Basic Components of a Geothermal System

Geothermal Heat Pumps Installation Guide

Installing a Geothermal Heat Pump Will Save you thousands in heating and cooling costs, and will repay itself many times over. This guide is filled with factual information to help you get fired up so you can quickly and easily make decisions to heat and cool your home. Geothermal heating and cooling technology provides exceptional performance and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (Epa) agrees that a geothermal heat pump is the most energy-efficient, environmentally clean, and most cost-effective space conditioning system available. The guide contains the information you need, when you need it. Compiled in an easy-to-understand visual format. Includes: Explanation of geothermal heat transfer, Descriptions of the types of geothermal systems, Space requirements, Tips on the ideal system for you.

Geothermal Heat Pumps Installation Guide Summary

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Guide on how to build and install a Geothermal Heat Pump

Heres Some Example Of Whats Inside -Detailed pictures with every step Ive made in building the Geothermal Heat Pump. How to build The Ground source loop field. How to build The Heat Pump. How to create your pipe welding equipment from a mini electric sandwich maker and a Teflon skillet. How to weld Polyethylene pipe with the Diy device. How to dig 18 feet holes for your loops with a geared DC motor and some hand built equipment. How to test the welds of your loop. How to make your trenches. Handy little tips that I have found along the way that will save you a lot of time (and money). How everything connects together. Easy step-by-step instruction that will walk you through the entire process. Safety issues that you Must be aware of during this project. Big colorful pictures, diagrams, detailed dimensions and explanation of every process to make it as easy as possible for you to follow and other great stuff which you will find in 176 pages of this Journal.

Guide on how to build and install a Geothermal Heat Pump Summary

Contents: 176 Page Ebook
Author: Alexander Hughes
Official Website: www.diy-geothermal-journal.com
Price: $49.97

Ground source heat pumps

Annex 8 of the IEA Geothermal Implementing Agreement57 reports on geothermal (ground source) heat pumps (GHPs) in detail, linked with other issues relating to the direct use of geothermal heat. Small-to medium-scale GHPs can be used virtually anywhere for both heat supply in winter and cooling in summer (Box C) as well as to provide hot water. They use the heat storage capacity of the ground as an earth-heat sink since the temperature at depths between 15 and 200 m remains fairly constant all year round at around 12 to 14oC. Vertical bores enable heat to be drawn out in the winter and brought to the necessary temperature by a heat pump. The ground normally cools to below 10oC as a result. Circulating water in summer is initially sufficient to provide the desired cooling with the heat pump being operated in reverse if more cooling is later required. The ground stores the extracted heat, rising to an average temperature of around 20oC. The cost of drilling bores remains a high...

Heat pump operation

The heat pump contains a compressor, which performs step 7-5 in the Rankine cycle depicted in Fig. 3.1, and a nozzle, which performs step 2-9. The intermediate steps are performed in the two heat exchangers, giving the working fluid the temperatures Tup and Tlow, respectively. The equations for determining these temperatures are given below in Section 6.2. There are four such equations, which must be supplemented by equations for the compressor and nozzle performance, in order to allow a determination of all the unknown temperatures indicated in Fig. 6.1, for given Tref, given load and a certain energy expenditure to the compressor. Losses in the compressor are in the form of heat, which in some cases can be credited to the load area. Figure 6.1. Schematic picture of a heat pump. Figure 6.1. Schematic picture of a heat pump. An indication of the departures from the Carnot limit of the coefficients of performance, eat pump, encountered in practice, is given in Fig. 6.2, as a function...

Heat pump

A heat pump - like any other technical system - consists of various system elements. In the following, they are primarily explained further for electrical compression heat pumps, as they have the highest market share (e.g. 9-1 , 9-2 , 9-3 , 9-12 ). It can be differentiated by the heat exchanger utilised in the evaporator and the condenser, the compressor, the expansion valve, the lubricant as well as the working medium (refrigerant). Heat exchangers. Heat exchangers are devices that transfer heat following the temperature gradient between two or more substances. At the same time they enable a change of thermodynamic state of these substances (cooling, heating up, evaporating, and condensing). For heat pumps, they are mainly used for the heat transfer between the heat source and the heat pump (i.e. the evaporator) and between the heat pump and the heat sink (i.e. the condenser). For a given capacity of the heat exchanger a small temperature difference (gradient) requires a large heat...

