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High in the Canadian Rockies

Paul Craig & Robert Mathews

©1992 Paul Craig & Robert Mathews

The Canadian Rockies offer some of the world's most spectacular outdoor experiences: deep powder skiing, alpine hiking, and incredible glacier views. The Purcell Lodge is deep in these Canadian Rockies, near the town of Golden, British Columbia, four miles beyond the nearest (logging) road. Every piece of equipment, all supplies, and the guests are brought in by helicopter. Out here light, heat, and appliances made possible by the lodge's 12 kilowatt hydroelectric system are well appreciated.

A Canadian Classic Hydro System

The electricity generation system uses what has become, in Canada, a "classic" hydro setup with a high head, small pipe, and Pelton wheel turbine. Turbine speed regulation is accomplished by electrically loading the generator to maintain frequency. The location was selected to provide year-round water. Fortunately an insulating cover layer of snow always arrives before ground-freezing weather. Even though the snow season can last six months, there have been no problems with frozen pipes.

The intake weir (head pond, see photo) is a concrete wall in a largely bedrock location that provides a small impoundment basin. The pond stills the flow, allowing heavy debris to settle and light debris to float. The intake pipe is submerged at half-depth and screened. The pond also contains a submersible pump for domestic water.

The penstock is 1440 feet of 4 inch diameter solvent-welded PVC pipe, with pressure rating increasing from 63 pounds per square inch (psi) at the intake to 160 psi at the turbine. Total head is 315 feet and maximum flow is 220 U.S. gallons per minute. The penstock is buried 18 inches, and anchored with concrete and bolts at critical points.

The 8 inch diameter Pelton turbine was built by IPD of Montana. When spinning at 1800 rpm, the wheel moves at 46% of the jet speed at the point of contact. (At 41% to 47% of jet speed, Pelton wheels are most efficient.) The main nozzle is manually adjustable through a spear-type valve. Maximum nozzle diameter is 13/16 inch.

The generator is a Fidelity brushless design rated at 12 kilowatts at 1800 rpm. Maximum power output was initially limited by the available flow to 7 kilowatts. During the fall of 1992, the water supply system was modified to provide the full 12 kilowatt output. Friction loss in the penstock is about 8% at 7 kilowatts, and the turbine-generator converts the water energy reaching it with 56% efficiency. Output is 120/240 volt, 60 hertz single phase ac electricity. The generator is direct-driven from the Pelton wheel. A flywheel maintains speed under high starting loads from induction motors, and provides general stabilization.

To decrease energy loss and save wire costs, the voltage is transformed up to 600 volts for the 1750 foot run from the power house to the lodge. At the lodge, a second transformer provides 120/240 volt output. Two #6 AWG (American Wire Gauge) RWU copper conductors are mechanically protected by a 1 inch poly pipe and placed under the 4 inch PVC penstock to provide further mechanical protection. Transmission power loss is 2.5% at 7 kilowatt output.

Control by Prioritized Loads

Primary load control in the Purcell system is perhaps the most interesting part of the system. The Lodge uses an Electronic Load Control Governor (ELCG) manufactured by Thomson and Howe Energy Systems. It's easiest to understand this regulator by contrasting it to more traditional control approaches. Solar systems are usually limited by energy. Design focuses on minimizing load, and on turning off loads when not needed. Hydro plants are traditionally controlled by regulating water flow as load varies. Not so in the Purcell environment. Here as in many modern microhydro situations, the water runs whether used for electricity generation or not. Since water is not trapped in a dam, the ecology of the stream is less impacted by this type of hydro system. But, if electricity is not generated, the energy in the falling water is lost.

This makes possible a very different type of regulation, based on using all available water, while switching on and off priority loads to maintain a constant overall load. The more the electrical loading, the slower the turbine and generator run. Since the generator frequency is directly proportional to rotational speed, control of frequency

Without site-produced electricity, modern living in such a remote location would be impossible. Photo by Paul Lesson

Below Left: The eight inch hydroelectric pelton turbine (painted silver), flywheel (painted red) and 12 kilowatt generator (painted yellow). The Fidelity brushless generator produces 60 Hz, 120/240 volt single phase alternating current, and is regulated by a Thompson & Howe controller. Photo by Bob Mathews

