Make Money in the Recycling Business

Home Based Recycling Business

Make Money! Join the many individuals and families who are learning to prosper in the salvage and recycling business starting with little or no cash. You'll learn: How to bootstrap your business without going into debt. How to get your salvage for free or for pennies on the dollar. (In some cases you will be paid to take the material away). How to find the best price in the least amount of time. The tools and equipment you will need many easily fabricated. Information based on my experience in salvage, recycle and reuse in the following areas: Construction and building materials. Deconstruction and recycled lumber. Farm and ranch equipment and supplies. Heavy equipment salvaging for high value parts. Scrap metal ferrous and non-ferrous. Electronic, communication, and computer scrap and recycling. Salvage for alternative energy systems. Antiques and collectibles. Promoting and marketing. Always treating everyone with fairness and respect and not profiting from the misfortune of others ways to create win-win situations for All parties involved. How to deal with scrap and recycling dealers and brokers. Innovative businesses you can start using various salvaged materials. How to arrange transportation, interim storage, cheap yard space without dealing with high cost commercial operators. How to be paid for your work before you ever start. How to get the equipment and tools you need. How to stay solvent and operate on a cash basis. Continue reading...

Home Based Recycling Business Overview

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Author: Michael R. Meuser
Official Website: www.recyclingsecrets.com
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All of the information that the author discovered has been compiled into a downloadable pdf so that purchasers of Home Based Recycling Business can begin putting the methods it teaches to use as soon as possible.

This ebook does what it says, and you can read all the claims at his official website. I highly recommend getting this book.

Pv Recycling Declaration

Members of the European association PV CYCLE have signed a joint Declaration committing them to set up a voluntary collection and recycling scheme for end-of-life photovoltaic modules. The declaration is supported by the French Presidency of the European Union and by the European Commissioner for the Environment. Jean-Louis Borloo, Minister for Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and Spatial Planning commented 'It is for the first time that an industry organizes itself on a voluntary basis at European level to ensure the collection and recycling of its products and this with extremely ambitious targets.' Meanwhile, Stavros Dimas, European Commissioner for Environment declared 'I welcome the intention of the photovoltaic industry to commit to set up a voluntary system for the collection and recycling of photovoltaic panels and look forward to seeing the outcome of this proposal with high ambition levels.'

Guide To Composting Human Manure

The Humanure Handbook is subtitled A Guide To Composting Human Manure (Emphasizing Minimum Technology and Maximum Hygienic Safety). This book delivers a frank and sometimes humorous discussion of how we can close the nutrient cycle by safely composting the bi-products of our own digestive processes. This self-published book springs from the author's belief that millions of people in developing countries can benefit from hygienic recycling of all their organic refuse including humanure.

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Contributions to National Goals

The use of liquid biofuels could provide several benefits to the United States. Foremost would be an added measure of energy security by increasing energy self-sufficiency and substantially lessening dependence on foreign oil. The reduction of imports could result in an annual balance-of-payments savings of up to 100 billion while creating a domestic biofuels industry that would provide jobs, economic growth, additional tax revenue, and a potential export market. Additionally, liquid fuels from biomass can benefit the environment by recycling rather than adding C02 to the atmosphere, making biofuels a desirable option for reducing the impact of potential global warming. Expanded use of biomass in other applications would have similar effects in improving the environment and, to he extent imported petroleum is effectively replaced, in improving energy security and the balance of payments.

Plant Biomass Production

The reason for the Earth recycling all of her material parts can be explained by looking again at Fig. 2.5. The Earth is powered by the sun's radiation that crosses the outer boundary of her atmosphere and reaches her surface. The Earth can export into outer space long-wave infrared radiation.15 But, because of her size, the Earth holds on to all mass of all chemical elements, except perhaps for hydrogen. By maintaining an oxygen-rich atmosphere, life has managed to prevent the airborne hydrogen from escaping Earth's gravity by reacting it back to water (and destroying ozone). In a mature ecosystem, one species' waste must be another species' food and no net waste is ever created, see Fig. 2.9. The little imperfections in the Earth's surface recycling programs have resulted in the burial of a remarkably tiny fraction of plant carbon in swamps, lakes, and shallow coastal waters16, see Fig. 2.15. Very rarely the violent anoxic events would kill most of life in the oceanic waters and...

Environmental analysis

According to current knowledge extensive recycling of solar modules is possible. For instance, extensive recycling of glass components is possible with only little effort. For the recycling of the other module components, by contrast, highly sophisticated chemical separation processes are required. Amorphous frameless modules are best suited for recycling, as they may be transferred to hollow glass recycling without any pre-treatment. Possible recycling methods suitable for classic photovoltaic modules include acid separation of solar wafers from the bond, transfer of frameless modules into ferrosilicon suitable for steel production, as well as complete separation of the modules into glass, metals and silicon wafers 6-37 . Yet, cadmium tellurium (CdTe) and CIS technologies need to be further assessed in order to determine whether their heavy metal content precludes or requires further processing 6-42 . The ensuing environmental effects largely correspond to the...

