Make Money in the Recycling Business
Members of the European association PV CYCLE have signed a joint Declaration committing them to set up a voluntary collection and recycling scheme for end-of-life photovoltaic modules. The declaration is supported by the French Presidency of the European Union and by the European Commissioner for the Environment. Jean-Louis Borloo, Minister for Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and Spatial Planning commented 'It is for the first time that an industry organizes itself on a voluntary basis at European level to ensure the collection and recycling of its products and this with extremely ambitious targets.' Meanwhile, Stavros Dimas, European Commissioner for Environment declared 'I welcome the intention of the photovoltaic industry to commit to set up a voluntary system for the collection and recycling of photovoltaic panels and look forward to seeing the outcome of this proposal with high ambition levels.'
Intuitively, high populations of specific animals would be expected to offer the greatest opportunity to serve as sources of waste biomass because waste generation is maximized. Because of the relationship of waste productivity and animal size, this is not always the case as will be shown here. Domestic farm animals and those confined to feedlots are appropriate choices. In addition, commercial poultry production systems, some of which have bird populations over 200,000, would be expected to provide large accumulations of manures in one location. The animals that produce large, localized quantities of excreta are cattle, hogs and pigs, sheep and lambs, and poultry. U.S. populations of these animals in the mid-1990s, the estimated total, annual manure production for each species, and the human population equivalents in terms of solid waste generation are shown in Table 5.2. Several observations can be derived from
The Humanure Handbook is subtitled A Guide To Composting Human Manure (Emphasizing Minimum Technology and Maximum Hygienic Safety) . This book delivers a frank and sometimes humorous discussion of how we can close the nutrient cycle by safely composting the bi-products of our own digestive processes. This self-published book springs from the author's belief that millions of people in developing countries can benefit from hygienic recycling of all their organic refuse including humanure.
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The use of liquid biofuels could provide several benefits to the United States. Foremost would be an added measure of energy security by increasing energy self-sufficiency and substantially lessening dependence on foreign oil. The reduction of imports could result in an annual balance-of-payments savings of up to 100 billion while creating a domestic biofuels industry that would provide jobs, economic growth, additional tax revenue, and a potential export market. Additionally, liquid fuels from biomass can benefit the environment by recycling rather than adding C02 to the atmosphere, making biofuels a desirable option for reducing the impact of potential global warming. Expanded use of biomass in other applications would have similar effects in improving the environment and, to he extent imported petroleum is effectively replaced, in improving energy security and the balance of payments.
The reason for the Earth recycling all of her material parts can be explained by looking again at Fig. 2.5. The Earth is powered by the sun's radiation that crosses the outer boundary of her atmosphere and reaches her surface. The Earth can export into outer space long-wave infrared radiation.15 But, because of her size, the Earth holds on to all mass of all chemical elements, except perhaps for hydrogen. By maintaining an oxygen-rich atmosphere, life has managed to prevent the airborne hydrogen from escaping Earth's gravity by reacting it back to water (and destroying ozone). In a mature ecosystem, one species' waste must be another species' food and no net waste is ever created, see Fig. 2.9. The little imperfections in the Earth's surface recycling programs have resulted in the burial of a remarkably tiny fraction of plant carbon in swamps, lakes, and shallow coastal waters16, see Fig. 2.15. Very rarely the violent anoxic events would kill most of life in the oceanic waters and...
According to current knowledge extensive recycling of solar modules is possible. For instance, extensive recycling of glass components is possible with only little effort. For the recycling of the other module components, by contrast, highly sophisticated chemical separation processes are required. Amorphous frameless modules are best suited for recycling, as they may be transferred to hollow glass recycling without any pre-treatment. Possible recycling methods suitable for classic photovoltaic modules include acid separation of solar wafers from the bond, transfer of frameless modules into ferrosilicon suitable for steel production, as well as complete separation of the modules into glass, metals and silicon wafers 6-37 . Yet, cadmium tellurium (CdTe) and CIS technologies need to be further assessed in order to determine whether their heavy metal content precludes or requires further processing 6-42 . The ensuing environmental effects largely correspond to the...
For a number of raw materials, methods exist or could be developed for recycling, i.e. using discarded production goods as a resource basis rather than materials extracted from the natural surroundings. This would seem of obvious advantage if the concentration of the desired material is higher in the scrap material than in available natural deposits and if the collection and extraction costs for the recycled material are lower than the extraction and transportation costs for the new natural resource. A question to be raised in this connection is whether it might be advantageous to base the decisions on recycling not on instantaneous costs of recycling versus new resource extraction, but instead on the present value cost of using either method for an extended period of time (e.g. the planning horizon discussed earlier). The recycling decision would not have to be taken in advance if the scrap resources are kept for later use, waiting for the process to be profitable. However, in many...
Biomass is a term that includes all energy materials that emanate from biological sources, whether they are wood or wood wastes, residue of wood-processing industries, food industry waste products, sewage or municipal solid waste (MSW), herbaceous or other biological materials cultivated as energy crops, or other biological materials. (For descriptive purposes of this white paper, biofules are liquid fuels produced from biomass feedstocks.) Biomass is a major current and prospective source of energy. The key feature of the biomass technology is recycling of the carbon in the biological processes. Unlike the burning of fossil fuels, combustion of biomass merely recycles the carbon fixed by photosynthesis in the growth phase. The use of biomass or biofuels as a source of energy for space heating, process heat, electricity production, transportation fuels, or as an intermediate gaseous fuel is attractive not only for economic reasons (where the fuel is readily available at low cost), but...
Numerous methods have been tested, demonstrated, and commercialized for the separation and purification of the organic liquids produced by natural biochemical processes. As already discussed, some biomass species produce organic liquids that can be collected over a period of time without harvesting or destroying the plant simply by tapping as for copaiba oil, or in the case of microalgae, by skimming the microalgal oil from the water surface after the algal cells are disrupted. Most natural hydrocarbon separation processes, however, involve biomass size reduction, drying, solvent extraction, and separation of the extracted products from the solvent, the recovery and recycling of which is important to minimize costs. Physical separation of the liquids by treatment in extrusion devices or presses is often used for seed-oil separation. Some processes use several solvents for fractionating the different liquid and solid components in the biomass. Depending on the composition and...
The important operating parameters are the composition, physical form, and energy content of the substrate the inoculum source and activity the feeding frequency and rate of nutrient and substrate addition to the digester the hydraulic and solids retention times (HRT and SRT) within the digester the pH, temperature, and mixing rate within the digester the gas removal rate and the amount and type of recycling. Numerous studies have been conducted on how these parameters affect methane production rate and yield, substrate reduction, volatile acid formation, gas composition, energy recovery, and steady-state operation. Reactor configuration and design also influence the performance of the process. Many modifications of these processes are used. An example is the anaerobic contact process in which digested biosolids are separated for recycling from the digester effluent. Generally, in a well-operated, balanced digester, the organic material fed to the digester will yield biogas at about...