Table c Software Evaluation Methods of Operational Costs

When working with retrofits or buildings that can provide an energy use history, it is appropriate to complete a theoretical analysis and then verify that analysis against the actual energy billing data. Accurate inputs and careful analysis can yield operational cost estimates within ten per cent. Below, paragraph 1 d. is a discussion and summary of the maintenance cost advantages associated with GeoExchange systems. Factors often overlooked in cost and benefits analysis of the GeoExchange system Measurable Life Factors (keep in mind well systems are usually twice as long-lived as heat pumps Adaptation to sites where external equipment cannot be installed) General Construction cost savings in mechanical space reduction, elimination of structural support for equipment Elimination of flue for fossil fuel systems

The Bronx and Manhattan

The Bronx has been the subject of limited geologic explorations and, as a result, few geologic reports (Bulletin GW-32, 1953, Geology in the Bronx and Richmond Counties by N.M. Perlmutter and T. Arnow) exist that cover the geology of that borough. Similarly with Manhattan, the existence of a city in these boroughs has limited the amount of classic geologic studies that can be made. Charles Baskerville has produced a set of engineering geology maps that cover both the Bronx and Manhattan. Mr. Baskerville has used engineering data including data developed from the numerous tunneling projects, such as water tunnels, subway tunnels and power lines. Data from foundation borings for numerous projects such as building and bridge construction were also used. The mapping is intended to assist engineers in foundation design and is not intended to be a definitive geologic investigation. Mr. Baskerville does not devote much space to the identification and in depth description of geologic units...

Open System with Supply and Diffusion Wells

The open type of geothermal heat exchanger consists of one or more supply wells which supply water to the heat pump loop, and return or diffusion wells into which the same water is re-injected into the aquifer from which it was drawn. These wells are relatively shallow (several hundred feet in depth), and are generally cased to the depth where the water is available for pumping, or in the case of a diffusion well, can be accepted by the geologic formation. Aquifers that can furnish water at high flow rates are generally of coarse material such as gravel, but not clay, sand or bedrock.

Typical Requirement for Uic Permit Applications

Operating data for the heat pumps G. H. I. Simulation of Heat pump operation including estimated injection While there are presently no formal regulations for the installation, type antifreeze or other attributes of the closed loop earth coupling method. The International Ground Source Heat Pump Association (IGSPHA) have complete installation specifications for the closed loop type of earth coupling.1 2. Use of heat pumps with R-22 or other refrigerant with lesser ozone depletion potential, see section 7 of this manual After burial and prior to heat pump operation

Standing Column Wells

Long Island Power Authority (LIPA, formerly Long Island Lighting Company) has installed open loop geothermal heat pumps in four of its buildings over the past six years, see table 2a - 1 - LIPA facilities. Table 2a - 1 Long Island Power Authority Two Well (Open) Geothermal Heat Pump Installations Of particular note is the Brentwood facility3, designed with an R-12 ground source heat pump installation in 1958. The facility has two wells, one a supply and one a diffusion well, both operational since 1958. The facility is a 6,500 square feet, two story building, providing office accommodations for 300 operating staff, and hosts a large cafeteria. Some offices, lockers and workshops are located in the basement, which also houses eighteen geothermal heat pump modules. The water to water geo-thermal heat pump modules replaced two 350 kW and one 900 kW gas fired boiler. The original wells and pumps were retained, but with a new variable frequency drive (VFD) which provides additional...

A The Hydrogeology of New York City

Brooklyn Queens Aquifer

The heat exchangers which transfer heat in or out of the heat pump refrigerant should be of an alloy such as copper-nickel that experiences no ill effects from salinity or variation in pH. The contaminants in the ground water will have an effect on the maintenance requirements for the well and well pump. See Chapter 3, Description of Geothermal Heat Exchangers for a discussion of potential problems with open wells due to water quality and other factors. The Bronx has been the subject of limited geologic explorations and, as a result, few geologic reports (Bulletin GW-32, 1953, Geology in the Bronx and Richmond Counties by N.M. Perlmutter and T. Arnow) exist that cover the geology of that borough. Similarly with Manhattan, the existence of a city in these boroughs has limited the amount of classic geologic studies that can be made. Charles Baskerville has produced a set of engineering geology maps that cover both the Bronx and Manhattan. Mr. Baskerville has used engineering data...

Closed Loop Geothermal Heat Exchangers

Water Drilling Machine Diagram

As closed loop piping and the required grouting material add another layer of heat transfer resistance, the closed loop system is designed for lower winter entering water temperatures and higher summer entering temperature. These wider temperature ranges reduce the effective capacity and efficiency of the heat pump system. Closed loop piping costs are typically in the same range as the cost of the heat pumps and thus add to the overall cost of the installation. Generally, these closed loop systems are more first cost than the above systems. A compensating increase in the overall system efficiency can be anticipated by the reduction in loop pumping costs. However, the requirement for slightly larger equipment remains a disadvantage. Closed loops with environmentally friendly propylene glycol may not realize as much pumping advantage in the winter period as the typical propylene glycol concentrations tend to greatly increase solution viscosity. Typical closed loop spacing is 15-20 feet...

