters along the 3-dimensional space-curve denoted by the thread, it is thus demonstrated that a flow in the pipe is developed, which follows a 3-dimensional spiral curve and simultaneously rotates about the axis of this space-spiral. (Proof: Curvature and rotation of the silk thread.) This is also confirmed by the fact that the air entrained by the water becomes concentrated along the 3-dimensional space-spiral in the pipe and which, according to the size of the air bubbles in the rotating flow of the water about the space-spiral, either accompanies the water or rises upwards again.

In order to be able to examine this multiple in-winding flow more closely, the behaviour of three silk threads, each suspended from the corner of an equilateral triangular spacer-block, was investigated. Although the position of these threads was fixed by spacers at the middle and at the lower end as well, an entwining of the three threads could be observed, when water flowed through the pipe. In addition, the threads in this new arrangement were always forced into the region of the 3-dimensional space-spiral axis, despite their weighting and spacers. Due to the greater combined stiffness of the three entwined threads, which were even more encumbered than the single thread by their spacers and three end-weights, their curvature was naturally somewhat less than in the case of the single thread. In order to check whether the entwining of the three threads was not merely attributable to the rotation of the spacers caused by the rotation of the water at the inlet, the spacers were removed from the middle and the bottom. In this instance too, the entwining of the three threads and their alignment along a slightly curved space-spiral was achieved. It is thus clearly demonstrated, that the entwining of the threads cannot be ascribed to the rotation of the uppermost spacer, but only to the multiple in-winding flowing motion of the water.

This multiple in-winding flow process inside the pipe is superimposed by a second equally space-spiral-like, curving, peripheral motion as well. This phenomenon was made visible with the aid of iron filings. It was noticeable, that during the flow-through of the water in the pipe, the pitch of the strongly curved space-spiral is not constant, but gradually becomes greater and at the same time a concentration in larger agglomerations takes place.

These flow processes, which superimpose each other in pipes and which have been detected for the first time with the aid of the demonstrative experiments described above, must still be thoroughly investigated in relation to their formation and effect.

Efc 720 Camera

Were only centrifugal forces here active, then the silk thread hanging down the centre ought to have been drawn towards the exterior. Also such forces could never bring about an entwining of the threads along the weakly curved space-spiral. Moreover it would be impossible for centrifugally acting forces to twist the three silk threads suspended in the outer zones of the pipe into a single thread, which then further accommodates itself to the space-spiral-like curved axis. These phenomena can only be brought about by centripetally acting forces greater than the centrifugal force.

The multiple in-winding flow can therefore only be attributed to these centripetally directed forces initiated by the system of flow itself and which have been observed and clearly detected for the first time.

In addition, it can be concluded from the variable pitch of the strongly curved space-spiral and by the observed flocculation and migration of the particles of matter in the centre, that the centrifugal forces decrease with the flow-through of water in the pipes and the centripetal forces which overcome them are always of the same magnitude and accordingly increase their effect gradually in relation to the centrifugal forces.

The detected flocculative processes, however, cannot be attributed to the influence of mechanical forces alone. According to prevailing ideas concerning the coagulation of solids, it can be assumed with the greatest certainty, that the agglomeration of solid particles occurring in the course of the flow process, is triggered off by the effects of electro-physical forces.

The flowing motion of water in straight pipes, made visible in various ways, thus clearly proves that at the inlet of these pipes a greater or lesser spiralling motion develops, which in turn triggers off an in-winding flow along a spacespiral and which is additionally superimposed by flows along more strongly curved space-spirals.

The Influence of the Form and the Material of the Pipe on the Development of In-Winding Flow Processes.

The superimposing flow processes detectable along either a weakly or a strongly curved space-spiral must strongly impede each other through the formation of vortices in the fringe areas of both motions, which differ in direction and velocity of flow. Therefore as a logical conclusion arising from this observation, an increase in the output of the pipe could thus be anticipated in the instance of a favourable limitation of the mutually impeding flow processes due to vortex formation.

Since in their rhythmically oscillating form the helicoid pipes are aligned to the course of the strongly curved space-spirals automatically evolving during

Schauberger Repulsator

TEST PIPS 3 - Straight Copper Pipe. TEST PIPS 4 - Straight Cl<n> Pip«. TEST PIPS 5 - Swidth Conical Copper Pipe.