Since carbohydrates are water soluble and the expected products have lower solubility in aqueous phase, the use of water-soluble catalysts for hydrogenation offers the possibility of facile product separation and catalyst recycling.7 When sucrose (0.6 mol l) was dissolved in an aqueous solution of sulfuric acid (1.8 mol l) and treated with hydrogen (85 bar) at 140 C for 4 h in the presence of an in situ-generated Ru
The environmental impacts of thin film PV are minimal and in general, PV is emission-free. Some impacts may b e expected during system manufacture and issues exist for polycrystalline thin film systems in terms of ultimat e disposal recycling. These issues are very minor compared to fuel-based energy production and are adequately addressed in References 3-13. (Reference 13 is a bibliography of 94 sources on PV environment, safety, and healt h issues.) There are some issues specific to compound semiconductors such as those found in polycrystalline thin films. Those are also covered in the same references, where 'cradle-to-cradle' recycling schemes have been outlined for ke y materials (see also below). For example, U.S. cadmium telluride (CdTe) companies have announced recycling an d product 'take-back' strategies 14 .
2.49 Historically, woodcutting has fuelled domestic or industrial stoves and has provided the raw material for products such as charcoal and other processed or semi-processed wood fuels. In the developed world the use of wood in this way has been largely abandoned in favour of other forms of energy, and forestry is now primarily directed towards the production of timber and paper pulp. The demand for paper pulp in the UK is decreasing as recycling increases, and the demand for construction timber from UK forests has also decreased consequently the availability of wood for fuel has increased. Added to this, large amounts of Britain's forests were planted in the 1960s and 1970s and will soon be reaching maturity without a clear market for the wood.
In developing the Obligation, a key caveat was that any additional cost should be set at an acceptable level for the consumer. For too many families and individuals in the country, fuel poverty continues to be a very real problem and we were simply unwilling to let our environmental objectives override their particular needs. By the same token, we were reluctant to create excessive additional costs for the industrial and commercial users. These concerns were the impetus for introducing the Buy Out Price mechanism. While some initially argued that the Buy Out would provide an 'easy way out' for those suppliers with a disinclination to support renewables, the concept of recycling those payments to competitors was introduced as a further incentive to supply.
Chemical products from fossil hydrocarbons are the primary cause of our current waste problem. Breaking synthetic compounds back down into their component molecules is either impossible, or the procedure is complicated and costly. This drastically reduces the scope for recycling, as these substances either do not degrade naturally, or do so only slowly, and so must either be buried or burnt, with woeful environmental consequences. Chemical products produced from plants, however, are not only recycled by nature itself, but their combustion does not release harmful pollutants. This greatly reduces the scale of the waste problem. In addition, people will find waste easier and cheaper to manage. In place of the waste separation regimes in force in Germany and other countries, rubbish will be reduced to two simple categories easily recyclable metal waste and organic refuse. Recycling of waste itself thus becomes an integral component of a renewable energy system. This stands in stark...
- When operating the engine as an ignition oil Diesel engine, the NOx concentration in the exhaust gas is similar to that of a normal Diesel engine. But the CO concentration behaves differently at partial load operation the CO concentration increases for X 2. The reaction from CO to CO2 occurs so slowly that a large part of the burned intermediate product CO reaches the exhaust pipe. Therefore, ignition oil Diesel engines should be preferably used for operation under full load. A low CO concentration could be reached only by recycling exhaust gases, so that the engine is run at X 1.9.
Are very similar to those for coal production and combustion. At present land costs (e.g., 2,000 acre in Illinois for prime farmland), the land portion of cost is less than 1 of PV system costs. It is unlikely that land constraints (siting or cost) will become a limiting factor in the United States for the foreseeable future. PV systems can be put on rooftops or can use land without competing uses (i.e., deserts and land with no water access), as well as submarginal croplands or rangeland. Materials availability is also not a constraint because the amounts of semiconductor material used in the PV cell are small or because the materials are as common in nature as sand. PV's small requirements for semiconductor material can be best understood via a comparison with nuclear power191. For a breeder reactor with 50 fuel recycling, 1 g of uranium produces about 4 MWh of electricity. For a thin-film module (layers of 0.3 to 1 im thickness), there are about 2 g of semiconductor for each square...
Since the total terrestrial gross primary production is presently 7.6 X 1013 W (Odum, 1972), and the net primary production may amount to about half this value, it is clear that a large fraction of the evapotranspiration (6.7 X 1016 kg water per year according to Fig. 2.61) over land is due to plants. Accordingly, a substantial increase in terrestrial plant production would have to involve increased recycling of water on timescales shorter than one year. One might consider achieving this by artificial irrigation, using some of the water run-off from land areas (3.9 X 1016 kg water per year according to Fig. 2.61). However, it is seen from Fig. 2.94 that about 70 of the water diverted to food crops is not immediately returned to the run-off streams. In view of the many other important functions performed by the rivers and streams responsible for the run-off, this suggests that there may be little room for expanding terrestrial biomass production on a world-wide scale, if freshwater...
(1) MINIMIZE WATER USE The less water pumped, the less energy consumed. Low-flush toilets can cut domestic water use in half. (The Eljer Ultra-One one-gallon model is available nationwide.) Keep hot water lines short. Consider waste-water recycling. Consider drip irrigation to make extra-efficient use of water. Use water timers so that irrigation is not left on by mistake. Catch and store rain water for irrigation. Plant drought-tolerant species and use mulch to conserve water in your soil.
The local appliance store was happy to give me a box of boxes. I couldn't take just one or two I had to take a whole load. They normally sell things for recycling, but were happy to give a load to me for my experiments. All of the insulation you see in this project can be replaced with cardboard and air spaces. I'd use three or four layers of cardboard with one or more inches of air gaps between the layers to replace the eight inches of double-wrapped pink insulation I used. Solar ovens can be as small as one cubic foot. They don't have to be this big. The free cardboard can be used for making any size solar cooker or solar heater. Just waterproof it with glue and
So far, we have discussed the use of biobased (as opposed to petroleum) feedstocks to manage our carbon-based products in a sustainable and environmentally responsible manner. However, that is only part of the equation environmental responsibility requires us to look at the entire product cycle, from feedstock to ultimate disposal, from a holistic point of view. Therefore, material design principles for the environment also require that we address the issue of what happens to the material product after use by the customer, when it enters the waste stream, i.e., the ultimate disposal
Methane production from waste sources (landfills, sewage treatment, and farm wastes) will continue to increase commensurate with growth in the waste stream and may be important in specific locales. However, these sources of biogas are not expected to contribute substantially to the overall national energy supply. The small amount of current production, less than 0.1 quad, is included in the statistics cited above.