Fresh Air Intake Rooftop Unit

Hvac Rooftop Unit Economizer

Section 8.0 Choosing a Geothermal Heat Pump System The type of geothermal heat pump system that is suitable for a given building must be chosen carefully. The normal process is a collaborative effort involving the owner, the architect and the consulting engineer. Each different geothermal heat pump configuration will affect the architecture and the ability to define climate control zoning. At present the commercially available heat pump types and the major physical implications for the building layout and operation are described here. The consulting engineer and the architect will collaborate in generating a systems comparison study that details the advantages and disadvantages of each mechanical system being considered. This study should compare performance, architectural implications, capital costs, operating costs and maintenance. Water to air geothermal heat pumps A Partially exploded view of a console style geothermal heat pump. The controld, airside coil and compressor are...

Heatpump Open Loop Lake

Water Heat Pump Collector

Heat pump into Sizing Heat Pumps Heat pumps can be equipped and set up for combined heating (winter) and cooling (summer) or equipped and set up for heating only. The main equipment difference is that the heat pump, which has both heating and cooling capability, has a reversing valve to change the direction of the refrigerant flow. Heat pumps equipped and installed for combined heating and cooling are sized to satisfy the cooling requirements of the building. Heat pumps equipped and installed for heating only are sized to satisfy the heating requirements of the building. Heat Pump Device that pumps heat from a low-temperature heat source to a higher temperature heat distribution system, such as underfloor heating, etc. Ground Source Heat Pump (also known as ground-coupled) A heat pump that absorbs its low temperature heat from moisture trapped in the earth or from water in a pond, lake, river, or well. Geothermal Energy The heat stored within the earth, due to the earth's natural heat...

Table c Factors Other than Operation in Cost Analysis

Climatemaster Dxm Cycle With Fan

Full System Cost Factors often are difficult to compare. Note the Geother-mal heat pump ratings both the old ARI and the recently adopted ISO efficiency rating all included the full system level operational costs. Coefficient of Performance (COP) represents these factors. COP being the ratio of the purchased energy to the energy delivered or removed by the heat pump system. These costs include the efficiency of the heat pump but also penalties for water or loop pumping rates and penalties for pressure head in various applications. When comparing a geothermal heat pump against a chiller system other factors as water pumping, water purchase and chemical purchase must be added to the chiller costs. When comparing a geothermal heat pump against a fossil burning system, remember to include the cost electricity to operate that fossil system. Geothermal heat pumps are a single source of heating or cooling and in some cases heaters of domestic water. The reduction in operational costs by have...

The contributors are

Andrew Collins, PE - principal of P.A. Collins, PE Consulting Engineers. Registered Professional Engineer in the States of New York, Massachusetts and New Jersey. Member ASHRAE and International Ground Source Heat Pump Association, currently pursuing LEED certification. The company has pioneered the use of ground source heat pumps in New York City, and has five operating installations, with new buildings totaling 180,000 square feet currently in design or construction. Mr. Orio has one of the longest involvement's with geothermal heat pumps in the United States today. He is a Certified GeoExchange Designer (AEE), an approved Design Assistant (GHPC) and a Certified Geothermal Instructor ( IGSPHA). He has been a member of the International Ground Source Heat Pump Association's (IGSPHA) Advisory Broad and the IGSPHA Marketing Committee Chairman. Mr. Orio started his involvement with geothermal heat pumps in 1974 and between that time and 1981 manufactured approximately 2,000...

Operating Costs

GeoExchange systems can be best evaluated on the basis of weather history bin-hour or hour-by-hour analysis. The use of degree-day based cost analysis is not considered sufficiently accurate. The importance of an accurate heating, cooling load profile, and where appropriate, domestic water heating requirements must be foremost in the design and decision process. 1. Unlike a fossil fuel heating system a GeoExchange system's cost is nearly linear with heat energy (Btu's) delivered. A non-condensing boiler can add approximately 25 to its cost as its size is doubled, however a heat pump based system, geo or other heat pump type system, can almost double its cost when its output is doubled. 2. GeoExchange is most often selected on the basis of energy savings. Over-sizing a geothermal heat pump, or even a fossil burner leads to short cycling and inefficiency. Because of these factors, an accurate analysis of the heating and cooling loads is mandatory when designing a GeoExchange system....

