Vv sin at

respectively, where V and I are the peak values and < and d are phase angles with respect to a reference sinusoid.

90 degrees B

-90 degrees A

180 degrees

Waveforms Phasors

Figure A.11 Phasor representation of AC quantities

Figure A.13 Addition of AC voltages

If two AC voltages are added together by being connected in series as in Figure A.13, their voltage magnitudes do not directly add or subtract as with scalar voltages in DC. Instead, these voltages are complex quantities, and just like the above phasors, which add up in a trigonometric fashion, an 8 volt source at 0 ° added to a 6 volt source at 90 ° (both RMS) results in 10 volts at a phase angle of 36.86

The property of phasors that, although stationary on a page, enables them to represent AC time varying sinusoidal quantities is of inestimable value in the calculation of power flows in complex AC circuits containing voltage sources and combinations of R, L and C elements.

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Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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