Equalizing the Community Risk Cost Benefit Distribution

The environmental and energy benefits of renewables mainly accrue at a national and international level. The environmental and social direct impacts occur mainly at a local level. This discrepancy can lead to inequitable distribution of costs and benefits if they are not considered carefully. The destructive impacts of climate change act at a global level, as do the positive impacts of greenhouse gas mitigation via renewable energies. For nations embarking on emissions reduction programmes or...

Private sector IPPs and rural electricity enterprises

Most of the power in Cambodia is supplied by private firms, as can be seen from Figure 11.1. There are at least three large commercial independent power producers (IPPs) that supply power to EDC under medium-term contracts. They all use diesel or heavy fuel-oil generators, except for one Chinese company, China Electric Power Technology Import and Export Corporation. It operates a 12MW hydropower plant built in 1968, destroyed when fighting started in 1970, and re-commissioned in 2002. Anecdotal...

Pitfall Crosscutting objectives

Sometimes apparently mutually supportive objectives can clash in practice. The political proponents of policy change must balance economic, industrial, social and environmental interests to define a clear set of policy systems that will actually deliver intended outcomes. Some common objectives of renewable energy promotion include industry development for employment, securing an export position in emerging markets, security of energy supply (reducing fuel or electricity imports), long-term GHG...

Box Two highprofile environmentalists debate wind power

The following newswire excerpt of an AAP news story illustrates how anti-wind power activists can capture media attention Two prominent international environmentalists are butting heads over whether wind farms should be set up across Australia. Renowned British botanist David Bellamy has become a strident anti-wind farm activist, denouncing them as pointless, expensive, ugly and dangerous to birds He has called the advocates of wind-generated power liars and in an Australian newspaper recently...

The role of the states

Implementation of PURPA in the early 1980s led to the 'first flowering' of renewable energy in the US. In issuing implementing regulations in 1980 (after surviving a court challenge), the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission largely delegated the setting of avoided costs to the states. California in turn ordered electric utilities to enter into contracts at standard terms and conditions, that is standard offer contracts. Four standard offer contracts were available the one most significant to...

Pitfall Inadequate resource andor technology identification

'Technology neutral' is a buzzword often heard in climate and energy circles. It is meant to imply a white-gloves, optimum-outcome approach that does not prejudice or favour a particular technology. However, a wide variety of technologies can all claim to be green, reduce greenhouse gases or be zero emission. In fact, there are real risks inherent in policies that fail to clearly define which technologies, groups of technologies or resources they support. There are three main reasons technology...

Policy Pitfalls Pitfall Underdefined objectives

In mid-2003 I was asked by the World Bank WB to attend its review of the Bank's activities in extractive industries. Extractive in this context refers to extracting resources from the ground from mining gold to drilling for oil. The Bank's lending to extractive industries and projects has been under pressure from many sides, from indigenous people unhappy with intrusive developments, to international pressure groups calling for a halt to fossil fuel lending. I was asked to speak about some of...

Refining the EFL The Renewable Energy

Germany is in the midst of changing its Renewable Energy Law REL , which was specifically applied to wind, solar and geothermal facilities for hydro, landfill gas and sewage or mine gas facilities under 5MW and biomass facilities under 20MW Knight, 2004a . As with the old law, the REL requires that renewable energy be purchased at specified tariff rates, but this time with the amount of renewable energy distributed equally among all electricity suppliers. This avoided the competitive...

References

BTM 2003 World Wind Energy Market Update, BTM Consult industry analysis report, EWEA, Brussels Dambourg, S. and Krohn, S. 1998 Public Attitudes Towards Wind Power, Internal publication, Danish Wind Industry Association www.windpower.dk European Photovoltaic Industries Association EPIA 2003 Solar Generation, European Photovoltaic Industries Association and Greenpeace EPIA 2005 Solar Generation, European Photovoltaic Industries Association and Greenpeace International European Wind Energy...

