Table Of Contents

Section Title Page

1. TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW 1-1

1. 1 Fuel Cell Description 1-1

1.2 CELL STACKING 1-7

1. 3 Fuel Cell plant Description 1-8

1.4 Characteristics 1-9

1. 5 Advantages/Disadvantages 1-11

1. 6 Applications, demonstrations, and Status 1-13

1.6.1 Stationary Electric Power 1-13

1.6.2 Distributed Generation 1-21

1.6.3 Vehicle Motive Power 1-25

1.6.4 Space and Other Closed Environment Power 1-26

1.6.5 Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Systems 1-26

1.6.6 Derivative Applications 1-35

1.7 REFERENCES 1-35

2. FUEL CELL PERFORMANCE 2-1

2. 1 PRACTICAL THERMODYNAMICS 2-1

2.1.1 Ideal Performance 2-1

2.1.2 Actual Performance 2-4

2.1.3 Fuel Cell Performance Variables 2-9

2.1.4 Cell Energy Balance 2-16

2.2 SUPPLEMENTAL THERMODYNAMICS 2-17

2.2.1 Cell Efficiency 2-17

2.2.2 Efficiency Comparison to Heat Engines 2-19

2.2.3 Gibbs Free Energy and Ideal Performance 2-19

2.2.4 Polarization: Activation (Tafel) and Concentration 2-23

2.3 REFERENCES 2-26

3. POLYMER ELECTROLYTE FUEL CELL 3-1

3. 1 CELL COMPONENTS 3-1

3.1.1 Water Management 3-2

3.1.2 State-of-the-Art Components 3-3

3.1.3 Development Components 3-6

3. 2 PERFORMANCE 3-9

3. 3 DIRECT METHANOL PROTON EXCHANGE FUEL CELL 3-12

3.4 REFERENCES 3-14

4. ALKALINE FUEL CELL 4-1

4.1 CELL COMPONENTS 4-3

4.1.1 State-of-the-Art Components 4-3

4.1.2 Development Components 4-4

4.2 PERFORMANCE 4-5

4.2.1 Effect of Pressure 4-5

4.2.2 Effect of Temperature 4-7

4.2.3 Effect of Reactant Gas Composition 4-8

4.2.4 Effect of Impurities 4-8

4.2.5 Effects of Current Density 4-10

4.2.6 Effects of Cell Life 4-12

4. 3 Summary of Equations for AFC 4-12

4.4 REFERENCES 4-12

5. PHOSPHORIC ACID FUEL CELL 5-1

5. 1 Cell Components 5-2

5.1.1 State-of-the-Art Components 5-2

5. 1.2 Development Components 5-5

5. 2 PERFORMANCE 5-9

5.2.1 Effect of Pressure 5-10

5.2.2 Effect of Temperature 5-11

5.2.3 Effect of Reactant Gas Composition and Utilization 5-12

5.2.4 Effect of Impurities 5-14

5.2.5 Effects of Current Density 5-17

5.2.6 Effects of Cell Life 5-18

5. 3 Summary of equations for PAFC 5-18

5.4 REFERENCES 5-20

6. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL 6-1

6.1 Cell Components 6-4

6.1.2 Development Components 6-9

6.2 PERFORMANCE 6-12

6.2.1 Effect of Pressure 6-14

6.2.2 Effect of Temperature 6-17

6.2.3 Effect of Reactant Gas Composition and Utilization 6-19

6.2.4 Effect of Impurities 6-23

6.2.5 Effects of Current Density 6-28

6.2.6 Effects of Cell Life 6-28

6.2.7 Internal Reforming 6-29

6.3 Summary of equations for MCFC 6-32

6.4 REFERENCES 6-36

7. INTERMEDIATE TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL 7-1

8. SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL 8-1

8. 1 Cell Components 8-3

8.1.2 Cell Configuration Options 8-6

8.1.3 Development Components 8-11

8.2 PERFORMANCE 8-13

8.2.1 Effect of Pressure 8-13

8.2.2 Effect of Temperature 8-14

8.2.3 Effect of Reactant Gas Composition and Utilization 8-16