Brooklyn Queens

The heat exchangers which transfer heat in or out of the heat pump refrigerant should be of an alloy such as copper-nickel that experiences no ill effects from salinity or variation in pH. The contaminants in the ground water will have an effect on the maintenance requirements for the well and well pump. See Chapter 3, Description of Geothermal Heat Exchangers for a discussion of potential problems with open wells due to water quality and other factors.

Conclusion

Geothermal Slinky Loop Design

The hydrogeology of the City of New York is complex and varied presenting an interesting challenge for the design and implementation of geothermal systems. Since the location of the intended system is critical in determining the nature of the geology and, consequently, the type of well that will be used for the system, the designer must consult the mapping that is in this chapter or additional mapping listed at the end of the chapter. It is important that a hydrogeologist is consulted at the initiation of the design process so that the nature and extent of the drilling can be assessed early. 5. b Choosing a geoexchanger The diameter of the impressive and depressive cones are a function of the permeability of the surrounding geological strata. The only limiting factors to these type systems is the availability of 3 gallons per minute per connected heat pump ton of flow and a responsible method of returning the water to the environment. Aquifer testing and modeling may be necessary if...

Accepted by WEDI

The GeoExchange space conditioning system provides Table 8c-1 - GeoExchange functions A typical installation will provide 100 of the dominant heating or cooling load and approximately 50 - 65 of the domestic water heating. In all cases the successful installation will include a complete integration of all of the three major components of the GeoExchange installation. Earth Coupling Portion Heat Pumps Building Distribution Table 8c-2 - Major GeoExchange Components Training programs and GeoExchange contractors that include all of these three interrelated elements insure a successful installation. A GeoExchange system lead by a organization with only a portion of the integrated knowledge is most likely to falter or fail to perform as intended. Building Distribution and Water Source Heat pumps (Water-to-Air), there are interfaces that must be understood and addressed. Industry sponsored training programs for GeoExchange design and installation are discussed in this section. Florida Heat...

Governance by provision

Where sufficient funding is available within the community, providing grants or subsidies towards the capital investment by a business or homeowner can incentivise the purchase of renewable energy equipment such as solar PV (Ann Arbor, Adelaide) and ground source heat pumps (Beijing). Care is needed to ensure the fixed amount of a grant or percentage of the capital cost will be sufficient to create the desirable volume of increased sales. When such a policy is first introduced, the ability of manufacturers, suppliers, installers and maintenance personnel to meet a possible sudden increase in demand for a technology will need careful assessment to avoid the scheme soon losing support if a long lead time results on delivery or administration.

Renewable energy technologies

As a result of the Merton rule, building developers have invested in such technologies as small wind turbines, solar PV, ground source heat pumps, biomass heating and CHP systems, and solar water heaters. Any additional costs involved have not had to be borne by local taxpayers, but by the developers. Under some circumstances they may be eligible for financial support from the national government. Examples of several successful new building projects within the Merton borough, and in the neighbouring municipality of Croydon that also abides by the policy, are outlined below. Croydon is one of around 150 councils across the United Kingdom also actively implementing or drafting the Merton policy. I K he do-it-yourself and garden equipment chain store B& Q, has installed in its New Malden branch a solar thermal system and a ground source heat pump for under-floor heating in the new 10 000 m2, I T he 3 000 m2 Lidl supermarket building in Merton installed horizontal pipes of a ground...

Governance by authority

Within the compliance requirements of national tax regimes, there can be opportunities for local governments to create adjustments to local tax payments (Frederikshavn) such as a discount on property development fees (Caledon). For example, the annual charges against the rateable value of a property with a ground source heat pump installed could be lowered, or local property sales taxes, fuel taxes or permitting fees could be reduced where renewable energy technologies are involved.

Renewable Inspiration

Depth of 300 feet for the closed-loop geothermal system he planned to install later in the season. Jay also pointed out the long, clear cylinders of a Sunda solar hot water system on the roof of his home's breezeway 48 vacuum tubes for household hot water. After that, we got to tour the house and a dazzling showroom of all the belt- and pulley-driven ceiling fans Jay manufactures. What a treat Check them out at www. architecturalfans.com.