Resource and environmental management

For a number of raw materials, methods exist or could be developed for recycling, i.e. using discarded production goods as a resource basis rather than materials extracted from the natural surroundings. This would seem of obvious advantage if the concentration of the desired material is higher in the scrap material than in available natural deposits and if the collection and extraction costs for the recycled material are lower than the extraction and transportation costs for the new natural resource. A question to be raised in this connection is whether it might be advantageous to base the decisions on recycling not on instantaneous costs of recycling versus new resource extraction, but instead on the present value cost of using either method for an extended period of time (e.g. the planning horizon discussed earlier). The recycling decision would not have to be taken in advance if the scrap resources are kept for later use, waiting for the process to be profitable. However, in many...

Description of the Technology

Biomass is a term that includes all energy materials that emanate from biological sources, whether they are wood or wood wastes, residue of wood-processing industries, food industry waste products, sewage or municipal solid waste (MSW), herbaceous or other biological materials cultivated as energy crops, or other biological materials. (For descriptive purposes of this white paper, biofules are liquid fuels produced from biomass feedstocks.) Biomass is a major current and prospective source of energy. The key feature of the biomass technology is recycling of the carbon in the biological processes. Unlike the burning of fossil fuels, combustion of biomass merely recycles the carbon fixed by photosynthesis in the growth phase. The use of biomass or biofuels as a source of energy for space heating, process heat, electricity production, transportation fuels, or as an intermediate gaseous fuel is attractive not only for economic reasons (where the fuel is readily available at low cost), but...

New Paper for Home Powers Printed Edition

I've found a 50 postconsumer, elemental chlorine free totally chlorine free (ECF TCF) paper, made by Stora, a German paper company. We have not tried paper from overseas before because of the high embodied energy involved in bringing it from Europe. Stora is committed to minimizing the effects of transporting raw materials and finished products. They are developing ways to use residues from their mills to fuel the boilers of steamships. The ideal situation would be to use waste paper that is not suitable for recycling, says Olle Widigsson, Technical Director of Purchasing and Transport at Stora. That way we would do away with the energy demanding and round-about method of making ethanol from biopulp, for instance. Also, Stora's Transport Environmental Programme (STEP) goal is to cut present consumption of electricity and fuel by more than half. The same applies to nitrogen oxide and sulphur emissions.

Processes And Economics

Numerous methods have been tested, demonstrated, and commercialized for the separation and purification of the organic liquids produced by natural biochemical processes. As already discussed, some biomass species produce organic liquids that can be collected over a period of time without harvesting or destroying the plant simply by tapping as for copaiba oil, or in the case of microalgae, by skimming the microalgal oil from the water surface after the algal cells are disrupted. Most natural hydrocarbon separation processes, however, involve biomass size reduction, drying, solvent extraction, and separation of the extracted products from the solvent, the recovery and recycling of which is important to minimize costs. Physical separation of the liquids by treatment in extrusion devices or presses is often used for seed-oil separation. Some processes use several solvents for fractionating the different liquid and solid components in the biomass. Depending on the composition and...

Anaerobic Digestion System Characteristics

The important operating parameters are the composition, physical form, and energy content of the substrate the inoculum source and activity the feeding frequency and rate of nutrient and substrate addition to the digester the hydraulic and solids retention times (HRT and SRT) within the digester the pH, temperature, and mixing rate within the digester the gas removal rate and the amount and type of recycling. Numerous studies have been conducted on how these parameters affect methane production rate and yield, substrate reduction, volatile acid formation, gas composition, energy recovery, and steady-state operation. Reactor configuration and design also influence the performance of the process. Many modifications of these processes are used. An example is the anaerobic contact process in which digested biosolids are separated for recycling from the digester effluent. Generally, in a well-operated, balanced digester, the organic material fed to the digester will yield biogas at about...

Hasan Mehdi Robert Tuba Lszl T Mika Andrea Bodor Kornel Torkos and Istvn T Horvth

Since carbohydrates are water soluble and the expected products have lower solubility in aqueous phase, the use of water-soluble catalysts for hydrogenation offers the possibility of facile product separation and catalyst recycling.7 When sucrose (0.6 mol l) was dissolved in an aqueous solution of sulfuric acid (1.8 mol l) and treated with hydrogen (85 bar) at 140 C for 4 h in the presence of an in situ-generated Ru

System Application Benefits and Impacts

The environmental impacts of thin film PV are minimal and in general, PV is emission-free. Some impacts may b e expected during system manufacture and issues exist for polycrystalline thin film systems in terms of ultimat e disposal recycling. These issues are very minor compared to fuel-based energy production and are adequately addressed in References 3-13. (Reference 13 is a bibliography of 94 sources on PV environment, safety, and healt h issues.) There are some issues specific to compound semiconductors such as those found in polycrystalline thin films. Those are also covered in the same references, where 'cradle-to-cradle' recycling schemes have been outlined for ke y materials (see also below). For example, U.S. cadmium telluride (CdTe) companies have announced recycling an d product 'take-back' strategies 14 .

