Referring to Figure 1 on Page 6, the Hydrogen/Oxygen Generator housing is a round cylinder constructed from high temperature CPVC pipe, a material widely used by the building industry in plumbing systems. CPVC pipe is durable and nearly indestructible. It's also a very "friendly" material in that it's easy to work with and can be used to fabricate other things such as furniture, planters, and housings for just about anything.
The Generator housing contains a coil and two cylindrical electrodes; used to generate both hydrogen and oxygen. Each is made from stainless steel and/or ceramic, also very durable materials. However, two atomically different forms of hydrogen are produced within the Generator. Most of the generated hydrogen is orthohydrogen, a very powerful and fast burning gas created by the two electrodes. A precisely controlled, high frequency electronic signal from the HyTronics Module activates and controls the electrodes.
The other form of hydrogen, Parahydrogen, is created by the coil, but in much less quantity than orthohydrogen. A precisely controlled, very low frequency electronic signal from a separate circuit within the HyTronics Module activates and controls the coil. Parahydrogen is a less powerful and slower burning gas, but is necessary to prevent pre-combustion (commonly called "knocking") within your engine. Parahydrogen slows the burning rate of the hydrogen mix, thus boosting its octane level. Such precise control allows you to exactly match your engine's octane requirements. To raise octane levels in gasoline, specific additives must be used to slow its burning rate. At best this is an inaccurate and inefficient method since it depends upon trying to average the octane requirements for millions of engines.
Technically speaking, the Hydrogen/Oxygen Generator itself is an electronic circuit. The two electrodes form a huge capacitor, thousands of times larger than capacitors used in typical circuits, with water acting as its dielectric. The inner electrode is negatively charged, and the outer electrode is positively charged, by the (H2O) frequency HyTronics signal. Chemically, each water molecule (H2O) is composed of two positively charged atoms of hydrogen and one negatively charged atom of oxygen. Since opposite charges attract, the positively charged hydrogen atoms are pu lled toward the inner electrode. But, at the same instant, the negatively charged oxygen atoms are pulled toward the outer electrode. This action aligns every water molecule between the electrodes, with the ends of each molecule being pulled in opposite directions.
For a few brief moment's only more accurate alignment and increased pulling action upon the water molecules occurs. But, the HyTronics signal pulses keep charging the water capacitor to higher and higher voltage levels; actually several thousand volts. Suddenly the electrical forces become so great that the water molecules burst apart (scientists call this action disassociation) into their gaseous forms of hydrogen and oxygen. If you were able to look into the Generator, this action would be obvious because of the formation of millions of tiny hydrogen and oxygen gas bubbles. As long as the HyTronics signal is applied, the water capacitor remains fully charged, continuously creating orthohydrogen and oxygen.
The Generator coil forms another electronic circuit. This is an inductive circuit, meaning it creates a magnetic field as opposed to the charged field created by the water capacitor. The very low frequency Hytronics signal (actually a short pulse) activates the magnetic field of the coil. As soon as the pulse stops, the magnetic field collapses. This creates an even stronger magnetic field, but a field of opposite polarity. That is how an inductive circuit works, an action commonly called "inductive kick." Each pulse is precisely timed so that almost immediately after the magnetic field reverses, another short pulse arrives. Once again the coil is charged and its magnetic field collapses. But now the continually reversing magnetic field becomes even stronger due to the added energy of each new pulse. Eventually (actually within just a few seconds) the coil reaches its maximum magnetic strength, called its saturation point, which is extremely high.
Most molecules are affected by magnetic fields. The coil's reversing magnetic fields vibrate the water molecules so severely that they disassociate into their gaseous forms of parahydrogen and oxygen. Disassociation obviously occurs, as evidenced by the creation of millions of tiny hydrogen and oxygen gas bubbles around the coil. But the manner in which I've described how it occurs is just one of many theories. Exactly how all this happens is unknown to science since nobody really understands the true nature of magnetism. To this day magnetic force remains a great mystery (as does the nature of gravity); it's there, but why or how is not known.
At this point, we've covered everything needed to understand the basic functioning of the Generator. Every other component of the HydroStar System is simply used to precisely control the action of the Generator. By varying the strength and frequency of the HyTronic signals, the rate at which hydrogen and oxygen are created can be varied to match engine requirements at any particular moment. Water is supplied by the tank and pump, while water level within the Generator is controlled by a level sensor and switch. For safety purposes, a relief valve protects against excess pressure buildup within the Generator. Separate ports are provided for attaching hoses to route gas to the engine and to a gauge to monitor gas pressure within the Generator. A Drain valve is installed to allow periodic flushing of accumulated minerals and contaminants. The bottom end cap is threaded so that the Generator can be opened up for inspection or repair and for occasional cleaning of the electrodes and coil. Two pairs of stainless steel rods ends protrude from the Generator body to provide electrical connection of the electrodes and coil to the HyTronics Module.