B"

TJ o

TEST PIP* 6 ■ Conical Spiral Bnlicoid Copper Pip«

137-

TEST PIPE 7 - LargeN

( Straight Conical Halicoid f Copp«r Pipe. TEST PIPE 8 - SaallJ

Iraliluf für Oesundheililechnik. an der. Techn:.Hochschule öluiigart

CU X JJ1

THE CONFIGURATION OF THE OTHER TEST-PITES

OWs (Ungarn vrijomlly ticJüsp* k) Diagram 1 ■

frCro

1HAI.RA« 4

0for y--

to to the flow through the pipe, these must therefore have a greater capacity than straight pipes of equal flow section under otherwise identical conditions.

If the processes of motion, above and beyond those initiated by the spiral form of the helicoid pipe, are also synchronous with the momentum arising from the velocity of the through-flow, then, as in the case of the strongly curved space-spiral in the glass pipe, the water ought actually to flow through the helicoid pipe in a freely oscillating manner, i.e. without touching the pipe walls and without the formation of flow-impeding and separating vortices. In this case, as a result of the multiple in-winding flow motion, the pipe wall would then hardly be touched by the water at all. From this it would appear as yet a further step towards hypothetical conclusions, that under very specific preconditions the frictional losses usually occurring in straight pipes could be reduced to zero in the case of the helicoid pipe.

The same hypotheses, however, could also be put forward for the helicoid pipes, which in shape correspond to the weakly curved space-spirals formed inside the straight pipes and with which the spiralling motion of the water is created by a particular configuration of the pipe walls. This screw-shaped indentation in the pipe walls of the straight and curved helicoid pipes, however, by virtue of the flow patterns, will not only aid the formation of the in-winding flow process itself, but will also stabilise its actual configuration -as for example in the case of the rifled barrel of a gun.

The hypothetical conclusions arising from the flow experiments described under Question 1 above, were checked as to their formal logic by measurements of the friction losses and outputs of seven straight or spiral pipes of various cross-section and wall configuration.

From the levelling vessel of Test Stand 1, the water was conducted to the pipes to be tested by a rubber hose of 19 mmOID. A rubber hose of the same diameter served to further conduct the water towards the measuring outlet. This essentially consists of an outlet pipe, enlarging conically from 20 mmOID to 40 mmOID, with two connections for measuring the drop in pressure (Diagrams 3 & 4). The outlet pipe is positioned centrally in a drain catchment. A stopwatch was used to measure the quantity of water flowing through the pipe by the time required to fill a 15 litre measuring vessel. The head of pressure thereby expended, was determined with the aid of three measuring pipes arranged directly adjacent to the measuring outlet. The difference in height h between the water level of the levelling vessel and the outlet pipe were constantly measured. In addition the pressure gradient h was measured, arising from the flow through the outlet pipe itself.

The ascertained outputs q are based on the amount of friction and in Diagram 5 are plotted in the form of a graph using a double logarithmical co-ordinate system. In consideration of the various flow sections f of the different test pipes, in this case it was not the flow-trough velocityv that was graphically depicted in double logarithmical form, but the measured output q based on the measured difference in the heights h of the water levels. The connecting lines of the mutually related measured values, which could be described briefly as q - h lines, would then have to be straight, taking the Weissbach formulation as a basis, for which the relation

According to this basic equation the measured values of the pipes of equal flow section and equal roughness of pipe wall must therefore lie along a straight line. In the case of unequal cross-sections, however, the values would certainly be displaced by a factor dependent upon 1/f2.

As is shown in Diagram 5, the q - h lines of the different test pipes actually deviate very considerably from the straight line and exhibit a characteristic oscillating course, as for example in the case of the spiral helicoid copper pipe (Test Pipe 2), concerning which the possibility cannot be ruled out that, as determined, the measured values may not have been ascertained with sufficient care.

The smooth, straight copper pipes with constant (Test Pipe 3) and conical (Test Pipe 5) flow sections are those which best follow the hydraulic postulate h = c x q2. With the other test pipes, apart from the oscillating course of the curves, the direction of the connecting lines are characterised by a relation in which the exponent of the output q is smaller than 2. For the Test Stand (Test Pipe 1) itself, as well as Test Pipe 2 (spiral helicoid pipe), Test Pipe 4 (straight glass pipe) and Test Pipe 7 (straight conical helicoid pipe - larger cross-section) the exponent would be reduced to 1.67. In the case of Test Pipe 6 (conical spiral helicoid pipe) it actually decreases to 1.57 and with Test Pipe 8 (straight, conical helicoid pipe - smaller cross-section) attains the lowest value of 1.51. This permits the conclusion that the winding and twisting of the pipes can exert either a favourable or an unfavourable influence on the flow-through processes according to the prevailing flow-through velocities.