Below Right: Intake weir and top of 1440 foot long penstock which feeds water into the turbine. Total head is 315 feet and maximum flow is 220 U.S. gallons per minute. Photo by Bob Mathews

Inlet

Circuit Breaker 6G A 24G V

17GG ft 6GG V

12G/24GV 6GHz @ IBGGrpm 12 kW Generator

Transformer 24G/6GGV 15 kVA

#6 AWG RWU #6 AWG bare Both in poly conduit

12GV freq guard

| flywhee|

| flywhee|

pelton

jet deflector solenoid

Isuzu Diesel

12G/24GV 6GHz 16.4 kW Generator

Transformer 6GG/12G-24G V 15 kVA

12GV 24GV

Powerhouse

Lodge

12G ft to lodge

Isuzu Diesel

12G/24GV 6GHz 16.4 kW Generator c

Aerators 120 V (high priority step load)

Solid State Relay

"1

Circuit Breaker 6G A 24G V

Circuit Breaker 15 A12GV

Sewage/ diesel shed

DC control wire

(shielded)

Other Step Loads: •Water pumping •Cooler •Freezer •Dishwasher •Furnace fans •Washer/dryer

To Lodge Loads (highest priority)

To Clothes Washers (lowest priority)

To Lodge Loads (highest priority)

To Clothes Washers (lowest priority)

To baseboard heat

Volts Amps Amps

III"

manual transfer DPDT 50 Amps

24GV

24GV

t24GV

A Triacs B

A2 Governor

DC "bell" wire (indoors)

automatically provides speed regulation. A rise in frequency means that more load is needed to slow down the generator. A drop in frequency means load must be shed.

The lodge load is broken down into a number of circuits. The highest priority circuits, especially those that are safety related and those (such as lights) needed to maintain guest satisfaction, are wired directly to the generator service panel and are not under governor control at all. Lower priority services are connected to the ELCG. Eight circuits are currently in use. These are ranked by priority, with sewage aeration and water pumping followed by refrigerators, freezers, furnace fans, and the dish and clothes washers.

Coarse & Fine Control

Coarse regulation is provided by load shedding. For example, if the water system — a high priority function — turns on, a refrigerator or freezer might be temporarily shut off. Coarse control necessarily leads to large and fast changes in system loading. Without additional control this would lead to unacceptably large frequency (and hence turbine speed) swings. Here's where the ELCG proves its merit. Load swings are virtually eliminated by continuous, rapid control of resistive loads such as baseboard heaters and hot water tank heating elements.

For this fine control, the ELCG uses triac regulators to smoothly change the power delivered to resistive loads, increasing as other load drops, and decreasing as other load picks up. If the ELCG senses the frequency is rising, it knows that a load is being shed (perhaps someone turned off a light), and increases power to the resistive load. If frequency drops, the ELCG smoothly sheds resistive load. In operation the system is almost unnoticeable. The only indication is occasional slight dimming of lights when a large motor starts up. (But of course this occurs with utility power too).

If the load increase is too great to handle with the resistive load alone, the ELCG throws a relay to drop the lowest priority load connected. As load decreases again, the highest priority non-connected load is reconnected. There is a special circuit to keep track of and slowly correct for short-term excursions from 60 Hz due to extreme conditions, so that clocks will keep proper time. Maximum frequency correction is kept to 0.1 Hz.

The wave form from the generator is excellent for all purposes. However, the switching triacs introduce considerable waveform distortion in the power going to their loads. Resistive balancing loads, such as hot water heaters and baseboard heaters, are used which are indifferent to waveform. It is important to assure that the system always has enough load available to maintain frequency. To accomplish this, priority loads and the resistive regulating loads must be connected at all times.

Any regulation system based on the concept of loading is vulnerable to open circuits, which would lead to system runaway. Failsafe emergency protection is required. This is located adjacent to the generator. A mechanically interconnected water jet deflector safety system is actuated by a weighted lever. The turbine is shut down by a frequency guard sensor if frequency deviations become too wide (typically outside the range 53-67 Hz) for too long. The weighted control lever is held up by a normally energized solenoid which releases on power failure.