As shown in Figure 18 on pages 47 and 48, the Generator gas output hose connects to a flame arrestor which in turn connects to pressure fittings attached to the engine. The flame arrestor provides protection against combustion flashback into the Generator in the event that engine backfiring occurs. As with the Generator, the arrestor body is constructed from CPVC pipe. It's a simple unit using small diameter pipe, end caps with hose fittings, and stuffed with stainless steel wool. Pressure fitting kits are readily available at engine high-performance shops. Theyre designed for converting engines to run on propane, so are perfectly adaptable to the HydroStar System.
I recommend installing the Generator in the engine compartment. It can be installed just about anywhere you can find room in the vehicle, even in the trunk. But, everything is simplified by placing it near the engine since that minimizes routing of hoses, gauge lines, and electrical wiring.
Obviously this is the simplest part of the whole system. Just about any large container will hold water, but I'll recommend a particular tank when we get into the construction phase. There are endless ways to save a few bucks here and there while building the HydroStar, but I don't recommend cutting corners if quality is sacrificed. The entire system is designed to be highly reliable, so why take a chance on messing things up by going cheapo? For example, I recommend installing a water level sensor in the water tank so you can easily monitor water quantity, and sensors are relatively inexpensive. Otherwise you'll have to occasionally compare the miles you've driven versus the quantity of water; with all that based upon the MPG of water consumption. The other alternative is to check the water level fairly often, but someday you'd run the tank dry and wish you had spent the extra money for a sensor and indicator.
It's best to use a relatively large water tank of at least 5-10 gallons capacity, The tank ill be recommending hold:; 16 gallons and has translucent level markings, so it's easy to see Saow much water remains. The few extra gallon« of capacity take up very little space, but leaves a good reserve for driving Song distances, I recommend installing a &inch vent tube into the tank cap to prevent spillage from sloshing water. Because of size, the only practical ¡»cation for any tank is in tine trunk.
You'll also have to decide on pump location. If you list the self-priming pump I recommend, you can mount it in the engine compartment. If yotu don't use a self-priming pump, you'll have to mount the pump directly onto the tank, or close by, and at a level near the bottom of the tank, Also, if you don't use a self-priming pump, the water hose going -¿rem the pump to the Hydrogen/Oxygen Generator will have to be capable of withstanding at least 6-6 psi water pressure. That's the minimum recommended pump pressure capacity required to overcome maximum gas pressures of 65 psi within the Generator, with an additional I psi needed to activate the one-way valve installed on the Generator housing. Also, if you don't use a seGf-primer, you5Si have to run an extra power lead back to the trunk For the sake of simplicity mti reliability a selif-priming pump is the best way to go.
Referring to the following Figure 2; to permit easy moditorinj? of HydroStar functions, I recommend two gauges: Generator pressure (GEN PRESS) and engine cylinder head temperature (CHT). I also recommend four indicator Sights: GEN WATER LOW, PUMP ON, TANK WATER LOW, and PWR ON. These should be installed into your vehicle dash, or mounted in a nearby console.
GEN WATER LOW
0 TANK WATER LOW
Monitoring the GEN PRESS and CRT gauges allows you to develop a feel for now the system responds to various driving conditions. They can also be of help in tweaking the system to obtain maximum performance and economy.
The GEN WATER LOW light normally remains unlit. As fuel (water) is consumed, the Generator water level gradually drops until the GEN WATER LOW light illuminates. At that point the water pump should start pumping water, illuminating the PUMP ON light. When Generator water has risen back to its normal level, the GEN WATER LOW light should go back out. At the same time, the pump should stop running, turning out the PUMP ON light. So, under normal operating conditions, both lights should be illuminated at the same time, and both lights should go out at the same time. Any other light combination indicates a malfunction.
The TANK WATER LOW light illuminates when tank water level drops to its 1/3 full point, indicating that you should think about filling the tank before long. The PWR ON (Power ON) light should light; and remain lit, as long as the HydroStar System is operating normally. The signal for this light comes from the HyTronics Module. So, if the PWR ON light ever goes out (except when the system is intentionally tuned off), or becomes intermittent, the Hytronics Module is malfunctioning.
The HyTronics Module contains electronics circuits for controlling and/or providing power to all the HydroStar electrically operated devices. Separate circuits exist to perform each of the following functions:
. Provide power to the Generator electrodes in the form of a high frequency signal, creating orthohydrogen and oxygen.
. Provide power to the Generator coil in the form of a very low frequency signal, creating parahydrogen and oxygen.
. Control power to the water tank pump via signals received from the Generator water level sensor.
# Provide busing and terminal points for distributing power to system gauges, indicators, and sensors.
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