Use a bubbling fluidized bed boiler to combust both biogas and solid waste. Initially the spent wash is treated by separating solids and liquid with a belt press, before the liquid portion goes to an anaerobic digester to produce biogas. Liquid from the digester plant is further processed to provide water to the thermal plant and some of the distillery needs. The 40 million (US 60 million) distillery is due for completion this spring.
In some geothermal systems sludges bearing hazardous metals are formed during flash steam operations. Research is currently under way using biotechnology and other methods to remove these metals from the sludge and, perhaps, recover the metals for beneficial use. Although this sludge is of concern in the Imperial Valley, California, geothermal systems elsewhere in the United States do not have similar solid waste disposal problems. Utilization of binary technology would alleviate this concern as well as the potential release of C02 and sulfurous gases.
Emissions of methane to the atmosphere have been rising steadily and in line with population. As it is one of the main greenhouse gases, the control of methane remains one of the top priorities in combating climate change. Since the announcement by Canada and Russia, made at the Johannesburg World Summit, of their intention to ratify the Kyoto protocol, it now seems likely that the three flexible 'mechanisms' proposed at Kyoto will be developed to promote the investment by developed countries in greenhouse gas control projects around the world. Within the Annex 1 countries defined by the Kyoto protocol, the level of emissions of methane from solid waste disposal on land account for around 35 of the total. Figure 5 shows total methane emission for the years 1990-1999 (1990 being the reference year under the Kyoto accord), plotted with methane emissions from landfill. It can be seen that the contribution of methane from landfill to total emissions has barely changed over the decade,...
The base technology is assumed to be located in New England (FERC Region 1), which is considered a representative region. The use of biomass power could be widespread, and is excluded only from desert regions. In 1994, of the 3 EJ of biomass energy consumed in the U.S., 1.055 EJ were used to produce power 12 . These values include biomass residues, municipal solid waste, and landfill gas. Although biomass is being used to produce power in many locations across the U.S., biomass electricity production is currently concentrated in New England, the South Atlantic, and th e West (FERC Regions 1, 4, and 9, respectively).
Due to its frequent non-commercial use in developing countries, solid biomass is by far the largest renewable energy source, representing 10.4 per cent of world total primary energy supply, or 77.4 per cent of global renewables supply in 2001. Africa covers about 50 per cent of its energy supply by biomass some countries such as Mozambique or Tanzania have even higher figures of more than 90 per cent. High growth rates have been experienced by non-solid biomass combustible renewables and waste, such as renewable municipal solid waste, biogas and liquid biomass. This segment grew annually on average at 7.6 per cent since 1990. These growth rates are expected to continue even in industrial countries.
The principal emissions from landfill are CH4 and CO2. Figure 4.9 shows the total GHG emissions of a municipal solid waste landfill versus time. CH4 is expressed as equivalent CO2, using a GWP of 20. Note that a modern landfill is divided into a large number of individual compartments they are filled one after another and sealed when full. The time in Figure 4.9 is measured from the date that a compartment is sealed.
Aromatic ketones are valuable intermediate compounds in the synthesis of important fragrances and pharmaceuticals. In many cases, these compounds are currently obtained in homogeneous processes via Friedel-Crafts acylations. However, Friedel-Crafts acylations are real and alarming examples of very widely used acid-catalyzed reactions that are based on 100-year-old chemistry and are extremely wasteful. Replacement of AlCl3 Friedel-Crafts catalysts by solid acids for acylation reactions would drastically reduce the aqueous discharge and solid waste.
Less waste would be the best bet, environmentally speaking. But as much as we advocate minimizing waste, it would be senseless for green investors to disregard the use of LFG for energy. Whether we like it or not, as a society, we waste a lot. And as our numbers grow, so will the amount of trash we produce. That's not to say that we should discourage the minimization of our waste streams. In fact, it should be encouraged through consumer education and more sustainable business practices. But in the meantime, we must be realistic. And that is why we see no problem investing in this sector. Municipal solid waste found in landfills produces a number of gaseous products. In these oxygen-lacking environments anaerobic bacteria thrive, resulting in the decomposition of organic materials, and more importantly, the production of carbon dioxide and methane. The methane, which is a principal component of natural gas, and can migrate out of landfills because it is lighter than air and not very...
Ost of the world s methanol is made by converting natural gas into an alcohol. But in the interest of reducing the United States dependence on foreign petroleum imports and reducing the U.S. trade deficit, methanol can be produced from domestic resources such as wood, municipal solid waste (MSW), agricultural feedstocks and sewage. All of these options are extremely attractive and feasible. The cultivation of dedicated wood biomass crops for methanol production may prove to be economical in the future.
Municipal Solid Wastes Industrial Solid Wastes 0.2 2.1 MSW is the solid waste generated from households, commercial and institutional operations, and some industrial production. On the average, about 80 of the dry weight of MSW is organic materials, two-thirds of which is natural lignocellulose. The annual U.S. MSW resource is estimated to be about 2 quads currently and should expand to nearly 3 quads by 2030.
If biomass is produced sustainably (for example, within organic land use systems, or the use of industrial waste as biomass), it is classified as a renewable energy. However, pure biomass production in the absence of an awareness of other environmental aspects may lead to deforestation or erosion. Biomass can be used in two ways residues such as solid waste and liquid effluents.
The industrial sector uses twice as much biomass for energy production as the residential sector, or almost 2 quads, nearly all of it wood and wood wastes. The pulp and paper and lumber industries are the primary industrial users of biomass materials for energy. The cogeneration of both heat and electricity is a common conversion mechanism in industry. The food processing and furniture manufacturing industries are also significant users of biomass-derived waste materials for energy.
2.73 In broad terms, the ramifications of materials being designated as wastes impact largely on their transportation. Waste transfer notes must accompany waste materials during transit. As the disposal of these materials is current practice, existing transport arrangements should already be in compliance with waste regulations where necessary.
And converted to a form that can be enriched in the 235U isotope so that it can be used efficiently in today's light-water-moderated reactors. The reactor fuel is then fabricated into appropriate fuel forms for use in nuclear power plants. Spent fuel can then be either reprocessed or stored for future disposition. Radioactive waste materials are generated in all of these operations and must be disposed of. The transportation of these materials is also a critical part of the nuclear fuel cycle.
Even for the anaerobic purification of industrial waste water, such simple plants, called ASBR-reactors (Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactors), are used. All the different stages of the waste water treatment (filling, biochemical reaction, sedimentation, decanting) happen sequentially in one and the same tank. Because of the low load, a larger reactor volume is required than in plants with a continuous process. The whole process is susceptible to toxic substances.
