d) Trombly-/Kahn-"N" Machine
The Trombly/-Kahn "N" Machine represents a new and improved version of classic *'N" machine types. It is a departure from the past machines since it utilizes rotating electromagnets along with the central-''disc" rotating component.
The improved operation of the Trombly/-Kahn "N" Machine is achieved by providing a low reluctance magnetic return path for the magnetic flux that passes through the central rotor-(disc) component. This low reluctance return path permits the electromagnets to produce a high electrical field with a relatively small input current. Since the input current is low, overheating is avoided and the full potential of the homopolar generator is achieved.
The low reluctance magnetic return path is preferrably produced by providing a relatively high permeability co-rotating enclosure (having enclosure halves) of sufficient radial and axial dimensions to enclose the electromagnets and disc conductor of the rotor. The disc conductor is preferrably constructed from a high permeability, low resistivity material such as iron, and can be integral with the electromagnetic cores.
An International Patent has been issued on this present art which is listed as:-X02K31/00, and fully describes the details and specifics of the new type of "N" machine.
In the summary of this Patent, it is stated that this present invention provides a co-rotating homopolar generator that avoids the heating problems of prior machines and renders possible and convenient the generation of electricity at extremely high efficiency. The generator has a rotor comprising a disk conductor and co-rotating co-axial electromagnets on either side. The present invention achieves the improved operation by providing a low reluctance magnetic return path for the magnetic flux that passes through the disk conductor.
The low reluctance path permits the electromagnets to produce a high field-(limited to 2.2 Teslas by the saturation of iron) with a relatively low value of coil excitation current. Thus overheating is avoided and the full potential of the homopolar generator is achieved.
In the preferred embodiment, the low reluctance magnetic return path is provided by a relatively high permeability co-rotating enclosure,-(designated a "flux return enclosure") of sufficient radial and axial size to enclose the magnets and disk conductor of the rotor. Additionally, the disk conductor itself is preferrably constructed from a high permeability low resistivity material such as silicon iron, and can indeed be integral with the electromagnet cores.
Output power is drawn between the periphery of the disk conductor (within the flux return enclosure) and the rotor shaft through fixed disk and shaft brushes. The disk brush protrudes through an annular slot in the flux return enclosure, and is geometrically configured so as not to add a large amount of reluctance to the flux return path. To this end, the disk brush is formed with a relatively thin web portion that passes through the enclosure gap. The web portion still has sufficient thickness so that the mechanical strength of the brush is not compromised. Moreover, the web portion has sufficient thickness, and' hence conductance, that the saving in magnet power is not offset by excessive ohmic heating in the web portion.
A quote from Bruce DePalma about this latest Trombly/-Kahn "N" Machine, :-"Trombly and Kahn are two of the brightest young physicists in America today." "Their work is of the very highest quality and is described in the subject Patent and report."
Bruce DePalma believes that this new "N" Machine can be enlarged to handle more current by the application of a liquid metal brush system, such as he employs in his "N" Machine project work.
e) Bruce DePalma DePalma Institute, Santa Barbara, California
Although the concept of the "N" machine is not new, having been based on Faraday's disc of 1831, various researchers, including Bruce DePalma have made continuous performance improvements on these machines.
It was Michael Faraday who first rotated a copper disc between poles of a horseshoe permanent magnet and discovered that a voltage is produced between the central shaft and the outer edge of the disc. The disc has become known as the Faraday Homopolar-Disc generator, and the EMF is drawn off by brushes in contact with the shaft and outer disc edge.
The "N" machine basiclly consists of a high speed cylindrical permanent magnet from which electrical current (positive charge) with the circuit connection with brushes made in the same manner as the Homopolar Disc generators. These electrical generating units have been the first and simpliest machines which exhibit an over-unity output, but only at very high speed levels of approximately 7000 rpm, and higher.
The "N" machines produce a uniform wattage flow at low voltage high current, which is a useful feature for many power applications. The requirement for the peripherial brush contacts has been, and to some extent remains a problem for these units due to the extremely high surface contact velocities.
Bruce DePalma has been active in evolving solutions to the various problems of the "N" machines, including the safeguarding against bursting of the rotating magnet at high speeds. One of his machines is essentailly a hybrid design,
CLOSED PATH - HOMOPOLAR GENERATOR TROMBLY-KAHN-"N" MACHINE
21-Shaft SeaB Assembly 27-Shaft End Bearing 30-Central Disk Conductor 32, A, B=Electromagnet Coils
35,A,B-Iron Cores 37,A,B-F1ux Return Enclosure 40-Electrically Isolated Shaft Portion 42-Magnet Excitation Power Supply 45-Magnet Brushes
VI. The "N" Machines which features a Faraday copper disc combined with central ring magnets as the negative pole component. This machine ran at 7000 rpm, and above, producing an over-unity output.