Technical description

Fig. 10.1 Basic layout of a hydro-geothermal heating station designed to tap hydro-geothermal heat from the deep underground (see 10-2 , 10-5 ) Fig. 10.1 Basic layout of a hydro-geothermal heating station designed to tap hydro-geothermal heat from the deep underground (see 10-2 , 10-5 ) the casing or liner and the cement section located behind with a perforation gun or by jet cutting. Due to its more favourable hydraulic properties, within recent years, open hole completion has been applied for production and injection wells of hydro-geothermal heating plants more frequently. But in case of a low consolidation of the reservoir rocks (for instance, sandstone reservoirs tends to crumble if the geo-thermal fluid is removed from the reservoir) additional completion measures need to be taken. One measure is the use of a so-called gravelpack. Here the borehole has to be enlarged within the reservoir section. Then a wire-wrap filter is installed. The remaining volume of the annulus is then...

Solarderived heat sources

The potential of a given heat storage for heat pump usage depends on two temperatures that of the storage and the required usage temperature. This implies that no energy amount can be associated with the energy source, and a discussion of heat pump energy conversion will therefore be deferred until Chapter 4. An indication of possible storage temperatures may be derived from Figs. 2.63-2.65 for the oceans, Fig. 2.104 for a continental site, and Fig. 2.28 for the atmosphere. lower than that of the air. An exception may be dry rock, which can reach temperatures substantially above the ambient after some hours of strong solar exposure. Extraction of heat from soil or rock by means of the heat pump principle is possible and will be discussed in the next chapter. The density of air also decreases with height (Fig. 2.27), and the heat capacity is small (e.g. compared with that of water), so the potential for energy conversion based on atmospheric heat is small per unit of volume. Energy...

Heat electrical or mechanical power and fuel generation

If the desired energy form is heat, low quality electricity may first be produced, and the heat may then be generated by leading the current through a high ohmic resistance. Better efficiency can be achieved if the electricity can be used to drive the compressor of a heat pump (see section 4.6.1), providing (pumping) the required heat from a reservoir of temperature lower than the desired one. It is also possible to convert the shaft power more directly into heat. For example, the shaft power may drive a pump, pumping a viscous fluid through a nozzle, such that the pressure energy is converted into heat. Alternatively, the shaft rotation may be used to drive a paddle through a fluid, in such a way that large drag-forces arise, and such that the fluid is put into turbulent motion, gradually dissipating the kinetic energy into heat. If water is used as the fluid medium, this arrangement is called a water-brake.

Basic principles of energy conversion

Vice, e.g. heat in addition to one of the other energy forms listed. Many devices also perform a number of energy conversion steps, rather than the single ones given in the figure. A power plant may, for example, perform the conversion process chain between energy forms chemical heat mechanical electrical. Diagonal transformations are also possible, such as conversion of mechanical energy into mechanical energy (potential energy of elevated fluid kinetic energy of flowing fluid rotational energy of turbine), or of heat into heat at a lower temperature (convection, conduction). A process, in which the only change is that heat is transferred from a lower to a higher temperature, is forbidden by the second law of thermodynamics. Such transfer can be established if at the same time some high-quality energy is degraded, e.g. by a heat pump (which is listed as a converter of electrical into heat energy in Table 4.1, but is further discussed in the heat conversion section, 4.6.1).

Heat flows and stored heat

Utilisation of heat flows and stored heat may be direct if the desired temperature of use is no higher than that of the flow or storage. If this is not so, two reservoirs of different temperature may be used to establish a thermody-namic cycle yielding a certain amount of work, limited by the second law of thermodynamics. An alternative conversion scheme makes use of the heat pump principle, by expending work added from the outside. Such conversion methods will be considered in Chapter 4, while the focus here will be on identifying those heat sources, which look most suitable for utilisation. The solar energy stores and flows will be surveyed in section 3.5.1, whereas section 3.5.2

Fundamentals Concerning Energy

Thermal energy, heat, cannot be transformed totally into work. In laymen's terms, you cannot even break even. In every transformation there is an energy efficiency that will be less than 100 . So it takes energy to move heat from a cold place to a hot place (refrigerator, heat pump for house in the winter time). Another way of looking at it is that systems tend toward disorder, and in transformations of energy, disorder increases. In succinct terms, entropy is increasing.

Water Heating Residential Systems

The efficiency of water heaters is referred to as the energy factor (EF). Higher EF values equate to more efficient water heaters. Typical EF values range from about 0.8-0.95 for electric resistance heaters, 0.5-0.8 for natural gas units, 0.7-0.85 for oil units, and 1.5-2.0 for heat pump water heaters. Heat pump water heaters may save as much as 25 -30 of the electricity used by a conventional electric water heater. Some utilities have offered rebates of several thousand dollars to encourage customers to install heat pump water heaters.

