Energy Resource

Biomass is all matter derived directly or indirectly from plant photosynthesis. The production of biomass is one nf the nati iral ways in which solar energy is stored, in the form of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The resource base is comprised of terrestrial and aquatic plant matter and can be obtained through primary production or indirectly through the recovery of wood harvesting, processing, other manufacturing, agricultural and human waste streams. While agricultural resources present...

Technical Status

Recent research efforts have demonstrated the ability to increase significantly the yield from intensive biomass culture operations, based on species such as fast-growing willow hybrids. These developments could reduce the cost of biomass production, improve the quality of biomass material, and reduce or eliminate the site specific nature of biomass use. I hese advances suggest the future possibility of reliance on competltively-prlced Plomass from plantations, rather than waste wood and...

Photovoltaic Technology

Photovoltaic (PV) systems use semiconductor materials to convcrt light into dircct current electric energy. The technology has been used to convert solar radiation to electricity and to convert natural or artificial light to electricity for powering consumer products. The output of a PV system depends on the amount of solar energy insolation, which varies by location, time of day, and weather conditions. The total, or global, insolation consists of direct (or beam) radiation and diffuse (or...

Wind Energy Technology

Wind turbines convert wind energy into electric energy or perform tasks requiring mechanical energy, e.g. water pumping. Eneiyy pioduction from wind turbines is heavily dependent upon the amount of wind, varying approximately with the third power of the wind speed. In addition to depending on the average wind speed at a site, the energy production depends upon the shape of the annual wind speed distribution. There are two baoie approachco to converting wind to useful energy vertical-axis wind...

Wind Technology Utility Sector Case Study

This section presents the results of a feasibility analysis of a proposed installation of a grid-connected wind farm in Denmark. The analyst is seeking to determine whether the project is financially viable. To answer this question, the levelised required revenue of the project over its lifetime is calculated. The levelised required revenue divided by the annual amount of generated electricity is the levelised cost of energy produced by the project. If the levelised cost of energy from the...

Economic Analysis Model For The Building And Industrial Sectors

Tho moot commonly ueod oconomic indicator in the commercial building and industrial sectors is net present value (NPV), which was discussed in general terms in Chapter 2. The equations for calculating this economic indicator are presented below. A. General Equation for Net Present Value for Commercial Building and Industrial Projects The NPV can be stated in a general equation as follows After Tax NPV (1 -T) (Operating cashflow in year t) (1 +kn)' t 1 + (T) E (Depreciation in year t) (1 +kn)' t...

Technology Forecasting How To Predict The Future Cost And Performance Of Renewables

D, McConneil Solar Energy Research Institute Golden, Colorado Useful techniques for technology forecasting of renewable energy systems can be based on screening and assessment methods developed for evaluating wind energy conversion systems and photovoltaic systems 1,2 . Figures 1 -A through 1 -E display the flow chart for a photovoltaic assessment method 1 key steps involve data collection, an assessment of technical parameters, performance assessment, cost assessment, and reporting of...

System Cost Parameters

PV Module Cost Photovoltaic modules are normally sold on a Wp basis. The total cost is the nominal installed module peak power multiplied by the unit PV module cost. Area-related BOS Cost Any costs that are a function of the size of the photovoltaic system. Ihese costs are generally estimated in mz of module area. They include specifically Land Cost of land on which the photovoltaic system stands, per square metre of module area. It is important to include this cost as a distinct line item for...

Small Hydropower Technology

Hydropower is the energy and power obtained from running water. Water resources vary widely in regional and local patterns of availability. The supply is dependent upon topographic and meteorological conditions as they influence precipitation and vapotranspiration. Quantities of water stored are dependent to a large extent on the physical features of the earth and on the earth's geological structure. The amount of energy produced at a specific site is directly prnpnrtinnal tn the amount of flow...

System Description

Application The purpose or use for the hydropower plant such as electric power generation, grain milling, or electricity for remote site use. Turbine Type Examples of hydraulic turbines are impulse, including Pelton and Turgo Francis Cross-flow and Propeller including Kaplan, Bulb, Tube and Rim, Dam Description Specification, in general terme, of tho type of dam construction employed. Generator Type Generators are available as either synchronous or induction asynchronous types. A synchronous...

Cost and Performance Parameters

To provide a consistent basis for specifying the cost of a passive solar technology project, a detailed format follows which allows the analyst to describe the system to be evaluated and to assign values to the key cost and performance parameters, which become input to the economic analysis model. A comprehensive set of definitions accompanies the format to clarify the terms and assumptions. All buildings benefit, or suffer, from solar gain a passive solar building attempts to maximise the...