Radio in the early years was called "wireless telegraphy." Beginning around the year 1913, amateur wireless telegraph stations were set up in trees and housetops. Aerials and masts dotted the countryside. It is estimated that there was almost "a quarter of a million stations." They were used to send and receive wireless telegraph signals, not voice. Vacuum tubes were not yet widely known. These stations had to rely on spark gaps.
It was the energy spikes, or surges put out by the spark-gap transmitters that first caught T. H. Moray's attention back in 1903. In 1909 Moray devised a circuit that would draw electricity from these surges of energy that traveled through the ground. By the fall of 1910 he obtained enough electrical energy from the ground to power a miniature arc lamp. During the Christmas holidays of 1911 he was able to power an old type 16-candle carbon arc lamp at about half of its brightness.
In 1912 while Henry Moray was on mission with the Mormon Church in Uppsala, Sweden, his passion for crystal radios got him started in his research in the science of radiant energy. Every spare moment he searched for a mineral that could possibly work as a radio detector. Moray had found two specimens that worked well as radio detectors. The material found in the hillside could have very well been a type of argenti-zinciferrous-galena. This type of galena is highly sensitive to radio waves that allowed his receiver to function without a battery. I make this assumption because a galena type synthetic formula can be found in Moray's Electrotherapeutic Apparatus -U.S. Patent No. 2,460,707. This material using only the power transmitted from a local wireless station could drive a small horn speaker as reported by Moray.
The other detector material was a white, powdery, stone-like material that he found in a railway car, located in Abisko, Sweden. From military records we know for certain that this white material was "fused silica." Silica is the chemical name for the simple oxide of silicon, silicon dioxide (SiO4). Mineralogists call this compound quartz. This is normally found in nature in its crystalline form. Finding this mineral in a fused state can only mean one thing. That, what Moray found was metamict quartz. A metamict is a crystalline mineral that loses its crystal structure due to radioactive destruction. For this to occur the quartz had to have contained trace amounts of uranium and/or thorium, which is why it was found in a "fused" state, in a more or less amorphous state, the so-called metamict state, owing to radiation damage from a-decay of these impurities. "Over the course of hundreds of millions of years, a-decay doses as high as 1019 decays/g can occur, which may lead to the complete amorphization"(1) of the quartz structure.
Moray's rare mineral find became known as the "Swedish stone." He was able to light a standard 100-watt General Electric light bulb in June of 1925 with this Swedish stone. By August 1925 he was able power an electric flat iron along with the 100-watt bulb. Therefore, bringing the total power consumed to 655 watts. People would quite often demand that he would draw too much power from his device and the white, stone-like material would overheat and burn up.
A problem of drawing power from telegraph stations appeared when the Federal Radio Commission on Nov. 11, 1928 limited the amount that could be transmitted. The transmitted frequency also had to be well defined. Spark-gap transmitters simply could not meet these requirements. Scores of spark gap driven telegraph stations had to be dismantled and in effect had been given death sentences. This spelled disaster for Moray. He could still draw energy from the background radio noise produced by the great cosmos but the amount of power that he could obtain was severely limited. Originally, Moray's source of power was drawn from the local spark gap radio transmitting stations through the ground. Moray could draw power from the radio frequencies generated by nature but unfortunately only very low power could be had from this source. This forced Moray to develop a more favorable detector material. It was not too long before he got the inspiration to add radioactive dopants to his Swedish stone material and to other types of semiconductive materials. This occurred shortly after the Radio Allocation Act of 1928 when Moray's detectors were no longer able to receive steady incoming power. His Radiant Energy receiver could produce power but it only came in regular pulses. It was not constant without the added radioactive material. The addition of radioactive dopants to semiconductors allowed his receiver to produce a steady flow of energy.
Professor Langley showed that out of the total amount of radiation coming from the Sun, only the visible portion of the spectrum represents only 19%. He presented the theory that there is only one kind of energy radiated from sunlight. That, heat, and chemical effects depend entirely upon the state or condition which radiant energy may happen to fall on matter.