Trends in availability

2.49 Historically, woodcutting has fuelled domestic or industrial stoves and has provided the raw material for products such as charcoal and other processed or semi-processed wood fuels. In the developed world the use of wood in this way has been largely abandoned in favour of other forms of energy, and forestry is now primarily directed towards the production of timber and paper pulp. The demand for paper pulp in the UK is decreasing as recycling increases, and the demand for construction timber from UK forests has also decreased consequently the availability of wood for fuel has increased. Added to this, large amounts of Britain's forests were planted in the 1960s and 1970s and will soon be reaching maturity without a clear market for the wood.

Towards the Obligation

In developing the Obligation, a key caveat was that any additional cost should be set at an acceptable level for the consumer. For too many families and individuals in the country, fuel poverty continues to be a very real problem and we were simply unwilling to let our environmental objectives override their particular needs. By the same token, we were reluctant to create excessive additional costs for the industrial and commercial users. These concerns were the impetus for introducing the Buy Out Price mechanism. While some initially argued that the Buy Out would provide an 'easy way out' for those suppliers with a disinclination to support renewables, the concept of recycling those payments to competitors was introduced as a further incentive to supply.

Solar materials from agricultural monocultures to polycultures

Chemical products from fossil hydrocarbons are the primary cause of our current waste problem. Breaking synthetic compounds back down into their component molecules is either impossible, or the procedure is complicated and costly. This drastically reduces the scope for recycling, as these substances either do not degrade naturally, or do so only slowly, and so must either be buried or burnt, with woeful environmental consequences. Chemical products produced from plants, however, are not only recycled by nature itself, but their combustion does not release harmful pollutants. This greatly reduces the scale of the waste problem. In addition, people will find waste easier and cheaper to manage. In place of the waste separation regimes in force in Germany and other countries, rubbish will be reduced to two simple categories easily recyclable metal waste and organic refuse. Recycling of waste itself thus becomes an integral component of a renewable energy system. This stands in stark...

Lessons learnt from experience

- When operating the engine as an ignition oil Diesel engine, the NOx concentration in the exhaust gas is similar to that of a normal Diesel engine. But the CO concentration behaves differently at partial load operation the CO concentration increases for X > 2. The reaction from CO to CO2 occurs so slowly that a large part of the burned intermediate product CO reaches the exhaust pipe. Therefore, ignition oil Diesel engines should be preferably used for operation under full load. A low CO concentration could be reached only by recycling exhaust gases, so that the engine is run at X < 1.9.

Constraints and Opportunities

Are very similar to those for coal production and combustion. At present land costs (e.g., 2,000 acre in Illinois for prime farmland), the land portion of cost is less than 1 of PV system costs. It is unlikely that land constraints (siting or cost) will become a limiting factor in the United States for the foreseeable future. PV systems can be put on rooftops or can use land without competing uses (i.e., deserts and land with no water access), as well as submarginal croplands or rangeland. Materials availability is also not a constraint because the amounts of semiconductor material used in the PV cell are small or because the materials are as common in nature as sand. PV's small requirements for semiconductor material can be best understood via a comparison with nuclear power191. For a breeder reactor with 50 fuel recycling, 1 g of uranium produces about 4 MWh of electricity. For a thin-film module (layers of 0.3 to 1 im thickness), there are about 2 g of semiconductor for each square...

Fuel production from biomass generation of liquid biofuels

The hydrolysis process is given by (4.150). In earlier times, hydrolysis was always achieved by adding an acid to the cellulosic material. During both world wars, Germany produced ethanol from cellulosic material by acid hydrolysis, but at very high cost. Acid recycling is incomplete, with low acid concentration the lignocelluloses is not degraded, and with high acid concentration the sugar already formed from hemicellulose is destroyed. zyme recycling, heating for different process steps from hydrolysis to distillation), as well as energy for transport, is, in existing operations such as those of the Brazilian alcohol programme (Trinidade, 1980), around 1.5 times the energy outputs (alcohol and fertiliser if it is utilised). However, if the inputs are domestic fuels, for example, combustion of residues from agriculture, and if the alcohol produced is used to displace imported oil products, the balance might still be quite acceptable from a national economic point of view. A number of...

Productivity in different environments

Since the total terrestrial gross primary production is presently 7.6 X 1013 W (Odum, 1972), and the net primary production may amount to about half this value, it is clear that a large fraction of the evapotranspiration (6.7 X 1016 kg water per year according to Fig. 2.61) over land is due to plants. Accordingly, a substantial increase in terrestrial plant production would have to involve increased recycling of water on timescales shorter than one year. One might consider achieving this by artificial irrigation, using some of the water run-off from land areas (3.9 X 1016 kg water per year according to Fig. 2.61). However, it is seen from Fig. 2.94 that about 70 of the water diverted to food crops is not immediately returned to the run-off streams. In view of the many other important functions performed by the rivers and streams responsible for the run-off, this suggests that there may be little room for expanding terrestrial biomass production on a world-wide scale, if freshwater...