Conversion between energy forms

Vice, e.g. heat in addition to one of the other energy forms listed. Many devices also perform a number of energy conversion steps, rather than the single ones given in the table. A power plant, for example, may perform the conversion process chain between energy forms chemical heat mechanical electrical. Diagonal transformations are also possible, such as conversion of mechanical energy into mechanical energy (potential energy of elevated fluid kinetic energy of flowing fluid rotational energy of turbine) or of heat into heat at a lower temperature (convection, conduction). A process in which the only change is that heat is transferred from a lower to a higher temperature is forbidden by the second law of thermodynamics. Such transfer can be established if at the same time some high-quality energy is degraded, e.g. by a heat pump (which is listed as a converter of electrical into heat energy in Table 4.1, but is further discussed in the heat conversion section, 4.6.1).

Heat Of Reaction Versus Equivalence Ratio

Updraft Verse Dowdraft Wing

The gas produced by gasification of biomass is a medium-quality gas, meaning a gas with burning value in the range 10-18 MJ m-3. This gas may be used directly in Otto or diesel engines, it may be used to drive heat pump compressors, or alternatively, it may by upgraded to pipeline-quality gas (about 30 MJ m-3) or converted to methanol, as discussed in section 4.8.3.

COP and the Question of Perpetual Motion

Legitimate scientific researchers attempting to work in open EM systems far from thermodynamic equilibrium are often subjected to rather vicious ad hominem attacks, charging that they are perpetual motion machine addicts and therefore raving lunatics. This of course is not true. We are simply trying to do with Maxwell's electric fluid systems what nature already shows us can be done with material fluid systems. We are in fact seeking the equivalent of electromagnetic heat pump processes and systems. It is the strident critics who are thoroughly confused and who reveal an immature knowledge of physics and thermodynamics.

Heat electricalmechanical power and fuel generation

If the desired energy form is heat, low-quality electricity may first be produced, and the heat may then be generated by leading the current through a high ohmic resistance. Better efficiency can be achieved if the electricity can be used to drive the compressor of a heat pump (Chapter 6), taking the required heat from a reservoir of temperature lower than the

Environmental analysis

The environmental effects caused by installing a heat pump system for ambient heat utilisation are mainly due to the use of water as a heat source and, for ground probes, sinking the boreholes. Potential environmental effects caused by drilling are pollutant emissions into the subsoil by drilling equipment, drill tubes and auxiliary equipment. Chemical biological changes due to drilling fluids can also cause environmental effects. Such pollutant emissions can be largely avoided by using preventive measures (DIN 4021 and DVGW W 116) to avoid contamination, bacteriological pollution and chemical-biological changes in the subsoil, etc., plus an adjusted drilling method 9-20 . Furthermore, noise effects can occur which are normally within the legal boundaries if the regulations of noise pollution are observed. The installation of the heat pump system itself normally does not cause any other environmental problems than would occur during the installation of a conventional...

Economic and environmental analysis

The following sections provide an economic and environmental analysis for a selection of hydro-geothermal heating plants. Economic analysis. For all analysed geothermal heating stations geothermal fluid is produced through one well and, after cooling, is pressed into the reservoir through another well (Fig. 10.1). The water used within the district heating system is directly heated up with heat exchangers. The heat can be increased to the desired temperature by means of heat pumps, if required by the reservoir characteristics or to satisfy consumers. The required electricity can be provided by natural gas-fired or light fuel oil fired CHP stations. The heat produced together with electricity is additionally fed into the district heating system. In order to compensate for demand peaks or setbacks, heat insulated water tanks acting as energy storage are frequently integrated into the overall system. To cover peak demands or in case of malfunctions, geothermal heating plants are commonly...

Economic analysis

In Central Europe, heat pumps for space heating and domestic hot water generation are mainly built as monovalent compression heat pumps driven by an electric motor. The following analyses will deal with systems that can cover various supply tasks (three single family houses with different types of insulation (SFH) and one multi-family house (MFH) see Chapter 1.3) - in each case with a different heat demand (Table 9.7). For that reason, system configurations of heat pump systems with direct evaporation, a brine circuit with a horizontal or a vertical heat exchanger and heat pump systems connected to the groundwater are defined (Table 9.7). These heat pump systems generate space heat and domestic hot water, with a priority for the generation of domestic hot water. The working medium used in all systems is R407C. The heat pump is always installed in the basement of the building to be supplied. The achievable SPFs are determined by the heat pump technology and the characteristics of the...

