Energy bands in semiconductors

The electrons in a solid move in a potential, which for crystalline forms is periodic, corresponding to the lattice structure of the material. The forces on a given electron are electromagnetic, comprising the attractive interaction with the positively charged nuclei (the effective charge of which may be diminished by the screening effect of more tightly bound electrons) as well as repulsive interaction with other electrons. Owing to the small mass ratio between electrons and nuclei, the positions of the nuclei (R, i = 1,2,3...) may to a first approximation be regarded as fixed. This is the basis for saying that the electrons are moving in a "potential". When an electron is close to a definite nucleus, its wave-function may be approximated by one of the atomic wave-functions Vin„(i) (r - Ri) for this isolated nucleus. One may therefore attempt to describe an arbitrary electron wave-function as a linear combination of such atomic wave-functions ("orbitals"),

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Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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