Utilization of natural gas in district heating In 1996, natural gas used for individual house heating without CHP was widespread in Denmark. Fuel savings could be achieved by installing individual micro-CHP units in the houses or by introducing district heating in combination with CHP. The latter solution was suggested in the Green Energy Plan. Dispersed use ofbiomass The Green Energy Plan proposed the construction of biogas stations corresponding to the use of 100 percent of the organic industrial waste produced and 50 percent of the manure from livestock farming. Wind turbines The Green Energy Plan chose a development in which a wind power capacity of 3000 MW would be reached by 2015. The economic calculations assumed that a number of the turbines were established at offshore wind farms, where construction prices were higher. Further training and energy conservation The Danish industrial sector had a great potential for reducing its electricity consumption. The problem was to...
The primary constraint on increased biomass-fired power generation is low-cost resource availability near load centers or dispersed loads. Fossil fuels and, initially, nuclear power have been more readily available and more economic near most major cities and load centers. Thus, a very low-cost biomass fuel would be required for biomass power to become a major supply source, an unlikely occurrence. The potential for biomass-sourced power is defined almost entirely by the availability of low-cost waste material that has no higher valued use, such as forestry industry wastes, food processing wastes, and MSW. (Some apparent waste, such as wood chips, may be a valuable raw material for chemicals or building products, such as chip board, and not be economical for use as a fuel.) Once the waste resource is fully utilized, new sources of biomass dedicated to the energy market must be provided at attractive costs if additional biomass energy supplies are desired. MSW deployment is further...
B.21 By using sewage sludge and recycling the bottom ash, Ena Kraft not only meets its air quality and CO2 targets by using willow as a fuel in its power station and also secures other environmental benefits not normally associated with energy production. Ena Kraft attributes the success of this project to the co-operation of a number of stakeholders including the municipal water and wastewater works, the power plant, the environmental conservation
Processing waste materials is currently of keen interest. In Germany, a new automated process to separate and dry household waste to a so-called dry stabilate has been developed by Herhof, a privately owned waste processing company. This technique is widely seen as a good compromise between excessive recycling and considerate use of resources. The process gives an output of clean iron and non-iron metals, glass, ceramics and stones, and batteries. The remaining material, the dry stabilate, is currently burnt in power plants or in the cement industry, with a heating value similar to lignite. It is worth noting that despite separate collection of biowaste and paper from households, according to research from Witzenhausen Institute, 60wt of the dry stabilate still consists of organic matter (Kern and Sprick, 2001). In Germany and Italy, at least four processing plants are already operating or coming on stream soon. As Fig. 5.9 also illustrates, the product of anaerobic digestion is...
Ultimately, as PV reaches a steady-state, recycling of outdated thin film modules would allow for another reductio n by half in the amounts of new material needed to make a GWp per year of PV. In fact, the use of materials is so controlled in PV systems (semiconductors are sealed from the environment for 30 years or more and can then b e recycled), that PV may ultimately play a role as a safe and productive 'sink' for numerous materials that are today without any long-term sequestering strategy.
The biomass recycling process described earlier larger colonial algal species that were more readily harvestable. However, long retention times also resulted in low productivities. There was an optimum residence time, which varied with depth of the culture and climatic variables that selected for harvestable cultures. However, biomass recycling was only marginally effective in After growing-and harvesting an algal culture on sewage, enough - nutrients remain to which only 7.2 g m d was Harvested by the microstrainers). Clearly, optimizing for grow a second crop of microalgae. Such a second-crop would then deplete available productivity and harvestability required quite different operating conditions. It was N. Due to excess inorganic and organic phosphates in sewage, sufficient P remains concluded that the use of microstrainer harvesting and biomass recycling was
The economics and general benefit of biogas are always most favourable when the digester is placed in a flow of waste material already present. Examples are sewage systems, piggery washings, cattle shed slurries, abattoir wastes, food processing residues, sewage and municipal refuse landfill
The major constituents of pipeline gas are methane, ethane, propane, CO2, and, in some cases, N2. Sulfur containing odorants (mercaptans, disulfides, or commercial odorants) are added for leak detection. Because neither fuel cells nor commercial reformer catalysts are sulfur tolerant, the sulfur must be removed. This is usually accomplished with a zinc oxide sulfur polisher and the possible use of a hydrodesulfurizer, if required. The zinc oxide polisher is able to remove the mercaptans and disulfides. However, some commercial odorants, such as Pennwalt's Pennodorant 1013 or 1063, contain THT (tetrahydrothiophene), more commonly known as thiophane, and require the addition of a hydrodesulfurizer before the zinc oxide catalyst bed. The hydrodesulfurizer will, in the presence of hydrogen, convert the thiophane into H2S that is easily removed by the zinc oxide polisher. The required hydrogen is supplied by recycling a small amount of the reformed natural gas product. Although a zinc...
Biomass can be divided into primary and secondary products. The former are produced by direct use of solar energy through photosynthesis. In terms of energy supply, these are farm and forestry products from energy crop cultivation (i.e. fast-growing trees, energy grasses) or plant by-products, residues, and waste from farming and forestry including the corresponding downstream industry and private households (i.e. straw, residual and demolition wood, organic components in household and industrial waste). Secondary products are generated by the decomposition or conversion of organic substances in higher organisms (e.g. the digestion system of animals) these are for example liquid manure and sewage sludge.
Until the 1990s, residual waste (i.e. household waste) was discarded on landfills, by default. Biological components of the waste were degraded quite slowly and the fermentation process took about 20-40 years. The landfill gas produced during the process was gathered by using horizontal drainages and gas pits for disposal. About 12-300m3 oflandfill gas was produced in total per Mg ofresidual waste, but it contained quite a high level of toxic and corrosive organic components, so that damage to combined heating and power units (CHPs) often resulted.
For recycling to improve the performance of an MCFC network, it must provide benefits that outweigh its inherent disadvantages. If carbon dioxide is not separated from the anode-anode recycle, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the anode is increased. This reduces the Nernst potential. The Nernst potential is similarly reduced by the anode-cathode recycle if steam is not condensed out, since recycled steam dilutes reactant concentrations in the oxidant. In addition, part of the power generated by the network is consumed by the equipment necessary to circulate the recycle streams. Such circulation equipment, along with the additional ducting required by recycling, also increases the capital cost of the MCFC network.