Heat, Biodegradable Soap, and Solar Radios

Although the building is heavily insulated, auxiliary heat is needed in winter. Since the available water flow doesn't provide enough energy to heat the building under extreme conditions, propane is used for backup. Because the lodge is above timberline, firewood must be helicoptered in. Sewage is handled with a small biotreater plant. Treated waste goes to a carefully monitored leach field. To minimize loads on the facility, biodegradable products are used exclusively. Guests are asked to use the biodegradable soap and shampoo provided, rather than any they may have brought.

At Purcell Lodge reliable communications can mean the difference between life and death. A radio repeater on a nearby mountain provides complete coverage between the lodge and the skiing and hiking parties, and the base at the airport in Golden, BC. The repeater is powered by a deep cycle battery and a solar charger.

The Purcell Lodge system has operated without major problems since startup. The system provides pollution free, clean and reliable power in a location where commercial power is not an option. To the visitor, the years of careful planning and the extensive use of high technology are virtually invisible. Without them the rare combination of comfort and wilderness provided at Purcell Lodge would have been impossible.

Access

Authors: Paul P. Craig, College of Engineering, University of California, Davis 95616 • 916-752-1782 and Robert Mathews, Appropriate Energy Systems, Box 1270, Chase, BC V0E 1M0, Canada • 604-679-8350

Purcell Lodge: Russ Younger and Paul Leeson, ABC Wilderness Adventures Ltd., PO Box 1829, Golden, BC, Canada • 604-344-2639 • FAX 604-344-6118

Hydro controllers: Thomson and Howe Energy Systems Site 17, Box 2, SSI, BC, V1A 2Y5, Canada • 604-427-4326

Brushless generators: Fidelity Electric Co, Inc. 328 N Arch St, Lancaster PA 17604

REAL GOODS#1 camera ready 1/4 page

ELECTRON CONNECTION camera ready full page four color

Photovoltaics

Above: Home Power's "Democracy Rack" where just about every available PV module gets tested in real world conditions.

Photo by Mark Newell.

PV Performance Tests the Home Power Crew

Ever wonder exactly how much power a cold PV module makes? We have. We placed just about every make module widely available on our "Democracy Rack", out in the sun. Then we measured their electrical output, temperature, and solar insolation. Here is what we found.

The Test Jig & Procedure

See Home Power #23, page 20 for a complete rundown of our PV module test jig and procedure. Here's what we do in a nutshell. The diagram to the right shows our basic PB module test jig.

This test jig allows us to take actual data from each module. With four Fluke 87 DMMs we measure the following data: module voltage, module current, module temperature, air

Home Power's PV Test Jig

[ 00.6)

DMM

<2>

measuring module temperature

[ 0.64j

DMM

0

measuring current

oooo

/ Pyranometer

C H

0

\

• • mm

DMM measuring sunshine

Carrizo ARCO 16-2000

Carrizo ARCO 16-2000

Rated

Measured

Percent

Value

Value

of Rated

Isc

2.55

2.07

81.2%

Amperes

Voc

20.50

18.79

91.7%

Volts

Pmax

35.00

30.64

87.5%

Watts

Vpmax

15.50

15.02

96.9%

Volts

Ipmax

2.26

2.04

90.3%

Amperes

PV Temp

25

18

71.6%

°C.

Insolation

100

107

107.0%

m2 p s1

16 Volts

16 Volts

Carrizo - ARCO M52 QuadLam

Carrizo - ARCO M52 QuadLam

Rated Value

Measured Value

Percent of Rated

Amperes

Isc

6.00

6.59

109.8%

Voc

25.00

27.07

108.3%

Volts

Pmax

105.00

126.82

120.8%

Watts

Vpmax

19.00

21.35

112.4%

Volts

Ipmax

5.50

5.94

108.0%

Amperes

PVTemp

25

23

91.2%

°C.

Insolation

100

106

106.0%

mW/sq. cm.

Kyocera -

-A361K5 Rated Value

Measured Value

Percent of Rated

Amperes

Isc

3.25

3.42

105.2%

Voc

21.20

21.56

101.7%

Volts

Pmax

51.00

50.05

98.1%

Watts

Vpmax

16.90

15.99

94.6%

Volts

Ipmax

3.02

3.13

103.6%

Amperes

PV Temp

25

22

87.6%

°C.

Insolation

100

113

113.0%

mW/sq. cm.

