Transmission of electricity Normal conducting lines

At present, electric current is transmitted in major utility grids, as well as distributed locally to each load site by means of conducting wires. Electricity use is dominated by alternating current (AC), as far as utility networks are concerned, and most transmission over distances up to a few hundred kilometres is by AC. For transmission over longer distances (e.g. by ocean cables), conversion to direct current (DC) before transmission and back to AC after transmission is common. Cables are either buried in the ground (with appropriate electric insulation) or are overhead lines suspended in the air between masts, without electrical insulation around the wires. Insulating connections are provided at the tower fastening points, but otherwise the low electric conductivity of air is counted on. This implies that the losses will comprise conduction losses depending on the instantaneous state of the air

(the "weather situation"), in addition to the ohmic losses connected with the resistance R of the wire itself, Eh!at = RI2,1 being the current. The leak current between the elevated wire and the ground depends on the potential difference as well as on the integrated resistivity (cf. section 3.7.1), such that the larger the voltage, the further the wires must be placed from the ground.

Averaged over different meteorological conditions, the losses in a standard AC overhead transmission line (138-400kV, at an elevation of some 1540 m) is currently a little under 1% per 100 km of transmission (Hammond et al., 1973), but the overall transmission losses of utility networks, including the finely branched distribution networks in the load areas, may for many older, existing grids amount to some 12-15% of the power production, for a grid extending over a land area of about 104 km2 (Blegaa et al., 1976). Losses are down to 5-6% for the best systems installed at present, and are expected to decrease further to the level of 2-3% in the future, when the currently best technologies penetrate further (Kuemmel et al., 1997). This loss is calculated relative to the total production of electricity at the power plants attached to the common grid, and thus includes certain in-plant and transformer losses. The numbers also represent annual averages for a power utility system occasionally exchanging power with other utility systems through interconnecting transmission lines, which may involve transmission distances much longer than the linear extent of the load area being serviced by the single utility system in question.

The trend is to replace overhead lines by underground cables, primarily for visual and environmental reasons. This has already happened for the distribution lines in Europe, and is increasingly also being required for transmission lines. In Japan and the USA, overhead lines are still common.

Underground transmission and distribution lines range from simple coaxial cables to more sophisticated constructions insulated by a compressed gas. Several trans-ocean cables (up to 1000 km) have been installed in the Scandinavian region in order to bring the potentially large surpluses of hydropower production to the European continent. The losses through these high-voltage (up to 1000 kV) DC lines are under 0.4% per 100 km, to which should be added the 1-2% transmission loss occurring at the thyristor converters on shore that transform AC into DC and vice versa (Ch. 19 in IPCC, 1996a). The cost of these low-loss lines is currently approaching that of conventional AC underwater cables (about 2 euro kW-1 km-1; Meibom et al., 1997, 1999; Wizelius, 1998)

One factor influencing the performance of underground transmission lines is the slowness of heat transport in most soils. In order to maintain the temperature within the limits required by the materials used, active cooling of the cable could be introduced, particularly if large amounts of power have to be transmitted. For example, the cable may be cooled to 77 K (liquid nitrogen temperature), by means of refrigerators spaced at intervals of about

10 km (cf. Hammond et al., 1973). This allows increased amounts of power to be transmitted in a given cable, but the overall losses are hardly reduced, since the reduced resistance in the conductors is probably outweighed by the energy spent on cooling. According to (4.22), the cooling efficiency is limited by a Carnot value of around 0.35, i.e. more than three units of work have to be supplied in order to remove one unit of heat at 77 K.

Superconducting lines

For DC transmission, the ohmic losses may be completely eliminated by use of superconducting lines. A number of elements, alloys and compounds become superconducting when cooled to a sufficiently low temperature. Physically, the onset of superconductivity is associated with the sudden appearance of an energy gap between the "ground state", i.e. the overall state of the electrons, and any excited electron state (similar to the situation illustrated in Fig. 4.134, but for the entire system rather than for individual electrons). A current, i.e. a collective displacement (flow) of electrons, will not be able to excite the system away from the "ground state" unless the interaction is strong enough to overcome the energy gap. This implies that no mechanism is available for the transfer of energy from the current to other degrees of freedom, and thus the current will not lose any energy, which is equivalent to stating that the resistance is zero. In order that the electron system remains in the ground state, the thermal energy spread must be smaller than the energy needed to cross the energy gap. This is the reason why superconductivity occurs only below a certain temperature, which may be quite low (e.g. 9 K for niobium, 18 K for niobium-tin, Nb3Sn). However, there are other mechanisms that in more complex compounds can prevent instability, thereby explaining the findings in recent years of materials that exhibit superconductivity at temperatures approaching ambient (Pines, 1994; Demler and Zhang, 1998).

For AC transmission, a superconducting line will not be loss-free, owing to excitations caused by the time-variations of the electromagnetic field (cf. Hein, 1974), but the losses will be much smaller than for normal lines. It is estimated that the amount of power that can be transmitted through a single cable is in the gigawatt range. This figure is based on suggested designs, including the required refrigeration and thermal insulation components within overall dimensions of about 0.5 m (cable diameter). The power required for cooling, i.e. to compensate for heat flow into the cable, must be considered in order to calculate the total power losses in transmission.

For transmission over longer distances it may in any case be an advantage to use direct current, despite the losses in the AC-DC and DC-AC conversions (a few per cent as discussed above). Future intercontinental transmission using superconducting lines has been discussed by Nielsen and S0-rensen (1996) and by S0rensen and Meibom (1998) (cf. scenario in section 6.4).

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Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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