The purposes of solid fuel-burning equipment are to proportion and mix the fuel and air, to initiate and maintain ignition, to volatilize the fuel, to position the flames in areas of useful heat release, and to supply fuel and air at the proper rates and pressures to facilitate each of these functions (Reed, 1983). The specific equipment appropriate for most biomass combustion and energy recovery systems depends on the types, amounts, and characteristics of the biomass fuel the ultimate energy form desired (heat, steam, electric or cogener-ated power) the relationship of the system to other systems in the plant (independent, integrated) whether recycling or co-combustion is practiced the disposal methods needed for residues and environmental factors. The design of efficient, large-scale biomass combustion systems requires detailed analysis of many parameters and hardware components. Among them are the numerical values and variability of moisture, volatile matter content, ash content,...
Is storage of flammable materials, flammable liquids, and gases limited to small amounts inside a building Is no more than 200 kg of engine oil, waste oil, and other flammable materials stored inside the CHP plant area. Are all hazardous areas and safety areas marked, e.g., entrances to gasholders Was a responsible person designated for all fire protection measures Are fire protection exercises regularly carried out
The proper design of an IBPCS requires the coordination of numerous operations such as biomass planting, growth management, harvesting, storage, transport to conversion plants, retrieval, drying, conversion to products, emissions control, product separation, recycling, wastewater and waste solids treatment and disposal, maintenance, and transport or transmission of salable products to market. The design details depend on the biomass species involved and the type, size, number, and location of biomass growth and processing areas. An example of a framework proposed for assessment and design of IBPCSs for electricity production is shown in Table 14.1. It is obvious that a multitude of parameters are involved. In the idealized case, the synfuel production plants are located in or near the biomass growth areas to minimize the cost of transporting the harvested biomass to the plants, all the nonfuel effluents of which are recycled to the growth areas as shown in Fig. 14.1. If this kind of...
Eighteen years ago Matt Olson built this thirteen foot overshot water wheel for electric power. It makes 2000 watts of regular 120 vac, 60 cycle housepower. This hydro cost Matt less than 250 through diligent recycling and mountain man engineering. On resources and recycling.
Biomass, virgin, 185-187 extraction, solvent, 187, 188 fundamentals, 182, 183 municipal solid waste, 183-185 size reduction, 173-177 fundamentals, 173 hardware, 174-176 steam explosion, 176, 177 wood, moisture build-up, 161, 162 woodstove fuel moisture, maximum, 163 Polyisoprenes, see Terpenes Polymers, 506-508 limitations, 205, 206 maximizing boiler efficiency, 221 municipal solid waste, 203 municipal-solid-waste-fueled municipal solid waste, 234 paper, 234 pyrolytic oil, 234 wood chips, 234 products, 226, 232 technology comparison heating rate, 253 process type, 253 products, 253 residence time, 253 temperature, 253 temperature and heating rate effects, 230 utility, 225 wood, slow, 227 Pyrolysis, flash, 226, 236, 246-253, 260-266, 515-517 ablative process, 226 BTX, 253 cellulose municipal solid wastes, 234, 236 paper, 234 pine wood, 235 pyrolytic oil, 235 softwoods, 235 spruce wood, 235 wood chips, 234 product yields and selectivities, 233 product yields with temperature charcoal,...
Located in Moers, near Duisberg, on the site of a former coalmine, the head office of Riedel Recycling has been home to Germany's largest pitched-roof thin-film plant since October 2008. The PV system has an output of 837 kW and will deliver around 750 MWh per year. Supplied by the American manufacturer First Solar, the black cadmium telluride (CdTe) modules cover the large south-facing roof, covering nearly 10,000 square metres of the former coal mixing hall. Mining at the site was discontinued in the 1990s, and since 2001 Riedel has used the building for recycling construction materials and storing wood. The vast PV roof structure at Riedel Recycling, Moers, covers nearly 10,000 square metres riedel recycling gmbh
I'd be the first to admit that the use of such a system is much less than ideal because of it's dependence on fossil fuels. I'm not happy about that - at times I feel very guilty. But then few folks are pure -few forego cars powered by fossil fuel, sometimes recycling gets neglected, whatever. The truth is that moving to a more ecologically sound lifestyle is demanding of a family's time and Disposal and or Recycling Spent Batteries What is the proper disposal recycling method for spent household
One technology can use direct combustion of biomass fuels today without incurring the capital expense of a new boiler or a gasification combined-cycle system. This technology is biomass co-firing, wherein biomass is co-fired, or burned together, with coal in existing power plants. Though it does not increase total power generation, this mode of operation can reduce power-plant emissions and serve as a productive use for a waste stream that requires disposal in some way. Co-firing can be carried out as a retrofit, often with very low incremental capital and O&M costs. Biomass co-firin g has been successfully demonstrated in a number of utility power plants, and is a commercially available option i n locations where appropriate feedstocks are available. Another geothermal-power approach is in the research stage. This involves drilling deep holes (one-to-five kilometers) to reach hot dry rock that is close to locations where magma or other hot intrusions from the molten mantle of the...
Production equipment for ethanol (and biodiesel) is classified as waste reduction and resource recovery plant (Class 49.5) under the Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS).16 This grouping includes assets used in the conversion of refuse or other solid waste or biomass to heat or to a solid, liquid, or gaseous fuel, and allows full deduction of plant equipment in only seven years. An additional benefit comes in the form of the highly accelerated 200 declining balance method that can be used for Class 49.5, and that further front-loads deductions into the first years of plant operation.
A largely ignored issue is how to deal responsibly with the environmental hazards presented by old rotor blades disposed of at the end of their operational lifecycle. 'The 100,000 wind turbines operational at the end of 2007 contain about 660,000 tonnes of fibre-reinforced plastics, that at some time in the future will end up as a huge chemical waste pile. By 2017 the number of operational turbines worldwide will perhaps have grown to 400,000 units, which corresponds to about 6.6 million tonnes of fibre-reinforced plastics waste. The recycling of steel and non-ferrous metals is a relatively well-known straight-forward process, but this essential know-how is far more limited for fibre-reinforced future plastics waste', Molly concluded.
Algae and recycling part of the biomass back to the ponds (similar to the process of devmrnbief r Micractinium' biomass recycle belped the culture dominate the ponds faster, but, regardless of recycling, this alga replaced Scenedesmus. Thus, the theory worked in principle, but in practice selective biomass Shelef, G.A Sukenik, A. Green, M. (1984) Microalgae harvesting and processing A literature review. Report, Solar Energy Research Institute, Golden Colorado, WSlSamaD23.C-23JgC1rmann, J.R. (1978) Biomass recycling and species control in continuous cultures. Bioeng. Biotech. 21 627-648.
