In some cases AC holds no practical advantage over DC. In applications where electricity is used to dissipate energy in the form of heat, the polarity or direction of current is irrelevant. However, with AC it is possible to build electric generators, motors and power distribution systems that are far more efficient or flexible than with DC, and so AC is used predominately across the world in high power applications. Section 4.2 provides information on how AC is generated through a rotating mechanical-electrical energy converter.
The relative simplicity of AC generators and motors translates into greater reliability and lower cost of manufacture. There is, however, an additional very important advantage of AC over DC. If there are two mutually inductive coils and one coil is energized with AC, an AC voltage will be created in the adjacent coil. This device is known as a transformer and its mode of operation is described in some detail in Section 4.3 . The fundamental significance of a transformer is its ability to step voltage up or down from the powered coil to the unpow-ered coil. As explained in Section 1.4 of Chapter 1. the transformer's ability gives AC an advantage unmatched by DC in the realm of power transmission and distribution.
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Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.