Disadvantages Of Ac Subs

(1) MINIMIZE WATER USE The less water pumped, the less energy consumed. Low-flush toilets can cut domestic water use in half. (The Eljer Ultra-One one-gallon model is available nationwide.) Keep hot water lines short. Consider waste-water recycling. Consider drip irrigation to make extra-efficient use of water. Use water timers so that irrigation is not left on by mistake. Catch and store rain water for irrigation. Plant drought-tolerant species and use mulch to conserve water in your soil.

Making a Degree Twenty Loaf of Bread Solar Oven for

The local appliance store was happy to give me a box of boxes. I couldn't take just one or two I had to take a whole load. They normally sell things for recycling, but were happy to give a load to me for my experiments. All of the insulation you see in this project can be replaced with cardboard and air spaces. I'd use three or four layers of cardboard with one or more inches of air gaps between the layers to replace the eight inches of double-wrapped pink insulation I used. Solar ovens can be as small as one cubic foot. They don't have to be this big. The free cardboard can be used for making any size solar cooker or solar heater. Just waterproof it with glue and

Case study Enkoping use of sewage sludge

B.21 By using sewage sludge and recycling the bottom ash, Ena Kraft not only meets its air quality and CO2 targets by using willow as a fuel in its power station and also secures other environmental benefits not normally associated with energy production. Ena Kraft attributes the success of this project to the co-operation of a number of stakeholders including the municipal water and wastewater works, the power plant, the environmental conservation

Biomass and Waste Biomassasa SourceofFuel CellPower

Processing waste materials is currently of keen interest. In Germany, a new automated process to separate and dry household waste to a so-called dry stabilate has been developed by Herhof, a privately owned waste processing company. This technique is widely seen as a good compromise between excessive recycling and considerate use of resources. The process gives an output of clean iron and non-iron metals, glass, ceramics and stones, and batteries. The remaining material, the dry stabilate, is currently burnt in power plants or in the cement industry, with a heating value similar to lignite. It is worth noting that despite separate collection of biowaste and paper from households, according to research from Witzenhausen Institute, 60wt of the dry stabilate still consists of organic matter (Kern and Sprick, 2001). In Germany and Italy, at least four processing plants are already operating or coming on stream soon.

Utilityscale Flatplate Thin Film Photovoltaics Land Water and Critical Materials Requirements

Ultimately, as PV reaches a steady-state, recycling of outdated thin film modules would allow for another reductio n by half in the amounts of new material needed to make a GWp per year of PV. In fact, the use of materials is so controlled in PV systems (semiconductors are sealed from the environment for 30 years or more and can then b e recycled), that PV may ultimately play a role as a safe and productive 'sink' for numerous materials that are today without any long-term sequestering strategy.

IIIA An Integrated System for the Conversion of Solar Energy withSewage Grown Microalgae

Wastewater Treatment Using Algae

The biomass recycling process described earlier larger colonial algal species that were more readily harvestable. However, long retention times also resulted in low productivities. There was an optimum residence time, which varied with depth of the culture and climatic variables that selected for harvestable cultures. However, biomass recycling was only marginally effective in After growing-and harvesting an algal culture on sewage, enough - nutrients remain to which only 7.2 g m d was Harvested by the microstrainers). Clearly, optimizing for grow a second crop of microalgae. Such a second-crop would then deplete available productivity and harvestability required quite different operating conditions. It was N. Due to excess inorganic and organic phosphates in sewage, sufficient P remains concluded that the use of microstrainer harvesting and biomass recycling was

Natural Gas Processing

The major constituents of pipeline gas are methane, ethane, propane, CO2, and, in some cases, N2. Sulfur containing odorants (mercaptans, disulfides, or commercial odorants) are added for leak detection. Because neither fuel cells nor commercial reformer catalysts are sulfur tolerant, the sulfur must be removed. This is usually accomplished with a zinc oxide sulfur polisher and the possible use of a hydrodesulfurizer, if required. The zinc oxide polisher is able to remove the mercaptans and disulfides. However, some commercial odorants, such as Pennwalt's Pennodorant 1013 or 1063, contain THT (tetrahydrothiophene), more commonly known as thiophane, and require the addition of a hydrodesulfurizer before the zinc oxide catalyst bed. The hydrodesulfurizer will, in the presence of hydrogen, convert the thiophane into H2S that is easily removed by the zinc oxide polisher. The required hydrogen is supplied by recycling a small amount of the reformed natural gas product. Although a zinc...