I've found a 50 postconsumer, elemental chlorine free totally chlorine free (ECF TCF) paper, made by Stora, a German paper company. We have not tried paper from overseas before because of the high embodied energy involved in bringing it from Europe. Stora is committed to minimizing the effects of transporting raw materials and finished products. They are developing ways to use residues from their mills to fuel the boilers of steamships. The ideal situation would be to use waste paper that is not suitable for recycling, says Olle Widigsson, Technical Director of Purchasing and Transport at Stora. That way we would do away with the energy demanding and round-about method of making ethanol from biopulp, for instance. Also, Stora's Transport Environmental Programme (STEP) goal is to cut present consumption of electricity and fuel by more than half. The same applies to nitrogen oxide and sulphur emissions.
I Aor the new waste-to-energy demonstration plant, the Nagpur Municipal Corporation leased four hectares of land and entered into a build-own-operate agreement with two companies in 1998. The bio-methanation plant, with an estimated cost of USD 9.7 M, uses dry anaerobic composting to produce biogas. The facility was designed to process 520 t day of municipal solid waste, generating 5.4 MWh of energy and 150 t of organic compost for sale. The current status of the project is unknown since investing partners backed out of the project in 2001. i A he Unique Waste Plastic Management and Research Company Pvt. Ltd. in Nagpur manages a waste-to-energy demonstration plant that converts plastic waste into diesel fuel equivalent.
Whatever the demands of your renewable energy application, Deka Solar Gel AGM or flooded batteries are the proven choice. As the world's largest and most technologically advanced single-site battery manufacturer (including our own state-of-the-art, E.P.A. permitted recycling facility), we exceed the high standards of the solar industry with superior quality and environmentally conscious battery solutions.
Nevertheless, there are relatively minor environmental downsides to some of the storage mechanisms described in this chapter. In particular, batteries of all kinds are filled with noxious chemicals, so that their disposal is an issue. Lead acid batteries, however, are so widespread for vehicles that there is a thriving recycling business for them in most countries. Although lead metal is poisonous, it is also expensive and has a low melting point so that it is relatively easy and economically worthwhile to salvage lead from 'dead' batteries and reform it for new ones.
- Secondary products, in contrast, only indirectly receive their energy from the sun they are created by decomposition or conversion of organic matter in higher organisms (e.g. animals). They include, for instance, the entire zooplankton, its excrements (e.g. manure, solid waste), and sewage sludge.
The hydrolysis process is given by (4.150). In earlier times, hydrolysis was always achieved by adding an acid to the cellulosic material. During both world wars, Germany produced ethanol from cellulosic material by acid hydrolysis, but at very high cost. Acid recycling is incomplete, with low acid concentration the lignocelluloses is not degraded, and with high acid concentration the sugar already formed from hemicellulose is destroyed. zyme recycling, heating for different process steps from hydrolysis to distillation), as well as energy for transport, is, in existing operations such as those of the Brazilian alcohol programme (Trinidade, 1980), around 1.5 times the energy outputs (alcohol and fertiliser if it is utilised). However, if the inputs are domestic fuels, for example, combustion of residues from agriculture, and if the alcohol produced is used to displace imported oil products, the balance might still be quite acceptable from a national economic point of view. A number of...
First South Florida Sustainable Building Conference and Exhibition, April 10-12. For building professionals, regulators, researchers and users. Workshops, seminars and exhibits covering sustainability issues in the planning, design, construction, operation and demolition or recycling of commercial and residential buildings. For info 305-375-1150 Fax 305375-1157.
Alberta Sustainable House open house 3rd & 4th Saturdays, 1-4 pm. Cold-climate features & products for health, environment, conservation, RE, recycling, efficiency, self-sufficiency, appropriate technology, autonomous & sustainable housing. Free. 9211 Scurfield Dr. NW, Calgary, AB T3L 1V9 Canada 403-239-1882 Fax 403-547-2671 jdo ucalgary.ca
The Missouri Renewable Energy Association is a non-profit educational organization, promoting energy sensible technologies as a solution to global environmental pollution. Improved energy efficiency. water conservation, recycling, and composting are just a few of the topics on our agenda. We encourage local government, businesses, schools, and individuals to become involved by joining the MO.REA today. For information contact Ray Wathswski, PO Box 104582, Jefferson City, MO 65110, 573-634-5051
AstroPower is the world's leading independent PV company. We are supported by shareholders who believe in the future of solar power, not by fossil fuel or nuclear power interests. All of our products are made from silicon -abundant and non-toxic. Our unique process of recycling silicon wafers from the computer chip industry enables us to manufacture high quality solar cells
Providing alternative renewable energy solutions for 14+ years We design, sell, install, and maintain solar PV, solar thermal, & wind energy systems - grid-tie stand alone, residential commercial. NABCEP Certified Installer. Grey-water recycling systems & wood corn boilers. Live responsibly Live green Call 320-679-0877 Email sales sunenergyusa.com www.sunenergyusa.com
Maho Bay Resort located at Maho Bay, US Virgin Islands National Park. The workshop will focus on unique tropical concerns and techniques, development issues with special emphasis on preserving fragile tropical environments, using indigenous & recycling materials, minimizing development impacts on delicate patterns of life, and optimizing living in an equatorial atmosphere. The Maho Bay Resort is a sustainable resort in a pristine paradise, the workshop schedule allows time for visits around the island , so you'll get a good learning experience and a great vacation. For information and registration, call the Registrar at Real Goods at 800-762-7325 or write to Real Goods Institute for Independent Living, 966 Mazzoni St, Ukiah, CA 95482. Internships are considered.
The Think Green Community & Garden Fair will be held June 26th from 10 am to 6 pm in the Seattle area. The event will have workshops, vendors, and displays focusing on water conservation, healthy home products, recycling, energy efficiency, and associated topics. For more info call PNA at 206-783-2244.
Other possibilities are the precipitation of magnesium ammonium phosphate out of the waste water or crystallization of the nitrogen in the form of ammonium hydrogen carbonate, or membrane filtration of the impurities and recycling of the water. This can be recommended in plants where dry biomass is fed.
3.59 The properties of biomass make it a particularly appropriate fuel for heat and CHP plants. Technologies for biomass-fired heating plants are well established applications depend on matching biomass supply to heat demand. CHP technologies are controllable but further development is needed, particularly for small-scale plant and plant with high efficiency of conversion to electrical output. Co-firing of biomass with coal in existing generating stations has an important short- to medium-term role in developing the biomass sector. Biomass plant that are well designed and properly operated are associated with lower emissions than other fuels, notably coal. Handling of the ash, including recycling of nutrients to the soil, requires attention for any substantial application along with minimising the impacts of traffic movements and the visual impact of the plant itself.