If for example, Test Pipes 6 and 5 are considered, which have the same length and conically shaped flow section, but which differ in relation to their winding and twisting, then the measured value arising from the position of the connecting lines is such, that the winding and twisting of Test Pipe 6 in the area under measurement has an unfavourable effect on its output. The straight, conical copper pipe with smooth walls (No. 5) at equal difference in height of the water levels, delivers more water than the helicoid pipe. The difference in the output, however, constantly decreases with increasing difference in height and at a value of h = 28 cm, is completely cancelled out. With greater differences in height the helicoid pipe (No. 6) delivers a greater

Helicoid Turbine

volume of water than the straight copper pipe (No. 5). The same would also apply to Test Pipe 7, since it would have overtaken the straight, smooth copper pipe (No. 5) at the point where ft = 30 cm with a value of q = 0.17

litres/s. This hypothesis can now be confirmed by the thorough analysis of the measured values of Test Pipes 2, 3 and 4 as corresponding to the facts. The straight glass pipe (No. 4) at an equal difference in height h always has a smaller output than the straight copper pipe (No. 3) and the spiral helicoid copper pipe (No. 2), but up to a difference in height of 10.5 cm Test Pipe

3 delivers more than the spiral helicoid pipe (No. 2). From here onwards, however, the performance of the spiral helicoid pipe is always superior.

The conclusion, which is derived from the direction of the connecting lines of the measured values of Test Pipes 5, 6 and 7 and concerning the favourable effect of the winding and twisting of these pipes on the flow-through process lying outside the area of measurement, is therefore proven to be correct in the cases of Test Pipes 2, 3 and 4 by the ascertained measured values. The change from the unfavourable to the favourable effects of the winding and twisting of the pipes on the flow-through process to be anticipated beyond the area of measurement of Test Pipes 5, 6 and 7 in comparison to the straight, smooth pipes, already took place in the case of Test Pipes 2, 3 and 4 within the area of measurement. It is therefore appropriate to submit these test pipes to a thorough analysis.

It emerges from the values in Table 1, that the pressure gradients, the dh values at the outlet of the test stand, exhibit no uniform tendency. In order to determine whether the observed deviations are to be attributed to inaccuracies in measurement, the dh values based on the output were plotted in graph form (Diagram 6) in a double logarithmical system of co-ordinates. Whereas the connecting lines of the measured values of the straight copper pipe (No. 3) and the straight glass pipe (No. 4) have an even course, those of the spiral helicoid pipe (No. 2) and also of the test stand (No. 1), on the other hand, display characteristic oscillations.

The results of these measurements thus prove that the test stand itself, due to its semi-circular, downwardly pendent configuration, triggers off a similar effect to a coiling of the pipe, which however is completely or to the greatest extent annulled by the intervening incorporation of sections of straight pipe. In the case of the inclusion of the spiral helicoid pipe (No. 2), it is not assumed that the effect of the downward hanging test pipe (No. 1) has been neutralised, but perhaps even further enhanced. Hence, in order to maintain the requisite friction loss in the test pipes required maintain the output q, it is necessary further to reduce the differences in height of the water levels around the pressure gradients present at the outlet. In Diagram 7 the outputs q dependent upon the (h - dh) values are plotted on a double logarithmical coordinate system.

Helical Pipe Pressure Drop

TABLE 1

Output of straight and spiral pipes

TABLE 1

Output of straight and spiral pipes

Output n

Flow

h

Ah

h - Ah

Velocity

1%

cm/s

cm

cm

cm

1)

Test Stand without pipits but with

0.148

52.3

7.35

0.32

7.03

conical inlet and outlet of the test

0.166

58.7

8.81

0.49

8.32

pipe and rubber hose of 19 mm0 id

0.187

66.1

10.70

0.60

10.10

0.215

76.0

12.85

0.70

12.15

0.231

81.6

15.30

0.80

14.50

0.247

87.3

17.48

1.10

16.38

2)