Disadvantages of MCFC Networks

For recycling to improve the performance of an MCFC network, it must provide benefits that outweigh its inherent disadvantages. If carbon dioxide is not separated from the anode-anode recycle, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the anode is increased. This reduces the Nernst potential. The Nernst potential is similarly reduced by the anode-cathode recycle if steam is not condensed out, since recycled steam dilutes reactant concentrations in the oxidant. In addition, part of the power generated by the network is consumed by the equipment necessary to circulate the recycle streams. Such circulation equipment, along with the additional ducting required by recycling, also increases the capital cost of the MCFC network.

Equipment And Applications A Hardware

The purposes of solid fuel-burning equipment are to proportion and mix the fuel and air, to initiate and maintain ignition, to volatilize the fuel, to position the flames in areas of useful heat release, and to supply fuel and air at the proper rates and pressures to facilitate each of these functions (Reed, 1983). The specific equipment appropriate for most biomass combustion and energy recovery systems depends on the types, amounts, and characteristics of the biomass fuel the ultimate energy form desired (heat, steam, electric or cogener-ated power) the relationship of the system to other systems in the plant (independent, integrated) whether recycling or co-combustion is practiced the disposal methods needed for residues and environmental factors. The design of efficient, large-scale biomass combustion systems requires detailed analysis of many parameters and hardware components. Among them are the numerical values and variability of moisture, volatile matter content, ash content,...

Integrated Systems A Definition and Fundamentals

The proper design of an IBPCS requires the coordination of numerous operations such as biomass planting, growth management, harvesting, storage, transport to conversion plants, retrieval, drying, conversion to products, emissions control, product separation, recycling, wastewater and waste solids treatment and disposal, maintenance, and transport or transmission of salable products to market. The design details depend on the biomass species involved and the type, size, number, and location of biomass growth and processing areas. An example of a framework proposed for assessment and design of IBPCSs for electricity production is shown in Table 14.1. It is obvious that a multitude of parameters are involved. In the idealized case, the synfuel production plants are located in or near the biomass growth areas to minimize the cost of transporting the harvested biomass to the plants, all the nonfuel effluents of which are recycled to the growth areas as shown in Fig. 14.1. If this kind of...

The Handson Journal Of Homemade Power

Eighteen years ago Matt Olson built this thirteen foot overshot water wheel for electric power. It makes 2000 watts of regular 120 vac, 60 cycle housepower. This hydro cost Matt less than 250 through diligent recycling and mountain man engineering. On resources and recycling.

Pitched Roof Installation

Located in Moers, near Duisberg, on the site of a former coalmine, the head office of Riedel Recycling has been home to Germany's largest pitched-roof thin-film plant since October 2008. The PV system has an output of 837 kW and will deliver around 750 MWh per year. Supplied by the American manufacturer First Solar, the black cadmium telluride (CdTe) modules cover the large south-facing roof, covering nearly 10,000 square metres of the former coal mixing hall. Mining at the site was discontinued in the 1990s, and since 2001 Riedel has used the building for recycling construction materials and storing wood. The vast PV roof structure at Riedel Recycling, Moers, covers nearly 10,000 square metres riedel recycling gmbh

Daybreak Energy for Your

I'd be the first to admit that the use of such a system is much less than ideal because of it's dependence on fossil fuels. I'm not happy about that - at times I feel very guilty. But then few folks are pure -few forego cars powered by fossil fuel, sometimes recycling gets neglected, whatever. The truth is that moving to a more ecologically sound lifestyle is demanding of a family's time and Disposal and or Recycling Spent Batteries What is the proper disposal recycling method for spent household

Overall Perspectives on the Renewable Technologies

Another geothermal-power approach is in the research stage. This involves drilling deep holes (one-to-five kilometers) to reach hot dry rock that is close to locations where magma or other hot intrusions from the molten mantle of the Earth come unusually close to the surface. In this context, dry rock implies that no natural water source is associated with the hot rock, unlike the situation in the hydrothermal case. Water from a surface source would be injected, heated, used in a steam- or binary-power cycle, and then re-injected for recycling. If successful, this approach could make available a huge resource relative to present geothermal resources. However, technical uncertainties and risks are very high, s o the commercial potential of this approach cannot be estimated accurately today.

Rotor Size Limiting Factors

A largely ignored issue is how to deal responsibly with the environmental hazards presented by old rotor blades disposed of at the end of their operational lifecycle. 'The 100,000 wind turbines operational at the end of 2007 contain about 660,000 tonnes of fibre-reinforced plastics, that at some time in the future will end up as a huge chemical waste pile. By 2017 the number of operational turbines worldwide will perhaps have grown to 400,000 units, which corresponds to about 6.6 million tonnes of fibre-reinforced plastics waste. The recycling of steel and non-ferrous metals is a relatively well-known straight-forward process, but this essential know-how is far more limited for fibre-reinforced future plastics waste', Molly concluded.