Siemens -

M55 Rated Value

Measured Value

Percent of Rated

Amperes

Isc

3.35

3.44

102.7%

Voc

21.70

21.19

97.6%

Volts

Pmax

53.00

56.13

105.9%

Watts

Vpmax

17.40

16.27

93.5%

Volts

Ipmax

3.05

3.45

113.1%

Amperes

PV Temp

25

20

78.0%

°C.

Insolation

100

112

112.0%

12 13 14 15 16 17

18 Volts

19 20 21 22 23 24

Kyocera - LA361K51

16 Volts

Siemens - M55

20

16 Volts

16 Volts

Solarex - MSX-60

Solarex - MSX-60

Rated

Measured

Percent

Value

Value

of Rated

Isc

S.S6

S.S5

99.7%

Amperes

Voc

21.10

20.11

95.S%

Volts

Pmax

5S.90

5S.05

90.1%

Watts

Vpmax

17.10

15.79

92.S%

Volts

Ipmax

S.50

S.S6

96.0%

Amperes

PV Temp

25

1S

7S.6%

°C.

Insolation

100

111

111.0%

mW/sq. cm.

16 Volts

16 Volts

Solec S50

Solec S50

Rated

Measured

Percent

Value

Value

of Rated

Isc

S.SO

S.SO

100.0%

Amperes

Voc

20.S0

20.46

100.S%

Volts

Pmax

50.00

47.71

95.4%

Watts

Vpmax

17.00

16.S4

96.1%

Volts

Ipmax

S.00

2.92

97.S%

Amperes

PV Temp

25

19

76.0%

°C.

Insolation

100

110

110.0%

Solec S50

Volts

Volts

Sovonics R-100

Sovonics R-100

Rated

Measured

Percent

Value

Value

of Rated

Isc

2.74

2.52

92.0%

Amperes

Voc

25.00

19.64

7S.6%

Volts

Pmax

S7.00

21.77

5S.S%

Watts

Vpmax

17.20

1S.44

7S.1%

Volts

Ipmax

2.10

1.62

77.1%

Amperes

PV Temp

25

19

76.0%

°C.

Insolation

100

99

99.0%

Volts

Volts

Uni-Solar UPM SS0

Rated

Measured

Percent

Value

Value

of Rated

Isc

1.S0

1.74

96.7%

Amperes

Voc

22.00

21.59

9S.1%

Volts

Pmax

22.00

21.S1

99.1%

Watts

Vpmax

15.60

15.69

100.6%

Volts

Ipmax

1.40

1.S9

99.S%

Amperes

PV Temp

25

19

76.0%

°C.

Insolation

100

111

111.0%

Uni-Solar UPM SS0

Volts

Volts

temperature, and solar insolation. The DMM measuring voltage is connected directly to the module's terminals. The DMM measuring module current uses a shunt (10 Amp., 100 milliVolt, 0.1% accuracy). A Fluke 80T-150U temperature probe measures both module temperature and air temperature. A Li-Cor 200SB pyranometer measures insolation. This data was taken at Agate Flat, Oregon (42° 01' 02" N. 122° 23' 19" W.) at an altitude of 3,320 feet. The date of this test was 12 January 1993.

All modules are mounted on the same 12 foot by 12 foot rack, i.e. they are in the same plane. This assures equal access to sunlight. All modules were measured with the same instruments in the same places. Ambient air temperature was 0.2°C (32.3°F) to 3.7°C (38.7°F) with a slight breeze blowing. The ground was covered by two to three feet of snow. We froze our butts off getting this data!

The Photovoltaic Players

Most of these modules have had their performance measured by us during the summer of 1991. We reported on their hot weather performance in Home Power #24, page 26. What follows here is winter testing of the same six different brands of modules modules, with two new brands added. All modules are listed alphabetically.

Carrizo ARCO 16-2000

This is a 9.5 year old ARCO 16-2000 module we purchased on the open market. It has 33 series connected, single crystal, round PV cells. We've had this module out in the sun for the last 1.5 years.

Carrizo ARCO M52 "Gold" QuadLam

This is a set of four ARCO M52 laminates wired in series to make a single QuadLam module. This 8.5 year old module was supplied for testing by Mike Elliston of Carrizo Solar. The resulting module of four laminates contains 48 series connected cells and a total cell count of 144. The PV cells used to make these laminates are 3.75 inches square and are single crystal types. We've had this module out in the sun for the last 1.5 years.