8.2.4 Effect of Impurities 8-19

8.2.5 Effects of Current Density 8-21

8.2.6 Effects of Cell Life 8-21

8.3 Summary Of equations for SOFC41 8-22

8.4 REFERENCES 8-22

9. FUEL CELL SYSTEMS 9-1

9.1 System Processes 9-2

9.1.1 Fuel Processing 9-2

9.1.2 Rejected Heat Utilization 9-30

9.1.3 Power Conditioners and Grid Interconnection 9-30

9.1.4 System and Equipment Performance Guidelines 9-32

9.2 System Optimizations 9-34

9.2.1 Pressurization 9-34

9.2.2 Temperature 9-36

9.2.3 Utilization 9-37

9.2.4 Heat Recovery 9-38

9.2.5 Miscellaneous 9-39

9.2.6 Concluding Remarks on System Optimization 9-39

9.3 Fuel Cell System Designs 9-40

9.3.1 Natural Gas Fueled PEFC System 9-40

9.3.2 Natural Gas Fueled PAFC System 9-41

9.3.3 Natural Gas Fueled Internally Reformed MCFC System 9-44

9.3.4 Natural Gas Fueled Pressurized SOFC System 9-45

9.3.5 Natural Gas Fueled Multi-Stage Solid State Power Plant System 9-50

9.3.6 Coal Fueled SOFC System (Vision 21) 9-54

9.3.7 Power Generation by Combined Fuel Cell and Gas Turbine Systems 9-57

9.3.8 Heat and Fuel Recovery Cycles 9-58

9.4 Fuel Cell networks 9-70

9.4.1 Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Networks: Principles, Analysis and Performance 9-70

9.4.2 MCFC Network 9-74

9.4.3 Recycle Scheme 9-74

9.4.4 Reactant Conditioning Between Stacks in Series 9-74

9.4.5 Higher Total Reactant Utilization 9-75

9.4.6 Disadvantages of MCFC Networks 9-76

9.4.7 Comparison of Performance 9-76

9.4.8 Conclusions 9-77

9.5 HYBRIDS 9-77

9.5.1 Technology 9-77

9.5.2 Projects 9-79

9.5.3 World's First Hybrid Project 9-81

9.5.4 Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) 9-81

9.6 REFERENCES 9-83

10. SAMPLE CALCULATIONS 10-1

10.1 Unit Operations 10-1

10.1.1 Fuel Cell Calculations 10-1

10.1.2 Fuel Processing Calculations 10-16

10.1.3 Power Conditioners 10-20

10.1.4 Others 10-20

10.2 System Issues 10-21

10.2.1 Efficiency Calculations 10-21

10.2.2 Thermodynamic Considerations 10-23

10.3 Supporting Calculations 10-27

10.4 Cost Calculations 10-35

10.4.1 Cost of Electricity 10-35

10.4.2 Capital Cost Development 10-36

10.5 Common Conversion Factors 10-37

10.6 Automotive Design Calculations 10-38

10.7 References 10-39

11. APPENDIX 11-1

11.1 EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANTS 11-1

11.2 Contaminants from Coal Gasification 11-2

11.3 Selected Major Fuel Cell References, 1993 to Present 11-4

11.4 List of Symbols 11-7

11.5 Fuel Cell Related Codes and Standards 11-10

11.5.1 Introduction 11-10

11.5.2 Organizations 11-10

11.5.3 Codes & Standards 11-12

11.5.4 Application Permits 11-14

11.6 Fuel Cell Field Sites data 11-15

11.6.1 Worldwide Sites 11-15

11.6.2 PEFC 11-16

11.6.3 PAFC 11-16

11.6.5 MCFC 11-16

11.6.6 SOFC 11-17

11.6.7 DoD Field Sites 11-18

11.6.8 IFC Field Units 11-18

11.6.9 Fuel Cell Energy 11-18

11.6.10 Siemens Westinghouse 11-18

11.7 Thermal-Hydraulic Model of a Monolithic Solid Oxide Fuel Cell 11-24

11.8 References 11-24

12. INDEX 12-1

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