Professor Langley wrote that up until 1872 it was almost universally believed that there were three different kinds of entities-actinic, luminous, and thermal, represented in the spectrum. There is only one radiant energy that appears to us as 'actinic,' or 'luminous,' or 'thermal' radiation, according to the way we observe it. Heat and light, therefore, can not be things in themselves, but separate sensations to our bodily sensors. They are merely effects of this mysterious thing called "radiant energy."
The Italian physicist Melloni stated that, "light is merely a series of caloric indications sensible to the organs of sight, or vice versa, the radiation of obscure heat are veritable invisible radiation of light." Melloni wrote this in 1843, but it was not adopted until Langley by his elaborate researches, more refined and complex, proved it. The great physicists of society then adopted the doctrine of one radiant energy.
Only a few researchers know the immediate effect of radiant energy: electromagnetic. The results of two centuries of observation all point to this conclusion. When a mighty tongue of white-hot matter darts across the abyss of a large spot or cavern on the Sun, the equilibrium of the Earth's magnetic field is disturbed and the effect is a magnetic storm. The needles of magnetographs throughout the world quiver and oscillate. The vibrations take place on opposite sides of our planet, the impulse passes from the Sun to the side nearest of the Earth and then to the most distant side, whether through or around the Planet's surface.
After centuries of investigation from Gilbert to Tesla, this most wonderful research still holds admiration and mystery for all that study this vast science; electrodynamics. Power is cut out of the seemingly emptiness of space, and the hurrying waves are caught and chained to servitude in artificial light and electric appliances. The Sun, being electromagnetic, emits waves that carry power, which beat and surge against the Earth. A magnetic field is space that surrounds a magnet. This space might be filled with air, wood, stone, glass, or might be a vacuum. But the waves are not quenched. They flow through all of these things. A freely suspended magnet in a magnetic field will move, and the Earth's surface is surrounded by a magnetic field, that is acted upon by the Sun's magnetic field. Suspend a sewing needle by a silk fiber in the Earth's magnetic field and it will come to rest parallel to the field's north and south poles. Now, if this field becomes disturbed, that is; if it becomes stronger or weaker, the needle will move. This is a magnetic storm. When a gas jet is hurled across a spot on the Sun the disturbance reaches the Earth in the same time that light does. So, radiance traveling at 186,000 miles per second is reaching the Earth in eight minutes and nineteen seconds.
The most memorable magnetic storm occurred on November 17, 1882. This was one of the most violent recorded. The daily press was burdened with accounts of widespread magnetic disturbance. In some places telegraphic communication was suspended. The turbulence filled that great quadrilateral from New York to Yankton, Nashville and Winnipeg. In Milwaukee, the carbons in the electric lamps were lighted, rendered incandescent by currents of electricity flowing on the wires. At other locations, switchboards in telegraph offices were set on fire and sending keys were melted, while electric balls were seen hovering on the telegraph lines in Nebraska.
The Earth's aurora holds the key to harnessing the Sun's daily pulsation. An aurora is the visible effect of obscure undulations from the Sun, as they come dashing on the Earth with a speed of 186,000 miles per second. In a six-month winter, say at the North Pole of the Earth, the Sun is far south of the equator, and none of its rays can shine on the Earth's northern pole. However, the aurora is very bright. It displays many colors, and these flash and glow with rapid variations. The light, although caused by the Sun, does not come direct. It is caused by the turbulence set up in the Earth's magnetic field by electromagnetic upheaval on the Sun. The field of the Earth is "tuned" with the Sun's field, as was the coherer in the days of wireless telegraphy and telephony. The aurora is known to be electrical, for magnets and compass needles on ships are always affected. Could the coherer of the days of old teach us something new?