Kyocera K51

We tested a K51 Kyocera module that we purchased new on the open market. This module contains 36 series connected square multicrystal PV cells. We've had this module out in the sun for the last 1.5 years.

Siemens M55

We tested a M55 Siemens module sent to us new by its maker. This is a current production, single-crystal, PV module. This module contains 36 series connected square PV cells. We've had this module out in the sun for the last 1.5 years.

Solarex MSX-60

We tested a 1.5 year old, MSX-60 Solarex module that we purchased new on the open market. The performance data of this multicrystal module is printed on its back. This data is the result of flash-testing of this specific module, not a "generic" rating like almost every other module. After flash-testing, a computer prints a label with the data for that specific module. This module contains 36 series connected square PV cells. We've had this module out in the sun for the last 1.5 years.

Solec S50

The Solec S50 is a single crystal silicon module with 36 series connected square cells. This S50 was purchased retail and has been out in the sun for six months. This is an older model module and was made six years ago.

Sovonics R-100

This is an amorphous silicon module supplied by Nick Pietrangelo of Harding Energy Systems. We've had this module out in the sun for the last 3.5 years.

Uni-Solar UPM 880

This is a model UPM-880 amorphous silicon module sent to us by United Solar. This module is brand new and had only seen sunshine for three weeks before this test.

The Data

We are content to let the data speak for itself. We used manufacturer's ratings at a 25°C module temperature. In the comparison tables, the maker's performance specification is listed in the column called "Rated Value." Our measured data is in the column labeled "Measured Value." The column called "Percent of Rated" compares our measured results with the maker's ratings. The solar insolation data from the Li-Cor Pyranometer is accurate. At Agate Flat, we often have solar insolation as high as 115 milliWatts per square centimeter.

Conclusions

The modules that have remained on the rack for the last eighteen months show no significant performance degradation. The cold temperature has increased the performance of all the repeat tests. Coming up this summer, another hot weather test of all the modules on Home Power's "Democracy Rack."

Access

Author: Richard Perez. Intrepid PV Testers: Chris Greacen, Mark Newell, Therese Peffer, Richard Perez, and Amanda Potter, c/o Home Power, POB 520, Ashland, OR 97520 • 916-475-3179

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PV Module J-Boxes & Mounting

Mark Newell and Richard Perez

From a user's standpoint, mounting and wiring a photovoltaic (PV) module means dealing with the module's framework and junction box (J-Box). From a dealer/installer's standpoint, they practically live inside J-Boxes. Every make of PV module is different. We decided to photograph, measure, and evaluate the mounting requirements and junction boxes of the most commonly available modules.

Mounting Dimensions and Requirements

The table lists the physical dimensions of virtually every available module. Also included on the table are the dimensions between the module's mounting holes and the diameter of the mounting holes. Some modules offer many holes for mounting, some only offer four. Specific module physical differences will be covered under the description of each module. All dimensions given here are from our actual measurements. There are bound to be minor and insignificant variations between the information on this chart and manufacturers' specifications.

J-Boxes

After you rack 'em and stack 'em, it's time to wire 'em up. This means getting into the module's junction box and making efficient, long-lasting electrical connections. Each J-Box is different. Some are roomy enough to hold four to eight USE insulated #10 gauge wires, some are not. Some offer massive, high pressure, mechanical connections, others are more wimpy. Some require tools for entry, some do not. Some offer strain-relief for wires, some do not. Some are ready for conduit installation, some are not.

Covered in the table are various categories. The category "Positive & negative in one box?" indicates if both the modules positive and negative output are located in the same junction box. In some PV modules, such as the Siemens and ARCO modules, there are two junction boxes on each module, one for positive and one for negative. These boxes are located on opposite ends of the module's backside. The category "J-Box entrance tool" tells what type of tool is required to secure entrance into the module's junction box. The category "Terminal tool" tells what type of tool is required to make the electrical connections within the junction box and "Terminal type" describes the type of terminal found in the J-Box. The category "Connector type" describes the type of electrical connectors, if any, that the connections inside the J-Box are designed to accept. The "Width", "Height", "Depth" and "Volume" refer to the interior dimensions of that J-Box. The category "Roominess" indicates the actual working volume within the box. Consider that a "big" box will allow wiring six to eight #10 gauge wires with USE insulation and "huge", up to ten. A box rated "comfy" will accept four #10 gauge wires with USE insulation. A J-Box rated "Tight" will accept two #10 gauge wires with USE insulation. The category "Conduit Ready?" indicates if the

PV MODULE PHYSICAL DATA PV MODULE MOUNTING HOLE DIMENSIONS

Module

Module

Width

Length

Depth

Module

Module

Module

Dia.

