Wind power in Costa Rica

In Costa Rica a significant private-sector wind power industry has emerged (Martinot, 2002). Apparently, early project preparation activities, including institutional and technical feasibility studies, have engendered favourable perceptions and regulatory frameworks for wind (including 'iron-clad' power purchase agreements). Regulatory frameworks in Costa Rica, technology perceptions, and studies addressing non-technical issues have probably been more important than mitigation of perceptions of...

Developing financial solutions for offgrid RE businesses in developing countries

Financing Continuum

To initiate a new business activity, an off-grid RE entrepreneur needs various sources of capital and business-development support.15 The capital needs can also be shown along a finance continuum see Figure 8.3 starting upstream with the start-up investment the entrepreneur injects to plan and initiate the business shifting to bank loans as the business gets up and running so that it has operating capital to finance day-to-day operations and business growth finally, downstream, possibly some...

References and further reading

Asociaci n de Productores de Energ as Renovables APPA, Renewable Energy Producers' Association 2002 www.appa.es accessed January 2004 Babu, Y. D. and Michaelowa, A. 2003 'Removing Barriers for Renewable Energy CDM Projects in India and Building Capacity at the State Level', The Energy and Resources Institute TERI and Hamburgischen Welt-Wirtschaft-Archiv HWWA , Hamburg, September Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory Battelle PNL 1991 'Assessment of Available Windy Land Area and Wind Energy...

Quotas mandating capacity or generation

While pricing laws establish the price and let the market determine capacity and generation, mandated targets work in reverse the government sets a target and lets the market determine the price. Typically, governments mandate a minimum share of capacity or electricity generation generally grid-connected only , or a share of fuel, to come from renewable sources. The share required often increases gradually over time, with a specific final target and end-date. The mandate can be placed on...

Major barriers to renewable energy

While most renewable fuels are free, renewable energy projects have high up-front costs, and a number of factors combine to make many renewable energies more expensive than conventional energy. Distortions resulting from unequal tax burdens and existing subsidies, and the failure to internalize all costs and benefits of energy production and use, erect high barriers to RETs. Additional cost barriers range from the cost of technologies themselves and the need to achieve economies of scale in...

Pricing systems compared with quota systems

Quota systems can be used for a range of technologies and fuels, while the pricing laws and RPS and tendering systems can be used only for electricity. The discussion that follows covers electricity only. It looks at several issues that have been raised and debated regarding pricing laws and quotas, from their impacts on renewable capacity and generation, to costs and innovation. Renewable energy capacity and generation Because quota systems establish specific targets for renewable capacity or...