Without ft ME

Scientist Declares He Can Ap-■"' ply Atmospheric Current , Without Motive Force. • •

WAS SIMPLE'--. DISCOVERY

Scnor Clemente Pigucras,-Engineer, of Canary Isles, Invcn-tor.of the Method. .(<;v ;

The KcRAt.O Enrop*an edition publlataea th« followinff from ^ta correipondent:—

Lokoçk, . Uond&y.V A 'moat remarkable clalm/tha genulnenoto of which It 1» aa yet lmpoaalble-to teat. uri a. cable despatch pub-.

(it La.» Tâlmtr corraaTpondent, ha«' been Tnade by" Be (Vor ClemwHe Flro«raa.îJEn*lneer of Wood» «fli Fores to In the Canary lalanda, ' for many y rar» 'proieaaor of phyaloa at Bt. Auiuatlna'a

It seem« that tor many year»be haa been working stier.t'.y at a meihpd of directly uti-Jit'.ng atmoapherlfc tltctrJcliy—that!» lo »ay, without chtmloaiu'or iynafnoa—and maVln* a practical applloailon of It without the b»ed of employln* any »otlva force '«»

A um rrv'alatlon might rob htm of hla r*-ward. ana sven nowi while ha claJraa to hava aucceeded, bala tllant oonoernlng thaaiact principle» of "t»i* Äiacovary. «• 'j

He aanerta, however.' ne ha* Invented a jrenerator by." w)»lch-he can collect electrlo nuia 10 II to he able to atore It and apply It for Infinite •purpoaa«—for ' lD*tanee. tn connection with shops,-railway* hnd manufacture*. '

He aaya'he e*p«ct* It* effect will-be a tre-menrtou* economic and Induatrla) revolution. He will not five the her to the Invention, but deolare* that the only extraordinary point about It If that It ha» takan ao lone to dlarover a «Impie artentlftr fart. >

1U Intend* ahortly »olrijr to Madrid and Berlin to patent hi* Invention«.

In addition to the Blacovery. the Dally Mali any« that, acoordltir to letter* received In l^ndon from hla friand* In Ten*rlff*\ Brftor TJiruera* bao conavruf texl a rou»h apparatus hy which, ân aille of IIa «mall aise and defect*, he obtain* a current of r-to volta, which ht Vtlllae« in hla 6wn hoti*e for Nfht-Inr purpoaet an<J flrlTln* • motor of twenty boref powrr. f-" r'' '. • • • • V i '

'Hl* ;lnvant»on* Jeoanprlae h , fan erat or. ■ a tnntor aflO a »ffrt'or.irovernot or regulator, the «whole »pparatu»-balnt ao *Uf»pla .that a

Page 200 from the June 1900 Century article is reproduced below. Tesla once called this article the most important that he wrote. The "novel facts" citation mentioned in the letter is found in the first column, next to the last paragraph, first sentence.2 Discussion of the "novel facts" just precedes the article's subsection dealing with a "'Self-Acting' Machine...Capable...of Deriving Energy From the Medium."

thj: century magazine.

lions show, villi the approach let Da- center at the rate of approximately ]r V. for even-hundred feet of depth. The difficulties of sinking shifts and placing boilers at depths of, say, twelve thousand feet, corresponding loan increase in temperatureofabout 120'C., are not insuperable, and we could certainly avail ourselves in this wayof the inlernalheat of the globe. In fact, it would not be necessary to go to any depth at all in order to derive energy from the stored terrestrial heat. The superficial layers of the earth and the air strata close to the same are at a temperature sufficiently high to evaporate some extremely volatile substances, which we might use in our boilers instead of water. There is no doubt that a vessel might be propelled on the ocean by an engine driven by such a volatile fluid, no other energy being used but the heat abstracted from the water. But the amount of power which could be\J'tained in this manner would be, without further provision. very small.

Electricity produced by natural causes is another source of energy which might be rendered available. Lightning discharges involve gTeat amounts of electrical energy, which we could utilize by transforming and storing it. Some years ago 1 made known a method of electrical transformation which renders the first part of this tasl: easy, but the storing of the energy of lightning discharges will be difficult to accomplish. It is well known, furthermore, that electric currents circulate constantly through the earth, and that there exists between the earth and any air Etratum a difference of electrical pressure, which vary; in proportion to the height. B

I r. recent experiments I have discovered two novel facts of importance in this connection. One of these facts is that an electric current is generated in a wire extending from the ground to a great height by the axial, and probably also by the translator)-, movement of the earth. No appreciable current, however, will flow continuously in the wire unless the electricity is allowed to leak out into the air. Its escape is greatly facilitated by providing at the elevated end of the wire a conducting terminal of great surface, with many sharp edge? or points. We are thus enabled to get a continuous supply of electrical energy by merely supporting a wire at a height, but, unfortunately, the amount of electricity which con be so obtained is small.

The second fart which I have ascertained is that the upper air strata are permanently charged with elcclritity opposite to that of the earth. So. at least, 1 have interpreted my observations, from v. hid. it appean-that the earth, wit!, its adjacent insulating and outer conducting er,velo|, constitutes a highly charged electrical condenser-containing. in all probability, a great amount of electrical energy v.hid rr.igl.t be turned to the uses of man, if it were possible to reach with a wire to great altitudes.

It is possible, and even probable, that there will be, in time, other resources of energy opened up, of which we have no knowledge now. We may even find ways of applying forces such as magnetism or gravity for driving machinery without using any other means. Such realizations, though highly improbable, are not impossible. An example will best convey an idea of what we can hope to attain and what we can never attain. Imagine a disk of some homogeneous material turned perfectly true and arranged to turn in frictionless bearings or.- a horizontal shaft above the ground. Tiii.- disk. bcir.g under the above conditions perfectly balanced, would rest in any position. Now, it is possible that we may learn how u> makt such a disk rotate continuously and perform work by the force of gravity without any further effort on our part; but it is perfectly impossible for the disk to turn and to do work without any. force from the outside. If it could do so, it would be what is designated scientifically as a " perpetu jm mobile." a marine creatingils own motive power. Toir.ake the disk rotate by the forceof gravity we have only to invent a screen against this force. By such a screen we coulc prevent this force from acting on one half of the disk, and the rotation of the latter would fc-liow. At least, we cannot deny such a possibility ur.til we know exactly the nature of the force of gravity. Suppose that this force were due to a movement comparable to that of a stream of air passing from above toward the center of the earth. The effect of such a stream upon both halves of the disk vcuh: be equal, and the latter would not rotate ordinarily; but if one half should be guarded by a plate arresting the movement, the), it would turn.

a nnrai:Tf»;i; n:oy known y.in»ifi!.>—j-os-snuufy or a "elkf-a^im;*" engist c>j:

machint, inanimate, yn (.'A i'ai'.l.j", i.i k t.

a living m:in<:, or waiving enemy fi:om tiii: Mrnu m —thi: ileal way or

OltTAlNJNV. MOTIVE IoWI I:.

When 1 began the investir: tioii of the subject under consideration, ai.'l vl.cn the preceding or similar ideas pre.-er.ted themselves

Century, June 1900, p. 200.

A careful examination of the article reveals the inventor believed his design for an electrical generator which is its own prime mover, that is, does not "consume any fuel," would not violate the energy conservation principle. Tesla believed, rather, that his design transformed one form of energy into another.

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