Contents

Chapter Page

1 Introduction and Overview 1-1

2 Biomass

Overview of Biomass Technologies 2-1

Gasification-Based Biomass

1.0 System Description 2-7

2.0 System Application, Benefits, and Impacts 2-10

3.0 Technology Assumptions and Issues 2-11

4.0 Performance and Cost 2-12

4.1 Evolution Overview 2-15

4.2 Performance and Cost Discussion 2-15

5.0 Land, Water, and Critical Materials Requirements 2-18

6.0 References 2-19

Direct-Fired Biomass

1.0 System Description 2-22

2.0 System Application, Benefits, and Impacts 2-24

3.0 Technology Assumptions and Issues 2-25

4.0 Performance and Cost 2-26

4.1 Evolution Overview 2-26

4.2 Performance and Cost Discussion 2-31

5.0 Land, Water, and Critical Materials Requirements 2-32

6.0 References 2-33

Biomass Co-Firing

1.0 System Description 2-35

2.0 System Application, Benefits, and Impacts 2-36

3.0 Technology Assumptions and Issues 2-38

4.0 Performance and Cost 2-40

4.1 Evolution Overview 2-40

4.2 Performance and Cost Discussion 2-40

5.0 Land, Water, and Critical Materials Requirements 2-47

6.0 References 2-49

3 Geothermal

Overview of Geothermal Technologies 3-1

Geothermal Hydrothermal

1.0 System Description 3-6

2.0 System Application, Benefits, and Impacts 3-9

3.0 Technology Assumptions and Issues 3-10

4.0 Performance and Cost 3-12

4.1 Evolution Overview 3-12

4.2 Performance and Cost Discussion 3-16

5.0 Land, Water, and Critical Materials Requirements 3-22

6.0 References 3-26

Geothermal Hot Dry Rock

1.0 System Description 3-29

2.0 System Application, Benefits, and Impacts 3-31

3.0 Technology Assumptions and Issues 3-33

4.0 Performance and Cost 3-35

4.1 Evolution Overview 3-38

4.2 Performance and Cost Discussion 3-38

5.0 Land, Water, and Critical Materials Requirements 3-43

6.0 References 3-45

4 Photovoltaics

Overview of Photovoltaic Technologies 4-1

Residential Photovoltaics

1.0 System Description 4-5

2.0 System Application, Benefits, and Impacts 4-6

3.0 Technology Assumptions and Issues 4-7

4.0 Performance and Cost 4-8

4.1 Evolution Overview 4-8

4.2 Performance and Cost Discussion 4-11

5.0 Land, Water, and Critical Materials Requirements 4-13

6.0 References 4-15

Utility-Scale Flat-Plate Thin Film Photovoltaics

1.0 System Description 4-18

2.0 System Application, Benefits, and Impacts 4-19

3.0 Technology Assumptions and Issues 4-20

4.0 Performance and Cost 4-22

4.1 Evolution Overview 4-22

4.2 Performance and Cost Discussion 4-22

5.0 Land, Water, and Critical Materials Requirements 4-30

6.0 References 4-31

Utility-Scale Photovoltaic Concentrators

1.0 System Description 4-34

2.0 System Application, Benefits, and Impacts 4-35

3.0 Technology Assumptions and Issues 4-35

4.0 Performance and Cost 4-37

4.1 Evolution Overview 4-37

4.2 Performance and Cost Discussion 4-37

5.0 Land, Water, and Critical Materials Requirements 4-41

6.0 References 4-41

Solar Stirling Engine Basics Explained

Solar Stirling Engine Basics Explained

The solar Stirling engine is progressively becoming a viable alternative to solar panels for its higher efficiency. Stirling engines might be the best way to harvest the power provided by the sun. This is an easy-to-understand explanation of how Stirling engines work, the different types, and why they are more efficient than steam engines.

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