Le Algal Biomass Production

Algae and recycling part of the biomass back to the ponds (similar to the process of devmrnbief r Micractinium' biomass recycle belped the culture dominate the ponds faster, but, regardless of recycling, this alga replaced Scenedesmus. Thus, the theory worked in principle, but in practice selective biomass Shelef, G.A Sukenik, A. Green, M. (1984) Microalgae harvesting and processing A literature review. Report, Solar Energy Research Institute, Golden Colorado, WSlSamaD23.C-23JgC1rmann, J.R. (1978) Biomass recycling and species control in continuous cultures. Bioeng. Biotech. 21 627-648.

How Far Off The Grid Are

Whatever the demands of your renewable energy application, Deka Solar Gel AGM or flooded batteries are the proven choice. As the world's largest and most technologically advanced single-site battery manufacturer (including our own state-of-the-art, E.P.A. permitted recycling facility), we exceed the high standards of the solar industry with superior quality and environmentally conscious battery solutions.

Social and environmental aspects

Nevertheless, there are relatively minor environmental downsides to some of the storage mechanisms described in this chapter. In particular, batteries of all kinds are filled with noxious chemicals, so that their disposal is an issue. Lead acid batteries, however, are so widespread for vehicles that there is a thriving recycling business for them in most countries. Although lead metal is poisonous, it is also expensive and has a low melting point so that it is relatively easy and economically worthwhile to salvage lead from 'dead' batteries and reform it for new ones.

Florida

First South Florida Sustainable Building Conference and Exhibition, April 10-12. For building professionals, regulators, researchers and users. Workshops, seminars and exhibits covering sustainability issues in the planning, design, construction, operation and demolition or recycling of commercial and residential buildings. For info 305-375-1150 Fax 305375-1157.

Canada

Alberta Sustainable House open house 3rd & 4th Saturdays, 1-4 pm. Cold-climate features & products for health, environment, conservation, RE, recycling, efficiency, self-sufficiency, appropriate technology, autonomous & sustainable housing. Free. 9211 Scurfield Dr. NW, Calgary, AB T3L 1V9 Canada 403-239-1882 Fax 403-547-2671 jdo ucalgary.ca

Missouri

The Missouri Renewable Energy Association is a non-profit educational organization, promoting energy sensible technologies as a solution to global environmental pollution. Improved energy efficiency. water conservation, recycling, and composting are just a few of the topics on our agenda. We encourage local government, businesses, schools, and individuals to become involved by joining the MO.REA today. For information contact Ray Wathswski, PO Box 104582, Jefferson City, MO 65110, 573-634-5051

Gear

PV Recycling For now, a number of U.s. manufacturers with european operations are finding the support and resources they need through PV Cycle, a voluntary take-back and recycling program for end-of-life modules in europe. On the disposal side, the SVTC urges the solar industry to address potential risks immediately, or warns that we'll risk repeating the mistakes made by the microelectronics industry, which waited decades before putting recycling programs in place and also generates millions of tons of toxic e-waste annually in the United States. The report draws parallels between the two industries, asserting that silicon-based PV production involves many of the same materials used in microelectronics production and therefore presents many of the same hazards. Several companies are already bracing for the future by developing recycling plans and programs. SolarWorld has established a new recycling facility in Germany. There, retired modules are dismantled piece by piece, and the...

LHKlLL

AstroPower is the world's leading independent PV company. We are supported by shareholders who believe in the future of solar power, not by fossil fuel or nuclear power interests. All of our products are made from silicon -abundant and non-toxic. Our unique process of recycling silicon wafers from the computer chip industry enables us to manufacture high quality solar cells

Sackett Brick

Providing alternative renewable energy solutions for 14+ years We design, sell, install, and maintain solar PV, solar thermal, & wind energy systems - grid-tie stand alone, residential commercial. NABCEP Certified Installer. Grey-water recycling systems & wood corn boilers. Live responsibly Live green Call 320-679-0877 Email sales sunenergyusa.com www.sunenergyusa.com

Virgin Islands

Maho Bay Resort located at Maho Bay, US Virgin Islands National Park. The workshop will focus on unique tropical concerns and techniques, development issues with special emphasis on preserving fragile tropical environments, using indigenous & recycling materials, minimizing development impacts on delicate patterns of life, and optimizing living in an equatorial atmosphere. The Maho Bay Resort is a sustainable resort in a pristine paradise, the workshop schedule allows time for visits around the island , so you'll get a good learning experience and a great vacation. For information and registration, call the Registrar at Real Goods at 800-762-7325 or write to Real Goods Institute for Independent Living, 966 Mazzoni St, Ukiah, CA 95482. Internships are considered.

Washington

The Think Green Community & Garden Fair will be held June 26th from 10 am to 6 pm in the Seattle area. The event will have workshops, vendors, and displays focusing on water conservation, healthy home products, recycling, energy efficiency, and associated topics. For more info call PNA at 206-783-2244.