No magnet can be placed near a "current" of electricity, or a static charge without making an oscillation. Every oscillation sends out a wave, like a stone falling in water. An electromagnetic wave from the Sun disturbs the Earth's magnetic field in the same way that an induction coil used in wireless telegraphy does. The Earth and coherer are both doing the same thing with the same kind of electromagnetic waves. The coherer in a distant receiving station will react to natural electromagnetic wave fronts from the Sun. It will likewise react to the artificial wave fronts coming from the induction coil. The electromagnetic wave makes the loose particles of metal between the knobs in the glass tube coherer generate dots and dashes.
Making a device "oscillate with the oscillations of the Universe" may not be too far off the mark in obtaining energy. Perhaps a radon-powered diode (ion valve) will act as a one way gate to this energy? This type of specialized diode offers zero resistance to electrical current. It is also an ion gate that can function in the million-volt range. Today's state of the art high voltage diodes will not meet our requirement. This is because as more are added in series the greater the electrical resistance becomes. I believe that Moray's Swedish stone met our requirements utilizing only a trace amount of radon generating material.
Moray found that semiconductive materials doped with radioactive impurities have an increased sensitivity. One such satisfactory formula included a triboluminescent zinc mixture consisting of pure zinc sulfide, radioactive impurities and pure germanium metal. He also found that "artificial radiation" could be used in place of the radioactive impurities. For example, by exposing bismuth to wavelengths of energy emitted from one of his unique vacuum tubes, he was able to create "active bismuth," today known as Polonium-210. This is what Moray called "artificial radiation." When added to the zinc sulfide, it would glow a bluish-green. When this glowing material was then doped into ultra-pure germanium it made an excellent emitter of secondary electrons. This synthetic substance was called "fission material" by Moray. This transistor type material is said to be superior even to what is available today.
"The Moray germanium mixture gives certain unique results in functioning as in a valve and or booster (amplifier). Made in form of rounded stones or pellets compressed under high pressure and fused. Combination contains radium chloride, thorium, uranium, and pure germanium metal-triboluminescent zinc. Some pellets fastened to envelop with pure tin in place of solder. Bismuth pellets fused to side. Germanium mixture pellets float between other pellets but making firm, needlepoint-like contact. Have used silicon too, which has some of the properties of germanium. Germanium works best when impurities are introduced. Care must be taken when alloyed with other substances, as too much other mixture added worsens conductivity and germanium loses its properties." * T.H. Moray, 5th edition, The Sea of Energy in Which the Earth Floats (1978), p. 71.
I had often asked myself: what ever became of Moray's radiant energy tubes? Wouldn't it be nice to run some tests on them? These questions have been put to rest because these very tubes are now in my possession. It was communicated to me that the widow of T. H. Moray gave these tubes and his notebook to a man named Stan Mahurin. This man knew Moray and his wife quite well.
Mr. Mahurin passed the tubes onto a close friend because he had no clue as to their function but insisted on keeping the notebook. The next owner of the tubes had no clue either. These tubes remained in storage for over twenty-five years. I was contacted because of my passion for Radiant Energy research and was given the opportunity to purchase them. I promptly replied and have had the honor to inspect them first hand. Upon inspection of these tubes there does not appear to be any radioactive material in them. However, this does not mean that it was never in the tubes. Moray stated that he was using what he called "artificial radiation." From his notes we know that he created this artificial radioactive material by attracting radon gas to a metal by giving it a negative charge. We also know that radon decays to lead-210, a beta emitter with a half-life of around 22 years. This would mean that Moray's source of induced radioactive material would eventually burn itself out. This would explain why Moray did not have a running prototype in his later years.
My own research is now nearly complete. My next project is to build a radiant energy generator that will demonstrate a few hundred watts of excess power above what the circuits require to be self-sustaining. The final step will be for me to develop a commercial unit for general use. Through this millennium edition of my book, the shroud of mystery surrounding this old source of energy may now be lifted.
1) Miami University, Herbert Jaeger Physics
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