Electrical storage batteries and accumulators

Electricity is a high quality form of energy, and therefore great effort is made to find cheap and efficient means for storing it. A device that has electricity both as input and output is called an (electrical) accumulator or (electrical) storage battery. Batteries are an essential component of most autonomous power systems (especially with photovoltaic and small wind turbine generation), of standby and emergency power systems, and of electric vehicles. There is also a research expectation...

Scientific principles of renewable energy

The definitions of renewable green and finite brown energy supplies Section 1.3.1 indicate the fundamental differences between the two forms of supply. As a consequence the efficient use of renewable energy requires the correct application of certain principles. It is essential that a sufficient renewable current is already present in the local environment. It is not good practice to try to create this energy current especially for a particular system. Renewable energy was once ridiculed by...

Ram Pump Calculations

Ram Pump Calculator

Further losses occur in the distribution and use of the electricity. This mechanical hydro-power device is well established for domestic and farm water pumping at remote sites, where there is a steady flow of water at a low level. The momentum of the stream flow is used to pump some of the water to a considerably higher level. For example, a stream falling 2 m below can be made to pump 10 of its flow to a height 12 m above. This is clearly a useful way of filling a header tank for piped water,...

The lead acid battery

Lead Acid Battery Chemical Reaction

Although many electrochemical reactions are reversible in theory, few are suitable for a practical storage battery, which will be required to cycle hundreds of times between charging and discharging currents of 1-100 A or more. The most widely used storage battery is the lead acid battery, invented by Plant in 1860 and continuously developed since. Such a battery is built up from cells, one of which is shown schematically in Figure 16.3. As in all electrochemical cells, there are two electrode...

Pyrolysis destructive distillation

Destructive Distillation Models

Pyrolysis is a general term for all processes whereby organic material is heated or partially combusted to produce secondary fuels and chemical products. The input may be wood, biomass residues, municipal waste or indeed coal. The products are gases, condensed vapours as liquids, tars and oils, and solid residue as char charcoal and ash. Traditional charcoal making is pyrolysis with the vapours and gases not collected. Gasification is pyrolysis adapted to produce a maximum amount of secondary...