Land Water and Critical Materials Requirements

Table 3 provides an overview of the resources required for the biomass gasification systems described here.

Table 3. Resource requirements.

Indicator

Base Year

Name

Units

1997

2000

2005

2010

2020

2030

Plant Size

MWe

75

75

100

100

100

110

Land

Plant

ha/MW

0.54

0.54

0.41

0.41

0.41

0.37

ha

40.5

40.5

40.5

40.5

40.5

40.5

Crops

ha/MW

318

318

207

207

138

138

ha

23,850

23,850

20,700

20,700

13,800

15,180

Growth rate

Mg/ha/yr

11.20

11.20

16.80

16.80

22.40

22.40

Water (Boiler Feed Water)

Mm3/yr

0.07

0.07

0.08

0.08

Energy: Biomass

PJ/yr

2.26

2.26

2.94

2.94

2.62

2.62

Feedstock: Biomass (dry)

Tg/yr

0.267

0.267

0.346

0.346

0.308

0.308

Land requirements for the plant proper are assumed to be 40.5 [email protected]$16,060/ha (100 [email protected]$6,500/acre). Feedstock requirements are based on biomass at 19.77 GJ/MT (8,500 Btu/lb), and the capacity factors from Section 4.2. Water requirements are based on results from the BIOPOWER model. Since the details of the steam injected gas turbin e technology used in the 2020-2030 cases are not known at this point, a projection for the water requirement was not made. However, it can be expected to be significantly higher since steam injected into a gas turbine is not re-captured as it is in a steam cycle.

Large-scale dedicated feedstock supply systems to supply biomass to biomass power plants are not commerciall y available in the U.S. today. The U.S. DOE recognizes this fact, and therefore a large part of its commercial demonstration program addresses dedicated feedstock issues. Projects in several locations around the country are developing commercial varieties of woody and herbaceous feedstocks. Development of feedstocks (e.g., hybrid poplar and switchgrass) and resource assessments are also underway at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

In the forest products (e.g., pulp and paper) and agriculture industries (e.g., sugar) there are many examples that demonstrate the sustainable utilization of biomass residues for power and energy production. Consequently, evidence exists that the agriculture, harvest, transport, and management technologies are capable of supporting power plants of the sizes discussed in this technology characterization.

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