Waste water

Other possibilities are the precipitation of magnesium ammonium phosphate out of the waste water or crystallization of the nitrogen in the form of ammonium hydrogen carbonate, or membrane filtration of the impurities and recycling of the water. This can be recommended in plants where dry biomass is fed.

Conclusions

3.59 The properties of biomass make it a particularly appropriate fuel for heat and CHP plants. Technologies for biomass-fired heating plants are well established applications depend on matching biomass supply to heat demand. CHP technologies are controllable but further development is needed, particularly for small-scale plant and plant with high efficiency of conversion to electrical output. Co-firing of biomass with coal in existing generating stations has an important short- to medium-term role in developing the biomass sector. Biomass plant that are well designed and properly operated are associated with lower emissions than other fuels, notably coal. Handling of the ash, including recycling of nutrients to the soil, requires attention for any substantial application along with minimising the impacts of traffic movements and the visual impact of the plant itself.

MSW wastetoenergy

The concept of minimising organic waste production by reducing, reusing and recycling helps a city save on the costs of collection and treatment of refuse. Future societal and technical changes in the production of waste and its conversion to energy need to be anticipated by a city when planning and designing future waste-to-energy projects, since the present volumes incinerated or sent to landfills may decline over time.

Utilization

The designer has the ability to increase the overall utilization of fuel (or the oxidant) by recycling a portion of the spent stream back to the inlet. This increases the overall utilization while maintaining a lower per pass utilization of reactants within the fuel cell to ensure good cell performance. The disadvantage of recycling is the increased auxiliary power and capital cost of the high temperature recycle fan or blower.

Photovoltaic Systems

The major environmental problem associated with photovoltaic systems is the use of toxic chemicals, such as cadmium sulfide and gallium arsenide, in their manufacture. Because these chemicals are highly toxic and persist in the environment for centuries, disposal and recycling of the materials in inoperative cells could become a major problem.

Markets

Biopower systems encompass the entire cycle -- growing and harvesting the resource, converting and deliverin g electricity, and recycling carbon dioxide during growth of additional biomass. Biomass feedstocks can be of man y types from diverse sources. This diversity creates technical and economic challenges for biopower plant operator s because each feedstock has different physical and thermochemical characteristics and delivered costs. Increase d feedstock flexibility and smaller scales relative to fossil-fuel power plants present opportunities for biopower marke t penetration. Feedstock type and availability, proximity to users or transmission stations, and markets for potentia l byproducts will influence which biomass conversion technology is selected and its scale of operation. A number o f competing biopower technologies, such as those discussed previously, will likely be available. These will provide a variety of advantages for the U. S. economy, from creating jobs in rural...

People

Kevin and Katie Reily have focused their energy and efforts on setting an example of how American families can have lifestyles that are both sustainable and comfortable. Kevin is dedicated to right livelihood and pioneered a first-of-its-kind vinyl siding reclamation and recycling operation. Katie is a speech-language therapist in private practice, a people person with a strong environmental bent, and she loves to travel.

Landfill

A landfill can be considered an uncontrolled anaerobic digester, the operator having little control over the anaerobic processes. A number of techniques such as recycling of condensate from the gas or leachate from the waste mass can have an effect on the rate of degradation of the waste, particularly in very dry sites.

World economy

In the highly industrialised nations, the most urgent priorities from a global point of view would seem to be stopping those activities that constitute a drain on the development possibilities in other parts of the world. This would probably involve devoting more skills to prudent use of non-renewable resources, increased recycling and higher efficiency with respect to end-use. Use of renewable resources (e.g. for energy production) and securing increased efficiency in conversion to end-use, are both examples of policies that are consistent with a global perspective. A transitional period of mixed fuel renewable energy-based supply systems is of course required.

National Values

The total value of the environmental contributions of renewable energy has not yet been determined. In some cases, such as the reduction of SOx and NOx emissions at coal-fired power plants, the average cost of environmental improvement can be estimated-minimizing emissions from high-sulfur coal can cost 20 kWh or more. Governments may pass a portion of the environmental costs on to taxpayers or businesses through pollution fees or taxes, maximum emission restrictions, land restoration requirements, capitalized plant decommissioning charges, equipment specifications, wastewater treatment or recycling requirements, etc. In the future, governments may impose additional costs or requirements on energy suppliers and consumers. Because of the relatively benign environmental character of most renewable energy systems, comparing a strict market appraisal of the cost of renewable systems with other systems does not adequately reflect the environmental costs that can be avoided with renewables.

Chain calculations

For each life-cycle step, the indirect impacts associated with the chain of equipment used to produce any necessary installation, the equipment used to produce the factories producing the primary equipment, and so on, have to be assessed, together with the stream of impacts occurring during operation of the equipment both for the life-cycle step itself and, its predecessors (cf. Fig. 7.5). The same is true for the technology used to handle the equipment employed in the life-cycle step, after it has been decommissioned, in another chain of discarding, recycling and reusing the materials involved.

