The climate

In the preceding subsections, the state of the atmosphere and the ocean-continent system has been described in terms of a finite set of state variables, such as temperature, pressure, salinity, moisture content of soil or air, ozone content, CO2 content, etc. In addition, the motion of matter is described in terms of a velocity field, and the Earth-atmosphere system interacts with its surroundings through the exchange of radiation. The incoming radiation may at first be considered to constitute a fixed boundary condition, whereas the outgoing radiation may adjust itself as a result of the equations governing the system, i.e. the equations of motion, the rate equations for chemical processes, as well as the equations describing physical processes other than particle motion (e.g. the absorption and scattering of light).

Figure 2.81a,b. Observed surface temperatures (in K at height 1000 mb) for January (above) and April (below) of 1995 (NCEP-NCAR, 1998).
Figure 2.81c,d. Observed surface temperatures (in K at height 1000 mb) for July (above) and October (below) of 1995 (NCEP-NCAR, 1998).

Figure 2.82. Annual and longitude average of calculated energy fluxes (in W m-2) through a vertical column extending from the surface of the Earth downwards: net radiation, Esrad, net sensible energy flux, Essens, net latent energy flux, Eslat, and net flux into the column, Fd, taken as the upward flux into the top ocean level of the joint ocean-atmosphere model, from deeper lying ocean levels (based on Wetherald and Manabe, 1972).

Figure 2.82. Annual and longitude average of calculated energy fluxes (in W m-2) through a vertical column extending from the surface of the Earth downwards: net radiation, Esrad, net sensible energy flux, Essens, net latent energy flux, Eslat, and net flux into the column, Fd, taken as the upward flux into the top ocean level of the joint ocean-atmosphere model, from deeper lying ocean levels (based on Wetherald and Manabe, 1972).

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