One of the earlier problems with "N" machines has been the low-friction transfer of the high current from the high speed rotor through brushes of some special type. Liquid metals, such as Mercury have been used as the stationary current transfer means, but since Mercury is both costly and toxic in use, some 4 'N" machine researchers prefer not to use it.
f) Tom Valone Integrity Electronics & Research, Buffalo, N.Y., 14221
Tom Valone has been actively involved in the continuing research and development of "N" Machines for many years, and has contributed to their improvement and acceptance. Like Bruce DePalma, Tom Valone believes in the value and advantages of the liquid brush system, and is currently using liquid solder for this prototype units.
From Tom Valone, June, 1985:-''In the field of non-conventional energy generators, the one-piece Homopolar of Faraday Generator has kindled a lot of attention. Ever since 1831, the rotating magnet and disc combination has defied complete analysis because of its operation totally within a non-inertial reference frame.
Conventional physics has attempted to come to terms with its operation, but anomalies still seem to remain.
A few physicists have recognized that its basis is relativistic, as can be seen by analyzing the polarization (electrical) set up by a moving body in a magnetic field. (Special Relativity). However without restrictions on mafcs and rotational speed, the only valid physical treatment seems to lie in the generally-covariant form af Maxwell's equations which can be applied in a non-inertial reference frame, (General Relativity). Einstein comes the closest to answering the questions about Faraday's Generator, by some still remain.T.V., 6/85.
Tom Valone's book, "The One-Piece Faraday Generator: Theory and Experiment" is available from:- Integrity Electronics & Research,-558 Breckenridge Street, Buffalo, New York 14222. 17.00 p.p.
VII. MOTOR/GENERATOR UNITS & SYSTEMS, a) Raymond Kromrey - Switzerland (1968)
The electric generator (U.S. Pat. No. 3,374,376) has been designed to negate the effects of back-EMF within the field windings of generators by the application of special arrangement of fieldipermanent magnets and an armature consisting of two series-connected coils.
The unit operates as a conventional, but opposed, two pole generator since the permanent rrragnetspoles are reversed at either end of the stator. The armature is thus demagnetized and remagnetized successively as it is revolved within framework bearings, with resulting reversal of polarity-and an A.C. output.
When the output circuit is open, the mechanical energy applied to the rotor/armature is converted into the work of magnetization, and when the circuit is closed, part of this work is converted into electrical energy as the current flowing through the windings opposes the magnetizing action of the field and increases the magnetic reluctance of the armature.
This above action, when joined with the flywheel effect provided by a coupled flywheel explains why the speed of this generator remains substantially unchanged when the output circuit is either opened or closed. As the armature approaches its position of alignment with the gap, the constant magnetic field exisitng there-across tends to accelerate the rotation of the armature relative to the pole pieces, thereby aiding the applied driving torque; the opposite action, ie: a retarding effect occurs after the armature passes through its aligned position. As the rotor attains a certain speed, however, the flywheel effect of its mass overcomes these fluctuations in the total applied torque so that a smooth rotation ensues.
The magnetic flux path includes two axially spaced magnetic fields traversing the rotor axis sustantially at right angles, these fields being generated by respective pole pairs co-operating with two axially spaced armatures of the character described. It will be generally convenient to arrange the two armatures in a common axial plane, the two field producing pole pairs being similarly co-planar.
The armatures are preferrably of the laminated type to minimize the flow of eddy currents therein, thus, they may consist, in essence, of highly permeable (eg: soft iron)) sheets whose principal dimension is perpendicular to the rotor axis. If the ferromagnetic elements are part of the rotor, the output circuit will include the usual current-collecting means, such as slip rings or commutator segments, according to whether alternating or direct current is desired. The source of coercive force in the stator includes, advantageously, a pair of oppositely disposed yoke-shaped magnets, of the permanent or the electrically energized type, whose extremities constitute the aforementioned pole pieces. If electromagnets are used in the magnetic circuit, they may be energerized by an external source or by direct current from the output circuit of the generator itself.
In summation, the converter consists of an input drive motor which is directly coupled to this special type of generator which continues to run under load when the generator is short circuited. In general, the converter can be described as a single-phase motor-generator with a powerful permanent magnet stator and a rotor core of soft iron.
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It seems like the efforts to find the best alternative energy sources are seriously being looked into by lots of countries including most US cities. One proof is the signing of the Kyoto Treaty. The main aim of the concerned group and individuals is to lessen the greenhouse gases and pollutants.