Holes (see diagram)

#

maker

model

inches

inches

inches

area

maker

model

inches

A

B

C

D

E

holes

ARCO

16-2000

12.0

48.0

1.5

576.0

ARCO

16-2000

0.25

47.0

11.3

4

ARCO

M51

12.0

48.0

1.5

576.0

ARCO

M51

0.31

11.5

47.0

26.0

10.1

8

Carrizo

M52

12.0

48.0

1.5

576.0

Carrizo

M52

0.25

47.0

11.3

4

Kyocera

J51

17.5

38.8

1.4

678.1

Kyocera

J51

0.25

36.6

18.3

16.0

6

Kyocera

K51

17.5

38.8

1.4

678.1

Kyocera

K51

0.25

36.6

18.3

16.0

6

Siemens

M55

12.9

50.8

1.3

653.7

Siemens

M55

0.25

12.2

49.8

26.3

11.3

8

Solarex

MSX-60

19.8

43.6

2.0

861.6

Solarex

MSX-60

0.31

9.3

42.3

24.0

18.4

8

Solec

S50

13.0

50.8

1.5

659.8

Solec

S50

screw

50.3

8.5

4

UniSolar

UPM-880

13.5

47.0

1.1

634.5

UniSolar

UPM-880

0.25

11.3

45.1

22.8

22.8

13.0

10

JUNCTION BOX STUFF

PV Module Maker

PV Module Model

in one box?

JBox entrance tool

Terminal tool

Terminal type

Connector

Width inches

Height inches

Depth inches

Volume cu. in.

Roominess

Conduit ready?

JBox distance to side

ARCO

16-2000

no

none

flat screw

post

#8 ring

NA

NA

NA

NA

tight

no

1.G

ARCO

M51

yes

none

flat screw

post

#8 ring

round

5.3

1.3

27.G

huge

yes-S

2.4

Carrizo

M52

no

#2 Phillips

3/8" nut

bar

#8 ring

2.3

3.8

0.8

6.B

comfy

yes-2

1.S

Kyocera

J51

yes

none

#2 Phillips

post

#8 ring

round

3.5

1.3

12.6

big

yes-4

5.5

Kyocera

K51

yes

#2 Phillips

#2 Phillips

post

#8 ring

2.4

3.8

0.8

7.2

big

yes-2

1.G

Midway

Tracker

yes

flat screw

flat screw

bar

#8 ring

6.0

6.0

4.0

144.G

huge

yes-1

NA

Siemens

M55

no

flat screw

flat screw

clamp

none

1.8

1.8

0.8

2.5

tight

no

2.4

Solarex

MSX-60

yes

flat screw

flat screw

bar. strip

#8 spade

3.0

4.6

1.3

17.S

big

yes-4

G.S

Solec

S50

yes

flat screw

3/8" nut

post

#6 ring

2.8

2.8

1.0

7.6

comfy

no

2.5

UniSolar

UPM-880

yes

#2 Phillips

flat screw

bar

none

3.0

5.3

0.8

12.B

comfy

no

S.1

J-Box is designed to accept, and if so how many, either plastic or metal wiring conduits.

There are two elements in a long lasting, low resistance, low voltage, mechanical connection. The first element is large contact surface area. The second element is high contact pressure. All the J-Boxes surveyed here have the ability to make a good connection, if the installer does his part. The installer must solder the wires to their connectors. The installer must ensure that the connectors are tightly fastened to the mounting points inside the J-Box.

All of the J-Boxes surveyed here are made of plastic, with the exception of the Midway Labs tracker which is metal. When working with metal screws in plastic, be careful not to over-tighten the screw and strip the threads from the plastic. The place for forceful tightening is the electrical connections within the box, not on the box's lid.

While the table gives you much specific information about each module's J-Box, the dimensions alone don't tell the entire tale.

PV Module Mounting Hole Dimensions Key

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