Spiral Helicoid Copper Pipe roughly

0.130

25.7

6.0

0,34

5.66

1.45 m long with a 5.05 an" cross-

0.168

3.93

10.05

0.47

9.58

section of the below form

0.206

40.8

13.7

0.62

13.08

0.215

42.6

15.7

0.70

15.00

0.234

46.3

18.0

1.20

16.80

0.250

49.5

19.8

1.36

18.44

+ 0.283

56.1

21.2

2.15

19.95

0.294

58.3

22.1

1.55

20.55

+

These values are obtained from a

0.303

60.06

24.55

1.85

22.70

different series of experiments

0.319

63.38

26.9

2.05

24.85

+ 0.320

63.4

Z5.7

2.9

22.8

3)

Straight Copper Pipe,

0.323

24.4

5.3

0.30

5.0

2.54 cm 0,1.45 m long

0.177

34.6

16.4

0.50

9.9

0.211

41.7

15.6

0.65

14.95

0.246

48.7

20.2

0.85

19.75

0.288

57.0

25.5

1.20

24.70

q

V

h

Ah

h-Ah

4}

Straight Glass Pipe,

0.106

21.0

5.5

0.25

5.25

2.54 an 0,1.45 m long

0.155

30.7

16.5

0.30

10.20

0.192

38.0

15.6

0.55

14.75

0.222

43.9

19.6

6.60

19.00

0.275

54.4

25.3

0.85

24.45

5)

Smooth Conical Copper Pipe,

0.073

-

5.65

0.20

5.45

1.45 m long.

0.1035

-

9.80

0.22

9.58

0.1200

-

14.65

0.20

14.45

0.1445

-

20.70

0.30

20.40

0.1555

-

24.75

0.42

24.33

6)

Conical Spiral Helicoid

0.0525

-

4.60

0.15

4.45

Copper Pipe 1.45 m long

0.0820

-

9,30

0.23

9.07

0.1075

-

14.25

0.30

13.95

0.1320

-

20.55

0.38

20,17

0.1565

-

26.40

0.62

25.78

7)

Straight Conical Helicoid

0.0565

-

5.35

0.17

5.18

Copper pipe of larger

0.0844

-

10.70

0.32

10.38

cross-section, 1.45 m long

0.1060

-

15.20

0.38

14.82

0.1240

-

20.40

0.22

21.18

»i

Straight Conical Helicoid

0.0292

-

5.90

0.10

5.80

Copper IVpt1 "1 sm.tlkv

0.0438

-

¡0.70

0.J0

10.60

cross-section, 1.4r* m lon^

0.0545

15.70

0.10

15.20

0.0665

20.70

0.13

20.57

0.078»

26.40

0.18

26.22

The connecting lines of the mutually related measured values of the inlet and outlet of the test stand (No. 1), as well as those of the straight glass and copper pipes, now have a more even course than before. The connecting line, whose measured values emulate those of the spiral helicoid pipe, again exhibits the characteristic oscillation of the latter. The results of measurement evened out in this way are then used to determine the friction losses of the 1.45 m long test pipes. As is indicated in Diagram 7, each one of the ordinates between the q - h lines of the test stand and the test pipes are ascertained and compiled in Table 2.

TABLE 2

Output and Friction Losses of Straight and Spiral Test Pipes of Glass and Copper.

TABLE 2

Output and Friction Losses of Straight and Spiral Test Pipes of Glass and Copper.

Output

Frictional Losses in

Straight

q

Spiral Helicoid

Straight

Glass Pipe

i Copper Pipe

I

i

l/sec

cm

cm

cm

0.12

0.10

0.5

1.85

0,13

0,19

0.20

2.07

0.14

0.00

0.23

2.20

0.15

0.40

0.33

2.48

0.16

0.95

0.45

2.85

0.17

0.95

0.70

3.25

0.18

0.65

1.20

3.75

0.19

0.45

1.85

4.25

0.20

0.95

2.25

4.65

0.21

2.05

2.55

5.05

0.22

2.50

2.65

5.30

0.23

2.45

2.95

5.45

0.24

2.10

3.10

5.60

0.25

1.70

3.24

5.79

0.26

1.25

3.35

6.00

0.27

0.80

3.50

6.20

0.28

0.35

3.75

6.65

0.29

0.00

4.00

7.00

0.30

0.00

4.30

7.30

0.31

0.10

-

-

0.32

0.80

4.90

7.30

0.34

3.50

4.90

-

0.36

4.60

4.90

0.38

3.70

5.05

-

0.40

2.50

5.38

-

0.42

1.60

5.80

-

0.44

0,70

6.50

-

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Solar Stirling Engine Basics Explained

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