Introduction and Overview

Figure 1. Diversity of renewable energy resources in the United States 1-3

Figure 2. Outline for Technology Characterizations 1-8

2 Biomass

Gasification-Based Biomass

Figure 1. Biomass gasification combined cycle (BGCC) system schematic 2-7

Figure 2. Low-pressure direct gasifier 2-8

Figure 3. Indirect gasifier 2-8

Figure 4. Material and energy balance for the 1997 base case 2-16

Direct-Fired

Figure 1. Direct-fired biomass electricity generating system schematic 2-22

Figure 2. Material and energy balance for the 1997 base case 2-29

Figure 3. Material and energy balance for the year 2000 case 2-30

Co-Firing

Figure 1. Biomass co-firing retrofit schematic for a pulverized coal boiler system 2-35

Figure 2. Material and energy balance for 100 MW (Nameplate) boiler at 15%

biomass co-firing 2-45

3 Geothermal

Overview of Geothermal Technologies

Figure 1. Geothermal resource quality in the United States 3-3

Geothermal Hydrothermal

Figure 1. Geothermal hydrothermal electric system with flashed steam power plant schematic 3-6

Figure 2. Geothermal hydrothermal electric system with binary power plant schematic 3-9

Geothermal Hot Dry Rock

Figure 1. Hot dry rock electric generation schematic 3-29

Figure 2. Hypothetical minimum cost curves for hydrothermal and HDR resources 3-32

Figure 3. Basin and Range geologic province 3-35

Figure 4. Results of GEOCRACK HDR reservoir simulation 3-39

4 Photovoltaics

Overview of Photovoltaic Technologies

Figure 1. Learning curve for crystalline-silicon PV 4-2

Figure 2. Direct normal insolation resource for concentrator PV (above) and global insolation resource for crystalline-silicon and thin film PV systems (below) 4-3

Residential Photovoltaics

Figure 1. Residential photovoltaic energy system schematic

Utility-Scale Flat-Plate Thin Film Photovoltaics

Figure 1. 20 MWp (AC)/16 MWp (DC) grid-connected PV system schematic 4-18

Figure 2. Results from eight years of outdoor thin film module tests 4-25

Figure 3. Recent progress in polycrystalline thin film laboratory 4-27

Utility-Scale Photovoltaic Concentrators

Figure 1. Grid-connected photovoltaic concentrator system schematic 4-34

5 Solar Thermal

Overview of Solar Thermal Technologies

Figure 1. Solar parabolic trough 5-1

Figure 2. Solar power tower 5-2

Figure 3. Solar dish/engine system 5-2

Figure 4. Direct normal insolation resources 5-4

Solar Power Tower

Figure 1. Molten-salt power tower schematic (Solar Two, baseline configuration) 5-6

Figure 2. Dispatchability of molten-salt power towers 5-7

Figure 3. Cool down of hot storage tank at Solar Two 5-10

Figure 4. Power tower hybridized with combined cycle plant 5-12

Figure 5. A hypothetical power profile from a hybrid plant 5-12

Figure 6. In a solar power tower, plant design can be altered to achieve different capacity factors 5-14

Figure 7. Heliostat price as a function of annual production volume 5-15

Solar Parabolic Trough

Figure 1. Solar/Rankine parabolic trough system schematic 5-24

Figure 2. Integrated Solar Combined Cycle System 5-25

Figure 3. Luz System Three Solar Collector Assembly (LS-3 SCA) 5-28

Figure 4. On-peak capacity factors for five 30 MW SEGS plants during 1988 to 1966 5-31

Figure 5. Effect of power plant size on normalized levelized COE 5-34

Figure 6. Effect of hybridization on LEC 5-35

Figure 7. Cost reduction opportunities for parabolic trough plants 5-42

Solar Dish Engine

Figure 1. Dish/engine system schematic. The combination of four 25 kW e units shown here is representative of a village power application 5-45

Figure 2. Schematic of a dish/engine system with stretched-membrane mirrors 5-46

Figure 3. Schematic which shows the operation of a heat-pipe solar receiver 5-48

Figure 4. Schematic showing the principle of operation of a Stirling engine 5-49

Figure 5. Schematic of a Dish/Brayton system 5-50

Figure 6. Schematic of the United Stirling 4-95 Kinematic Stirling engine 5-51

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