Economic theory

It is of course only of theoretical interest to discuss which of the production factors are assigned the power to produce profit, but it is of decisive practical interest to determine how the profits are actually shared between labour and capital, i.e. how the profits of a given enterprise are distributed among workers and employees on one side, and owners (capital providers) on the other side. The state may, as in socialist economies, be considered as collectively representing the workers and administering some of (or all of) their profit shares, but in many non-socialist economies, public spending includes a number of direct or indirect supports to the capitalists, as well as public goods to be shared by all members of society, and a certain amount of recycling of capital back to the enterprises. In mixed economies, which have developed from the basic capitalistic ones, the net distribution of profits may thus be said to involve one portion being pre-distributed to benefit society...

Utilized biomass

Bio waste recycling includes all plants which ferment biological waste, even if the fermented substances are only partly of biological origin. The residue is called bio waste and is the subject of the bio waste regulations. Bio waste is, for example, the content of the grease removal tank in catering establishments, mash from The residues of the fermentation will be reused as fertilizer according to the German law of waste recycling. The German law of bio waste prescribes the hygienization of bio waste before reuse. According to the regulation, the operator of the plant must verify the effect of his hygienization process and compliance with the necessary process temperatures as well as the hygienic harmlessness.

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A New Generation of Wood Stoves Gerard Hemmes, Vermont Castings, Grand Rapids, MI Recycling and Repowering a Conventional Car into an Electric Vehicle Ray Oviyach, Fox Valley Electric Auto Assoc., Oak Park, IL Building a Hybrid Electric Vehicle Bill Shafer, Fox Valley Electric Auto Assoc., Oak Park, IL

Australia

The Alberta Sustainable House is open for public viewing every Saturday 1 00-4 00 PM free of charge. The project emphasizes cold-climate features products based on the founding principles of occupant health, environmental foresight, resource conservation, AE, recycling, low embodied energy, self-sufficiency, and appropriate technology. Already in place R17 windows, multi-purpose masonry heater, solar hot water, greywater heat exchangers, LED and electroluminescent lighting, solar cookers, and others. Under development hydrogen fuel cells, Stirling co-generator, Tesla bladeless steam turbine, and others. Contact Jorg Ostrowski, Autonomous & Sustainable Housing Inc Alternative & Conservation Energies Inc, 9211 Scurfield Dr NW, Calgary Alberta T3L 1V9, Canada 403239-1882 Fax 403-547-2671 The Institute for Bioregional Studies was founded to demonstrate and teach recent ecologically-oriented, scientific, social and technological achievements that move us toward ecological, healthy,...

Safa Tampoo In Nepal

In a recent development, DANIDA has set aside an EV fund, through its Environment Sector Program Support (ESPS) project. It will initiate and support development of improved EV prototypes (three wheelers and four wheelers), studies to increase battery life, and local production of an EV chassis. The EV fund is also expected to provide training to mechanics, drivers, and owners, and environmental and technical upgrading of existing lead-acid battery recycling facilities within Nepal.

California

SMUDs 1995 Brown Bag Solar Series VII. Where SMUD Energy Services, Plaza 50-2, Conference A (upstairs), 6701 4th Ave, Sacramento, CA When Every other Tuesday, Noon to 1 00 pm, Bring your lunch, and enjoy the FREE presentation April 4, Energy As The Definition Of The Esthetic May 2 Community Involvement In Using Renewables Recycling May 16 What's New At Solar Box Cookers International May 30 Truckee Ground Source Pilot Project June 13 Building With Rice Hulls Solar Water Heated Floors

Wastes and residues

Major wastes are (i) municipal solid waste (MSW), (ii) landfill and (iii) sewage. MSW is the wastes removed by municipal authorities from domestic and industrial sources it usually contains significant amounts of metal, glass and plastic (i.e. non-biomass) material. Recycling of most plastics, metal, glass and other materials should occur before landfill or combustion. Nevertheless, non-biomass materials usually remain in significant amounts. MSW is loose, solid material of variable composition, available directly for combustion and pyrolysis. If the composition is acceptable, it may be pressurised and extruded as 'refuse derived fuel, RDF', usually available as dried pellets of about 5 cm dimension for combustion in domestic-scale boilers.

Prologue

Fifth, in the 1980s and 1990s there was a disconnect between the sustainable development movement and the world of business. Business was largely identified as the source of unsustainable development - seen more as the problem than the solution. And in the literature of the day, where business found any promising portrayals, it was usually a story about this or that company adopting an internal paper recycling scheme or some equally 'internal' initiative. There were few, if any, stories of businesses 'delivering' and 'selling' cleaner technologies, the challenges in doing so, and the key factors for success. It seemed to be a big omission. This book belatedly tries to fill that gap - to give the reader examples of where businesses have been trying to bring cleaner energy technology to market, and diffuse it on a large-scale basis in emerging markets, and where policymakers stepped in either to assist this process or hamper it.

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