Water Pumps

Geothermal Heating I am considering having a geothermal heat pump installed at my home. The home is 100 years old and has a very unique feature a hand-dug well in the basement. The well is 3 feet in diameter and 21 feet deep, and holds about 1,000 gallons of water. My idea is to put a closed loop of copper or PEX piping into the well, using it as the heat source. Unfortunately, this idea is unlikely to work the amount of pipe you can put into the area you describe would probably be insufficient to meet the home's heating or cooling load. In northern climates, the geothermal heat pump would quickly remove the heat from this small surface area and freeze the water around the pipes. In southern climates, the water around the pipes would get too hot and the heat pump would not cool the house. Even if the well you describe flowed like a river, you still wouldn't have enough pipe surface area to move the heat in a closed-loop system. Geothermal heat-pump manufacturers have developed at...

Technical Status

Considerable progress has been made in geothermal technology during the past decade of research and development activity, especially in exploration methodology and reservoir development technology. There are still some remaining technical problems and economic impediments to greater development of geothermal resources. Major uncertainties in evaluating the economics of a geothermal system include estimating reservoir characteristics, drilling costs, and long-term performance of power conversion equipment. Further improvements are needed to make geothermal technology economically competitive, particularly in the areas of resource (reservoir) potential assessment, exploration techniques, improved drilling techniques, reservoir handling techniques, and hot dry rock energy extraction R& D. Resource (Reservoir) Potential Assessment The economic utilisation of geothermal energy is extremely complex because geothermal systems are site-specific. The nature and quality of the resource vary...

Transmission of heat

Most heating systems involve the transport of sensible heat in a fluid or gas (such as water or air) through pipes or channels. Examples are the solar heating system illustrated in Fig. 4.21, the heat pump in Fig. 4.104 and the geothermal heating plants in Fig. 4.107. Solar heating systems and heat pumps may be used in a decentralised manner, with an individual system providing heat for a single building, but they may also be used on a community scale, with one installation providing heat for a building block, a factory complex, a whole village or a city of a certain size. Many combined heat and power (CHP) systems involve heat transmission through distances of 10-50 km (decentralised and centralised CHP plants). In some regions, pure heating plants are attached to a district heating grid.

National

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Clearinghouse (EREC) is offering info on Heat Pumps for homeowners interested in how a heat pump works, selecting and maintaining a heat pump, and innovations in heat pump technology. Also available is information on landscaping for energy efficiency. Contact EREC Phone 800-DOE-EREC (363-3732) mail EREC, PO Box 3048, Merrifield, VA 22116 e-mail energyinfo delphi.com TDD 800-2732957 BBS 800-273-2955. The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Building Technologies (OBT) through NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) is offering bulletins describing current research in heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) that is being conducted by OBT and its labs.The free bulletins are Thermally Activated Heat Pumps, which discusses efficient gas-fired heat pump technology that heats and cools buildings without producing CFCs. Also, HBCU Program at Tennessee Sate University discusses research in alternative refrigerants. Limited quantities of...

Info

Already been introduced into the market. Other appliances, such as refrigerators, freezers, heat pump water heaters and evaporative coolers, are also potential candidates for adjustable-speed controls. Most of the energy-saving potential of ASDs in the home is associated with the use of refrigerant compressors for cooling or heating (as in heat pumps, air conditioners, refrigerators, and freezers). In all of these applications, ASDs can reduce energy consumption by matching the speed of the compressor to the instantaneous thermal load. Given the assumed savings potential, the overall savings is about 15 of the sector's motor electricity. High-efficiency compressor and fan motors. The use of permanent-magnet and reluctance motors can increase the efficiency of the motor by 5 -15 , when compared with conventional squirrel-cage single-phase induction motors as noted above, even larger savings are possible with many small fan motors. Permanent-magnet AC motors are used in the latest...

G neqNoVrev

The dual of a fuel cell is an electrolyzer (Chapter 10). This is illustrated in Figure 9.21. A fuel cell may use hydrogen and oxygen, generating electricity and producing water and heat. The electrolyzer consumes water and electricity, producing hydrogen and oxygen. In the ideal case, the elec-trolyzer absorbs heat from the environment, acting as a heat pump. If there is insufficient heat flow from the environment to the electrolyzer, the electrolyzer will cool down.

Conversion of heat

Heat pumps The heat pump contains a compressor, which performs the step 7-5 in the Rankine cycle depicted in Fig. 4.3, and a nozzle, which performs step 2-9, whereas the intermediate steps are performed in the two heat exchangers, giving the working fluid the temperatures Tup and Tlow, respectively. The equations for determining these temperatures are of the form (4.99). There are four such equations, which must be supplemented by equations for the compressor and nozzle performance, in order to allow a determination of all the unknown temperatures indicated in Fig. 4.104, for given Tref, given load and a certain energy expenditure to the compressor. Losses in the compressor are in the form of heat, which in some cases can be credited to the load area. Figure 4.104. Schematic picture of heat pump. Figure 4.104. Schematic picture of heat pump. An indication of the departures from the Carnot limit of the coefficients of performance, h at pump, encountered in practice, is given in Fig....

