Introduction and Overview

Figure 1. Diversity of renewable energy resources in the United States 1-3

Figure 2. Outline for Technology Characterizations 1-8

2 Biomass

Gasification-Based Biomass

Figure 1. Biomass gasification combined cycle (BGCC) system schematic 2-7

Figure 2. Low-pressure direct gasifier 2-8

Figure 3. Indirect gasifier 2-8

Figure 4. Material and energy balance for the 1997 base case 2-16

Direct-Fired

Figure 1. Direct-fired biomass electricity generating system schematic 2-22

Figure 2. Material and energy balance for the 1997 base case 2-29

Figure 3. Material and energy balance for the year 2000 case 2-30

Co-Firing

Figure 1. Biomass co-firing retrofit schematic for a pulverized coal boiler system 2-35

Figure 2. Material and energy balance for 100 MW (Nameplate) boiler at 15%

biomass co-firing 2-45

3 Geothermal

Overview of Geothermal Technologies

Figure 1. Geothermal resource quality in the United States 3-3

Geothermal Hydrothermal

Figure 1. Geothermal hydrothermal electric system with flashed steam power plant schematic 3-6

Figure 2. Geothermal hydrothermal electric system with binary power plant schematic 3-9

Geothermal Hot Dry Rock

Figure 1. Hot dry rock electric generation schematic 3-29

Figure 2. Hypothetical minimum cost curves for hydrothermal and HDR resources 3-32

Figure 3. Basin and Range geologic province 3-35

Figure 4. Results of GEOCRACK HDR reservoir simulation 3-39

4 Photovoltaics

Overview of Photovoltaic Technologies

Figure 1. Learning curve for crystalline-silicon PV 4-2

Figure 2. Direct normal insolation resource for concentrator PV (above) and global insolation resource for crystalline-silicon and thin film PV systems (below) 4-3

Residential Photovoltaics

Figure 1. Residential photovoltaic energy system schematic

Utility-Scale Flat-Plate Thin Film Photovoltaics

Figure 1. 20 MWp (AC)/16 MWp (DC) grid-connected PV system schematic 4-18

Figure 2. Results from eight years of outdoor thin film module tests 4-25

Figure 3. Recent progress in polycrystalline thin film laboratory 4-27

Utility-Scale Photovoltaic Concentrators

Figure 1. Grid-connected photovoltaic concentrator system schematic 4-34

5 Solar Thermal

Overview of Solar Thermal Technologies

Figure 1. Solar parabolic trough 5-1

Figure 2. Solar power tower 5-2

Figure 3. Solar dish/engine system 5-2

Figure 4. Direct normal insolation resources 5-4

Solar Power Tower

Figure 1. Molten-salt power tower schematic (Solar Two, baseline configuration) 5-6

Figure 2. Dispatchability of molten-salt power towers 5-7

Figure 3. Cool down of hot storage tank at Solar Two 5-10

Figure 4. Power tower hybridized with combined cycle plant 5-12

Figure 5. A hypothetical power profile from a hybrid plant 5-12

Figure 6. In a solar power tower, plant design can be altered to achieve different capacity factors 5-14

Figure 7. Heliostat price as a function of annual production volume 5-15

Solar Parabolic Trough

Figure 1. Solar/Rankine parabolic trough system schematic 5-24

Figure 2. Integrated Solar Combined Cycle System 5-25

Figure 3. Luz System Three Solar Collector Assembly (LS-3 SCA) 5-28

Figure 4. On-peak capacity factors for five 30 MW SEGS plants during 1988 to 1966 5-31

Figure 5. Effect of power plant size on normalized levelized COE 5-34

Figure 6. Effect of hybridization on LEC 5-35

Figure 7. Cost reduction opportunities for parabolic trough plants 5-42

Solar Dish Engine

Figure 1. Dish/engine system schematic. The combination of four 25 kW e units shown here is representative of a village power application 5-45

Figure 2. Schematic of a dish/engine system with stretched-membrane mirrors 5-46

Figure 3. Schematic which shows the operation of a heat-pipe solar receiver 5-48

Figure 4. Schematic showing the principle of operation of a Stirling engine 5-49

Figure 5. Schematic of a Dish/Brayton system 5-50

Figure 6. Schematic of the United Stirling 4-95 Kinematic Stirling engine 5-51

Getting Started With Solar

Getting Started With Solar

Do we really want the one thing that gives us its resources unconditionally to suffer even more than it is suffering now? Nature, is a part of our being from the earliest human days. We respect Nature and it gives us its bounty, but in the recent past greedy money hungry corporations have made us all so destructive, so wasteful.

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