2.3.2 The oceans and continents

The water cycle; Evaporation processes; The state variables of the oceans; Scales of oceanic motion; Joint models of general circulation in oceans and atmosphere

2.3.3 The climate

Climate variables; Stability of climate; The ergodic hypothesis

2.4 The energy cycle of the Earth

2.4.1 The flows of energy and matter

The undisturbed energy cycle; Man's interference with the energy cycle; Matter cycles; The carbon cycle; The nitrogen cycle

2.4.2 Climate changes

Climatic history; Causes of climatic change; The white Earth state; Man's interference with climate; Aerosols; Carbon dioxide 2.A Origins of stellar energy

The birth and main-sequence stage of a star; The red-giant and shell-burning stages; Equilibrium processes and supernovae explosions; The formation of heavy elements; Equilibrium processes in the Sun; The energy transport equations; Nuclear reactions in the Sun; A model of the solar processes; Cosmology; The "Big-Bang" model; The cosmic background radiation 2.B Vertical transport in or near the boundary layer

Water transport; The disposition of water and heat in soils; Geothermal heat fluxes; Momentum exchange processes between atmosphere and oceans 2.C Modelling the atmosphere and the oceans

The basic equations in terms of time-averaged variables; The atmospheric heat source function; Separation of scales of motion; Energy conversion processes in the atmosphere; Modelling the oceans; Basic equations governing the oceanic circulation 2.D Tides and waves

Gravity waves in the oceans; The formation and dissipation of energy in wave motion; The energy flux associated with wave motion; Wind-driven oceanic circulation

2.5 Suggested topics for discussion

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Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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