Fold Here

The house uses conventional electric appliances with the exception of a gas range and clothes dryer. The walls are insulated Energy Wall with a rating of R-29.7. The ceilings are insulated at R-40. Domestic hot water is provided by an Energy Conservation Unit (ECU) on the heat pump with a freon reversing control for winter use.

Residential HVAC

Residential HVAC units using electricity are generally heat pumps, refrigeration systems, and electrical resistance heaters. Heaters range from electric furnace types, small radiant heaters, duct heaters, and strip or baseboard heaters to embedded floor or ceiling heating systems. Efficiency for heating is usually high because there are no stack or flue losses, and the heater transfers heat directly into the living space. Cooling systems range from window air conditioning to central refrigeration or heat pump systems. Evaporative coolers are also used in some climates. In general, the most efficient electric heating and cooling system is the heat pump. Common types are air-to-air heat pumps, either a single-package unit (similar to a window air conditioner), or a split system where the air handling equipment is inside the building and the compressor and related equipment are outdoors. Commercially available equipment demonstrates a wide range of efficiency. Heating performance is...

Current Production

Worldwide, geothermal electrical generating capacity is about 9,732 MW, between 24 countries,11 representing about 0.4 percent of the world total. An estimated 12,000 MW of additional geothermal power is employed in direct-use applications such as district heating and ground-source heat pumps.12

Hotspot Pool Design

The geothermal heat pump is much more efficient than other forms of nonrenewable energy heating. The geothermal system uses a standard forced-air circulation system to heat the house. Since the geothermal heat pump gets most of its heat (or cooling) from the relatively constant earth temperature, as opposed to the ambient air temperature, much less heat (cooling) is required from conventional energy sources, such as fossil fuels, wood, etc. Since the heat pump is installed indoors, not only does the system last longer, but it is also not exposed to the temperature (and humidity) variations that make it work harder. Econar Energy Systems Corp., Larry Wurtak, 19230 Evans St., Elk River, MN 55330 800-4EGDNAR or 612-241-3110 Fax 763-441-0909 lwurtak econar.com www.econar.com Geothermal heat pump

Acknowledgements

Technical reviews of early drafts of the report were provided by Don Cleland (Massey University, New Zealand), Mike Mongillo (IEA Geothermal Implementing Agreement), Mary-Rosa Valladares (Hydrogen Implementing Agreement), Stefan Nowak (IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Implementing Agreement), Jan Corfee-Morlot and Pierre-Jonathan Teasdale (OECD Environment Directorate), and Nigel Jollands and Tom Kerr (IEA, Sustainable Energy Policy and Technology Division). Tom Croskery and Geoff Wilkinson provided details for the Palmerston North case study analysis and Clay Charles, Three Rivers District Council (Rickmansworth) provided information on their ground source heat pump.

Policy options

Known as the Merton Rule after being first introduced by the London Borough of Merton in 2003, it is a prescriptive planning policy regulation that requires developers of all new buildings in the district to plan to generate at least 10 of their predicted future total annual energy demand (for heating, cooling and electrical appliances) using renewable energy equipment integrated into the building design or located on-site. Acceptable systems include solar PV panels, solar water heaters, ground source heat pumps (for heating and cooling space and heating water), and biomass from residues and energy crops. Energy arising from direct combustion or fermentation of domestic or industrial organic wastes is not permitted due to the possible problems of local pollution, odours etc. Renewable energy issues can be incorporated into a planning strategy for future development of a city, town or suburb by local regulations. Examples include orientating all new buildings for maximum solar gain in...

Overall systems

Free Energy From Air

Heat source systems (Chapter 9.2.1 and 9.2.2) and heat pumps (Chapter 9.2.3) are integrated into overall systems that enable the utilisation of ambient air or shallow geothermal heat as end and useful energy respectively. Therefore firstly typical system configurations for characteristic applications are described. Afterwards system aspects of such overall systems will be discussed. System configurations. In the following, a heating system with exhaust air heat recovery and exhaust-air to inlet-air heat pump, with a ground-coupled heat pump and a heat pump system for heating and cooling purposes will be introduced as typical overall system configurations. Heating systems with exhaust-air to inlet-air heat pump. Over the last few years, exhaust-air to inlet-air heat pumps have been especially developed for houses with a very low heating energy demand and controlled ventilation systems. Not only do they cover the entire demand for space heating energy by heating up the inlet air, but...