Organic wastes of a city arising from food processing, food waste, sewage, packaging, paper, textiles, etc. can typically reach around It person yr in OECD countries. The large volumes involved, after collection, can be treated and linked to heat production and application in a variety of ways including separation and production of refuse derived fuels (RDF) combustion of the dry waste fraction and anaerobic digestion of the wet wastes. Many examples exist of waste-to-energy projects in cities including MSW incineration (as in Vienna, where the architecturally designed, locally accepted, 270 000 t yr plant at Spittelau in the centre of the city provides heat for the district heating scheme and publishes flue gas emission information on its web site daily50). Full details of the technologies (including incineration of sewage sludge) and related issues such as emissions to air can be found from the IEA Bioenergy task Integrating energy recovery into solid waste management .51 The...
The designer has the ability to increase the overall utilization of fuel (or the oxidant) by recycling a portion of the spent stream back to the inlet. This increases the overall utilization while maintaining a lower per pass utilization of reactants within the fuel cell to ensure good cell performance. The disadvantage of recycling is the increased auxiliary power and capital cost of the high temperature recycle fan or blower.
The major environmental problem associated with photovoltaic systems is the use of toxic chemicals, such as cadmium sulfide and gallium arsenide, in their manufacture. Because these chemicals are highly toxic and persist in the environment for centuries, disposal and recycling of the materials in inoperative cells could become a major problem.
Biopower systems encompass the entire cycle -- growing and harvesting the resource, converting and deliverin g electricity, and recycling carbon dioxide during growth of additional biomass. Biomass feedstocks can be of man y types from diverse sources. This diversity creates technical and economic challenges for biopower plant operator s because each feedstock has different physical and thermochemical characteristics and delivered costs. Increase d feedstock flexibility and smaller scales relative to fossil-fuel power plants present opportunities for biopower marke t penetration. Feedstock type and availability, proximity to users or transmission stations, and markets for potentia l byproducts will influence which biomass conversion technology is selected and its scale of operation. A number o f competing biopower technologies, such as those discussed previously, will likely be available. These will provide a variety of advantages for the U. S. economy, from creating jobs in rural...
Kevin and Katie Reily have focused their energy and efforts on setting an example of how American families can have lifestyles that are both sustainable and comfortable. Kevin is dedicated to right livelihood and pioneered a first-of-its-kind vinyl siding reclamation and recycling operation. Katie is a speech-language therapist in private practice, a people person with a strong environmental bent, and she loves to travel.
A landfill can be considered an uncontrolled anaerobic digester, the operator having little control over the anaerobic processes. A number of techniques such as recycling of condensate from the gas or leachate from the waste mass can have an effect on the rate of degradation of the waste, particularly in very dry sites.
In the highly industrialised nations, the most urgent priorities from a global point of view would seem to be stopping those activities that constitute a drain on the development possibilities in other parts of the world. This would probably involve devoting more skills to prudent use of non-renewable resources, increased recycling and higher efficiency with respect to end-use. Use of renewable resources (e.g. for energy production) and securing increased efficiency in conversion to end-use, are both examples of policies that are consistent with a global perspective. A transitional period of mixed fuel renewable energy-based supply systems is of course required.
Biofuels make only minor, if any, contributions to air pollution and solid waste. The growing cycle removes as much or more carbon dioxide from the air as the burning of the fuel returns. Short-rotation woody crops could also fix a significant amount of C02, particularly if the land was used previously for an annual crop. Biofuels crops may also reduce wind and water erosion of the soil in comparison to annual food crops. The total value of the environmental contributions of renewable energy has not yet been determined. In some cases, such as the reduction of SOx and NOx emissions at coal-fired power plants, the average cost of environmental improvement can be estimated-minimizing emissions from high-sulfur coal can cost 20 kWh or more. Governments may pass a portion of the environmental costs on to taxpayers or businesses through pollution fees or taxes, maximum emission restrictions, land restoration requirements, capitalized plant decommissioning charges, equipment specifications,...
For each life-cycle step, the indirect impacts associated with the chain of equipment used to produce any necessary installation, the equipment used to produce the factories producing the primary equipment, and so on, have to be assessed, together with the stream of impacts occurring during operation of the equipment both for the life-cycle step itself and, its predecessors (cf. Fig. 7.5). The same is true for the technology used to handle the equipment employed in the life-cycle step, after it has been decommissioned, in another chain of discarding, recycling and reusing the materials involved.
It is of course only of theoretical interest to discuss which of the production factors are assigned the power to produce profit, but it is of decisive practical interest to determine how the profits are actually shared between labour and capital, i.e. how the profits of a given enterprise are distributed among workers and employees on one side, and owners (capital providers) on the other side. The state may, as in socialist economies, be considered as collectively representing the workers and administering some of (or all of) their profit shares, but in many non-socialist economies, public spending includes a number of direct or indirect supports to the capitalists, as well as public goods to be shared by all members of society, and a certain amount of recycling of capital back to the enterprises. In mixed economies, which have developed from the basic capitalistic ones, the net distribution of profits may thus be said to involve one portion being pre-distributed to benefit society...
Its origins may not exude the sweetest smell, but biogas, which is the product of anaerobic digestion (decomposition without oxygen) of organic matter, such as sewage, animal waste, and municipal solid waste, serves as another energy source that can help offset the use of nonrenewable resources. 1 For the purposes of this chapter, however, we will focus on only two of the largest sources of biogas that are actively being used right now for power generation
Energy facilities that fire virgin and waste biomass, or that cofire these fuels with fossil fuels, may be subject to some of the emission standards under subpart D of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 60 (Dykes, 1989). In 1984, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency expanded the standards, which initially pertained only to fossil-fuel-fired systems, to include all steam generators firing nonfossil fuels in industrial-commercial-institutional steam generating units. Biomass-fired or cofired boilers became subject to selected emission limits under Subpart D. Fuels designated under the standards included fossil fuels, wood, municipal-type solid waste, and chemical by-product fuels. Perfect combustion of biomass and most other fuels would help minimize the emissions of particulate matter, and gaseous and toxic compounds. In practice, this can be difficult to attain, even with natural gas, the dominant component of which is methane, the simplest of all organic fuels (Chisholm and...
Biopower (biomass-to-electricity power generation) is a proven electricity-generating option in the United States. With about 10 GW of installed capacity, biopower is the single largest source of non-hydro renewable electricity. Thi s installed capacity consists of about 7 GW derived from forest-product-industry and agricultural-industry residues, about 2.5 GW of municipal solid waste (MSW) generating capacity, and 0.5 GW of other capacity such as landfill gas-based production. The electricity production from biomass is being used, and is expected to continue to be used, as base load power in the existing electric-power system. The 7 GW of traditional biomass capacity represents about 1 of total electricity generating capacity and about 8 of all non-utility generating capacity. More than 500 facilities around the country are currently using wood or woo d waste to generate electricity. Fewer than 20 facilities are owned and operated by investor-owned or publicly-owne d electric...
