Background

My education, through the Ph.D., is in physics. I have served as a Professor of physics for four years, and for the past five years I have worked as a physicist for the Sperry Corporation in St. Paul, Minnesota. My current title is Senior Staff Scientist, and I am the manager of Sperry's Superconductive Electronics Technology Center. I have known Mr. Joseph Newman for five years. During this time I have tested most of the many prototype motors which he has constructed, and I have witnessed testing by other technical people. I have become familiar with Mr. Newman's theories and attitudes. I represent myself in this matter, and have never represented Sperry Corp. regarding Mr. Newman or his machine.

II. NEWMAN'S DEVICE

Newman's motors all consist of a very powerful permanent magnet which rotates or reciprocates within or near a coil consisting of a very large number of turns of copper wire. The coil is energized by a battery pack, and the magnetic field produced by the coil provides the torque or force required to rotate or reciprocate the permanent magnet. A mechanical commutator reverses the direction of current flow through the coil each half cycle, and in some models also chops the current input between current reversals. Technically, the motor may be described as a two pole, single phase, perma nent magnet armature, d.c. motor. The difference between Newman's design and the prior art is one of scale: very large magnet and very large coil. Newman's large motors contain conventional ceramic magnets weighing up to 700 pounds. His smaller motors use powerful rare earth mgnets. The coils typically are wound with more than 100,000 turns of copper wire. Since the coil resistance is therefore high, the machines operate on battery voltage which is sufficiently high (hundreds to thousands of volts).

The torque applied to the magnet in these motors is proportional to the product of the strength of the magnet, the number of turns of copper wire, and the current flowing through the wire. In Newman's machines extremely large torques can be developed with very small current inputs. If we scale up Newman's motor, it is theoretically possible to obtain infinite torques with infinitesimal current flow (and not violate any laws of physics). However, according to conventional thought, as soon as this magnet began to rotate, doing work against some load applied to its shaft, the back emf (electromotive force) produced by the rotating magnet would produce a back current which nearly cancels the input current, and the torque would be reduced to nearly zero. The magnet could not rotate, or would rotate extremely slow with the shaft power output less than the battery input.

Consider what has happened to conventional thought in the past when people have experimented with the limits of very high speeds (relativity), very small dimensions (quantum mechanics), very low temperatures (superconductivity and superfluidity). Newman's motors probe the limits of very large torque with very small current input. And they do rotate at relatively high rates. For example, witness Newman's latest prototype (on demonstration following this hearing today in an auditorium in this building), which runs on 0.0008 amps at 3000 volts and turns a 16-inch fan blade at more than 500 r.p.m. How much torque can this motor produce? Try to stop the motor by holding the two-inch daimeter shaft. This will not be possible for a normal human, although the motor will never draw more than 0.003 amps or nine watts. This motor is a scale model of a motor which Newman intends to build to power an automobile.

Newman's motors are unconventional in other ways. One notices the flourescent tubes which are placed across the motor coil. These tubes are lit by the coil's collapsing magnetic field occuring when the battery voltage is switched. They are used to protect the mechanical switch from damage due to arcing. The additional power produced in these tubes (and flowing through the system) occurs at very high frequencies, primarily in the range of ten to twenty million cycles per second. This r.f. (ratio frequency) current has been accurately measured, and exceeds the battery input current by factor of five to ten in the various motors. One of Newman's motors was monitored with a computerized high-speed data sampling system, with the following results:

(1) The r.f. appears in bursts, with the repeat time between approximately equal to the length of the motor winding divided by the speed of light in copper. The r.f. bursts showed little attenuation during their travel through the coil, maintaining their shape and amplitude.

(2) The r.f. current and voltage were in phase, representing the real power.

(3) The r.f! current and voltage wave-forms were offset from ground, indicating a net d.c. component.

net d.c. component.

(4) The net r.f. power at the battery pack represented a negative power which exceeded the d.c. input power from the batteries.

The last statement may explain why Newman has been able to demonstrate the charging of dry cell batteries placed in his system. Battery failure has occurred through internal shorts which develop within the batteries rather than by depletion of the energy stored within the batteries. When you witness the demonstration of Newman's latest prototype, if you attend the demonstration following his hearing, bear in mind that the batteries will last many times longer than expected for a drain of 0.0008 amps. A prominent battery company is working with Newman to develop batteries which will stand up to the r.f. power levels, and perhaps last even longer.

Newman's motor design is based on his theory of gyroscopic particles which he explains in his book "The Energy Machine of Joseph Newman." Full utilization of his machine will require a detailed mathematical representation of the phenomena based on a thorough understanding of the atomic processes at work. This will require a parallel program of experimentation using the finest resources available. Application programs have already been conceived (for example, the car motor), and will require prototyping and manufacturing efforts. Newman should be immediately awarded a patent and become recognized in the scientific community for his accomplishments to date.

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