Energy master plans

In 1998 the World Bank commissioned a consultancy firm to develop a power transmission master plan and rural electrification strategy for Cambodia. The master plan covers load forecasts, transmission development and power generation options. In brief, the plan advocates the development of high voltage transmission lines across the country to allow the import of power from neighbouring countries, plus the development of a series of large hydropower schemes involving dams on a number of rivers...

List of Contributors

Karl Mallon trained as an experimental physicist specializing in high energy physics before pursuing an engineering doctorate in renewable energy. He was director Greenpeace Energy Solutions from 1997 to 2001 and worked on energy policy analysis and reform in Europe, North America, Southeast Asia and the Middle East. In 2002 he formed the Transition Institute, an energy think tank and business incubation company based in Sydney, Australia. He is also director of Climate Risk Pty Ltd, a company...

The Spanish Energy Context Energy dependence and emissions

Spain is highly dependent on imported energy supplies in various forms three-quarters of all basic energy requirements are imported. Nevertheless effective energy efficiency programmes have not been put in place, even despite public concern about environmental issues such as climate change. Energy consumption has been growing rapidly, increasing greenhouse gas GHG emissions well above levels agreed by Spain and the European Union toward its Kyoto commitments. Emissions levels, permitted to rise...

Implementation and tactics What are we actually going to do

Now we are ready to implement the strategy. We know what we need to do and why, who we need to speak to and what we need to say. The next step is to actually build the roll-out plan for the strategy. If we need to get the message through to a particular person, we need a way to be heard, understood and have our message taken on board, and for the message to lead to action on their part. There is always a temptation with campaigns to jump straight to tactics. Perhaps this is because tactics are...

Are the policies comprehensible enough to understand and comprehensive enough to cover all of the components required

At the outset, we must consider whether the policies we are making are clear and straightforward, and that they cover all necessary bases. We can do this in two ways. We can think of all the possible areas where we may need to legislate, or we can go to a renewable energy project developer and ask, 'What is it that you need to make your project bankable ' Bankability is the litmus test of any energy project's viability. It means that the project proponent can produce a set of contracts,...

Key messages What do we need to communicate

When you have positive information to convey, it is always tempting to try to say as much as possible in the belief that a person's opinion will be swung by the sheer weight of the good news. Sadly communication does not work like that. I was once told that people retain about 3 per cent of the detail in a presentation and about 10 per cent of the general orientation. But mainly what they remember are impressions of the presenter. This is reinforced by what communications experts say about...

The technical myth The price of renewable energy will be reduced by technical breakthrough

The first myth of energy is that some great idea will come along and revolutionize its production, making energy cheap and clean, allowing man to live in peace, enriching the poor and healing the lame. We have heard this about nuclear power, fusion reactors, solar power and many other technologies. For example, several times a year a claim rings out about a new technology that will make solar power affordable to everyone. But as we hear from KPMG, the only thing required to make solar...

The Potential for Sustainable Energy in Cambodia

An understanding of Cambodia's sustainable energy potential is a necessary basis to discuss its role in Cambodia's energy mix, and the effectiveness of current policy. However, there is no official and comprehensive review of Cambodia's renewable energy resources or energy efficiency opportunities. This presents a significant barrier to sustainable energy development, and may lead to energy policy that ignores its potential contributions and benefits to the country. The author has conducted an...

Conclusion

Cambodia is one of the world's poorest countries, yet its citizens pay some of the world's highest prices for commercial energy. Transport and power production rely almost entirely on imported fossil fuels, and households still rely on energy from wood. However, the country has some good renewable energy resources, the development of which could help reduce poverty and improve energy security and general sustainability. In many ways the conditions for sustainable energy development in Cambodia...

Technology banding

The use of a single market for all technologies rather than a system of technology banding when combined with an emphasis on costs means that the RO primarily benefits the cheaper technologies. This is to the exclusion of more expensive sources that may be less progressed in their industrial development. The RO will therefore inhibit their development relative to other sources, rather than cause an acceleration of a diverse set of commercially viable technologies. This is recognized by the UK...