1/c = t /I sec pet cm (4 77^10 ) farads the notion has occurred that these dimensions establish the propagatior velocity of electric transmission, and thereby electricity and light are the same thing. This concept may have become the most significant obstacle to the understanding of electric transmission.
In this part of the study of the transmission of electricity the conduction of electricity of space will be further examined through observation of the characteristics of radio transmission and reception in the medium frequency range, 300-3000 kilocycles per second.
When the distance between the guiding wires of an electric system is significantly increased the electric field that is associated with these wires occupies a large volume of space which extends far beyond the vicinity of the guiding wires. The expanded electric field of induction associated with the spaced apart guiding wires now can combine with the electric fields of induction associated with more distant sets of guiding wires. This sharing of electric fields by two or more remote systems of wires is known as the mutual inductance of the systems. Through the process of mutual inductance electricity may be transmitted through space without the employment of a set of guiding wires to connect the transmitter to the distant receiver. Hence, the "wireless" system of electric transmission through space.
One example of such a system is the A.M. broadcasting service in commercial use today (535-1650 Kc/sec). In this form of transmission the guiding wires spread out into a very tall tower (75-300 ft) far into space on one side and a large copper screen buried in the ground on the other side of the system.
The spacing that exists between the uppermost part of the tower and the outermost part of the screen is very large, therefore the electric field of thin system extends to great distances as a result of this spacing. As with any system involving an electric field of
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induction energy is taken up by the field during one portion of the A.C. cycle and returned during the next portion of the A.C. cycle. If measurements are taken on the flow of energy at the terminals of the tower-screen arrangement it is observed that only a small fraction of the energy taken by the electric field is returned during the discharge portion of the A.C. cycle.
This loss of energy is unlike that which occurs in the oscillating energy exchange that takes place with closely spaced guiding wires. For close spacing the loss of energy is very small and that energy which is lost is fully accountable by the equivalent quantity of heat gain in and around the wires. However, for wide spacing the loss of energy is very large but the gain of heat energy is disproportionately small.
This direct observation of the disappearance of electric energy without its reappearance in an equivalent quantity of a differing form such as heat or mechanical activity raises a most important question, that is, where does all this energy go?
Many believe that this lost energy is radiated away from the tower in the same manner as light & heat radiation from a light bulb. While this theory seems plausible, there exists evidence that it may not be the correct interpretation of how the energy is lost. Nikola Tesla, the discoverer of radio, claimed repeatedly that the electromagnetic radiation theory (then known as the Hertzian wave theory) was inimical to the proper understanding of the wireless process as he conceived it.
The electromagnetic theory, or what was known as the Hertzian wave theory in Tesla's era, fails to explain certain observations made in practical radio engineering. According to E.M. theory the propagating velocity of electric induction must be the velocity»of light. In the practical world of engineering however, the factor // /2, or 1.57 times the velocity of light will appear in wave calculations. Is it not coincidental that Tesla claimed that the effective propagation velocity of his wireless system was 77^/2 faster than the so-called speed of light?
Also, according to E.M. theory, the propagation of electric induction must be the cross combination of the dielectric induction and the magnetic induction, these two inductions never propagating independently. The work of J.J. Thomson & M. Faraday indicate that these two distinct forms of induction do propagate independently. Wheatstone claimed that the dielectric induction propagated at "Tr/2 times faster than light.
In the practical world of radio engineering in the A.M. broadcast band it is not feasible to employ electromagnetic antennae at the point of reception. This is because an electromagnetic antenna must support a large fraction of the electromagnetic wavelength, this wavelength being several hundreds of feet. That is, such an antenna must be a tall tower. Since the employment of a tower for every radio receiver is an absurdity other forms of antennae are used. One such antenna is the magnetic permeability antenna found in transistor radios. This
MAY-JUNE 1988 JBR, Pago 11
antenna responds only to the magnetic field of induction and works on the principle that a fcrrite core multiplies the effective value of jpacc a thousand fold and thereby simulates a large structure. This type of antenna is found to be very directional and raust be oriented perpendicular to the direction of the transmitting station. Another form of antenna is the electro-static capacity antenna found on automobile radios. This antenna responds only to the dielectric field of induction and works on the principle that a resonant transformer connected to an elevated capacitance counteracts the effects of distance and thereby appears close to the transmitter. This type of antenna is found to be completely non-directional and can be oriented in any fashion.
Neither of the aforementioned antennae operate on the principle of electro-magnetic induction as propounded by Hertzian wave theory, but on distinctly magnetic inductive propagation or dielectric inductive propagation. This is contrary to the notion that the magnetic & dielectric fields of induction are inseparable, that is, they must propagate co-jointly. This distinct separate propagation of these two fields of induction is how electric propagation was conceived by nearly all of the important electrical pioneers.
The question has remained unanswered as to where does all the energy go that the broadcast transmitter must supply to the tower if it is not radiated in a fashion similar to light or heat energy. The answer may be found in the statement of C.P. Steinmetz that it is consumed by the hysteresis of the aether in which the tower is immersed. To quote, "Mr. Kennelly says that air has apparently no hysteresis, and this is the general assumption, too. But nevertheless, in the light of modern science we raust say that even air has a certain hysteresis, a time-hysteresis. For we know now, that the magnetic stress in air does not appear instantaneously with its source; but we know that magnetic disturbances are propagated though air with a finite velocity, the velocity of light. Now, if you examine the phenomenon more particularly, you will see, that then, and only then, no energy would be dissipated in space, if the magnetic disturbance set up at any place, were propagated through the whole space instantaneously. But as soon as the propagation of energy through space consumes a finite time, no matter how small this time be, a certain loss of energy must necessarily be connected therewith, and, calling the retardation of the magnetic disturbance behind the magneto-motive force, hysteresis, we must say: even air has hysteresis." (1)
The notion of aethereou3 hysteresis will be explored in part III of "The Transmission Of Electricity".
1. Transactions of the AIEE, Kennelly On Magnetic Reluctance, Oct. 27, 1891.
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