Water hyacinth, giant brown kelp, and Chlorella, respectively, contain large amounts of intracellular moisture. The water content is usually over 95 wt of the fresh biomass (see Appendix A, Part A.8, for the definitions of wet and dry weight percentages). Several types of municipal, industrial, and farm animal wastes are also produced in association with water and are potential feedstocks. One example is untreated municipal biosolids. Because of the nature of the collection systems (i.e., dilution with water to facilitate localized disposal and transport in municipal lines to wastewater treatment plants), raw municipal biosolids contain over 95 wt water. They are stabilized at the wastewater treatment plant by subjecting them to various primary and secondary treatments which reduce volatile solids, BOD, and COD, and are dewatered for disposal. Examples of high-water-content industrial wastes are pulp and paper mill sludges and alcoholic beverage industry sludges. They are often...
One source of renewable energy that crosscuts two or more of the categories listed above is gas production from biomass resources. Currently, the primary gas-production pathway is to tap gases generated from anaerobic digestion of MSW in landfills. This source now supplies 0.009 quad. Other potential sources of biogas are digester gases, currently contributing 0.003 quad, and thermal gasification of woody materials and municipal solid waste (0.001 quad). The increased expense of landfilling MSW and other environmental constraints will result in increased production of digester gas from MSW. The undeployed potential is 3 quads per year. Another source, noted earlier, is the energy contained in methane-saturated geothermal brines along the Gulf Coast.
Waste fat is another source for energy (Table 2.10). Approximately 150 000280 000 Mg a-1 ofdripping and chip fat can be collected in Germany alone. This quantity of waste fat could be increased by 0.65 kg per inhabitant and year by including the waste oil and waste fat from private households. Taking again Germany as an example, around 330 000 Mg a-1 ofwaste fat ofexcellent quality could be considered for the production of biogas. These fats should not be used as co -substrates, however, but fermented in a separate plant to avoid high costs for maintenance and cleaning.
The presented studies clearly demonstrate that a variety of surplus materials deriving from the agrofood industry are of interest for the production of biopolymers. Some of these inexpensive substrates act directly as a carbon source for industrial production of future-oriented bioplastics such as poly-(3HB-co-3HV). To illustrate this point, waste materials like whey lactose from cheese production, crude glycerol liquid phase from biodiesel production, and several waste lipids are discussed. Meat and bone meal are presented as a suitable raw material for complex nitrogen sources that are needed to achieve sufficient concentrations of PHA-producing biomass, a
In the BAU Scenario, biofuels can make a significant contribution to the nation's energy requirements. The main contribution would come from ethanoi produced from corn, if current tax incentives remain in place, for the next two decades. It has been estimated that 4 billion gallons year of ethanoi can be produced from corn without serious impact on the grain and animal feed markets. Considerably more ethanoi could be produced if additional acreage were returned to corn production, and the currently uncertain market impacts of the co-products were acceptable. Production of methanol and ethanoi from dedicated biomass crops would begin around 2000, with methanol being the first product. By 2030, the contribution of the two fuels could reach nearly 2 quads. Since feedstock may not be available from dedicated crop or plantation production until after 2010, the earlier plants will probably use by-product and waste materials from forest products and food processing industry plants. Similar...
Fuel feedstocks for production of energy through anaerobic digestion, pyrolysis and gasification are available from two main sources. Waste organic material from the food processing industry and domestic waste are available where separate collection systems have been instituted however, the main fuel resource is in the deliberate agricultural production of energy crops or the collection of waste materials from agricultural or timber production processes. Some mention should be made of the energy potential of waste or second-use oils. Two distinct sources of waste oils are produced by the food processing industry used vegetable oil (UVO), primarily from the restaurant trade, is currently collected for use in animal food in the UK and much of Europe. Current UK estimates indicate that around 80000 to 100000 tonnes of this material is collected by over 200 small companies and refined and traded by a small number of specialist recyclers. Recent developments in legislation may remove this...
It takes a significant amount of energy to move water. Whether it is up from a depth of one hundred feet down in Lake Huron, or one thousand feet down in the desert, or from twenty feet down the earth, it requires energy for pumping. Without fresh water that has been filtered through the soil, we are forced to drink surface water. Surface water with access to sunlight and oxygen is a good place for the growth of bacteria, viruses (in bacterial), parasites and other forms of contamination from fecal matter and other organic waste materials.
Wastes and industrial waste water can contain a high concentration of sulfur compounds, e.g., waste water from the production of yeast, viscose rayon, cartons, citric acid, or fiber board. Sulfur compounds can be present as sulfate (in industrial waste water in high concentrations)
Bio waste recycling includes all plants which ferment biological waste, even if the fermented substances are only partly of biological origin. The residue is called bio waste and is the subject of the bio waste regulations. Bio waste is, for example, the content of the grease removal tank in catering establishments, mash from tissue Wastes from laundry, cleaning and mechanical cutting up of raw materials Other solid wastes Solid wastes from filtration and sieving Paper and pasteboard The residues of the fermentation will be reused as fertilizer according to the German law of waste recycling. The German law of bio waste prescribes the hygienization of bio waste before reuse. According to the regulation, the operator of the plant must verify the effect of his hygienization process and compliance with the necessary process temperatures as well as the hygienic harmlessness.
Contact Process (CP) (Figure 4.36) In the contact process, the bioreactor, a degassing device, and a clarifier with biomass recycling are combined. Figure 4.39 Two-stage bioreactor plant for industrial waste water. Figure 4.39 Two-stage bioreactor plant for industrial waste water.
A New Generation of Wood Stoves Gerard Hemmes, Vermont Castings, Grand Rapids, MI Recycling and Repowering a Conventional Car into an Electric Vehicle Ray Oviyach, Fox Valley Electric Auto Assoc., Oak Park, IL Building a Hybrid Electric Vehicle Bill Shafer, Fox Valley Electric Auto Assoc., Oak Park, IL
The Alberta Sustainable House is open for public viewing every Saturday 1 00-4 00 PM free of charge. The project emphasizes cold-climate features products based on the founding principles of occupant health, environmental foresight, resource conservation, AE, recycling, low embodied energy, self-sufficiency, and appropriate technology. Already in place R17 windows, multi-purpose masonry heater, solar hot water, greywater heat exchangers, LED and electroluminescent lighting, solar cookers, and others. Under development hydrogen fuel cells, Stirling co-generator, Tesla bladeless steam turbine, and others. Contact Jorg Ostrowski, Autonomous & Sustainable Housing Inc Alternative & Conservation Energies Inc, 9211 Scurfield Dr NW, Calgary Alberta T3L 1V9, Canada 403239-1882 Fax 403-547-2671 The Institute for Bioregional Studies was founded to demonstrate and teach recent ecologically-oriented, scientific, social and technological achievements that move us toward ecological, healthy,...
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