Performance and Cost

Table 1 summarizes the performance and cost indicators for advanced horizontal wind turbines in windfarms bein g characterized in this report.

Table 1. Performance and cost indicators.

Base Case

INDICATOR

1996

2000

2005

2010

2020

2030

NAME

UNITS

+/- %

+/- %

+/- %

+/- %

+/- %

+/- %

Plant (windfarm) Size

MW

25

37.5

50

50

50

50

Turbine Size

kW

500

750

1,000

1,000

1,000

1,000

Hub Height

m

40

60

70

80

90

100

Rotor Diameter

m

38

46

55

55

55

55

Swept Area

m2

1,134

1,662

2,376

2,376

2,376

2,376

Performance

Annual Energy delivery Class 4 (plains site) Class 6 (ridge site)

GWh/yr GWh/yr

57 78

+5/-15

99 133

+10/-20

154 199

+10/-25

203

+10/-25

164 210

+10/-25

168 213

+10/-25

Net Annual Energy/Rotor Area Class 4 (5.8 m/s @ 10 m) Class 6 (6.7 m/s @ 10 m)

kWh/m2 kWh/m2

1,011 1,372

+5/-15

1,192 1,596

+10/-20

1,294 1,671

+10/-25

1,334 1,711

+10/-25

1,385 1,765

+10/-25

1,412 1,797

+10/-25

Capacity Factor Class 4 Class 6

% %

26.2 35.5

+5/-15

30.2 40.4

+10/-20

35.1 45.3

+10/-25

36.2 46.4

+10/-25

37.6 47.9

+10/-25

38.3 48.7

+10/-25

Annual Efficiency Class 4 Class 6

% of theoretical maximum

78.9

75.3 80.2

75.4 80.3

76.4 81.3

76.2 81.4

Annual Losses Class 4 Class 6

% of gross energy

6.5

10.0 5.5

10.0 5.5

Availabilitym

%

98

+1/-2

98

+1/-2

98

+1/-2

98

+1/-1

98

+1/-1

98

+1/-1

Table 1. Performance and cost indicators.

Base Case

INDICATOR

1996

2000

2005

2010

2020

2030

NAME

UNITS

+/- %

+/. %

+/- %

+/- %

+/- %

+/- %

Capital Cost

Rotor Assembly (including hub)

$/kW

185

180

190

160

150

140

Tower

$/kW

145

145

185

195

215

235

Generator

$/kW

50

45

55

50

45

40

Electrical/Power Electronics, Controls, Instrumentation

$/kW

155

140

100

90

75

65

Transmission/Drive Train, Shaft Brakes, Nacelle

$/kW

215

50

40

35

35

30

Turbine FOB

$/kW

750

560

570

530

520

510

Balance of Station (BOS)

$/kW

250

+5/-20

190

150

145

135

125

Total Installed Cost

$/kW

1,000

+10/-20

750

720

675

655

635

Total Installed Cost

$million

25.0

+10/-20

28.1

+20/.20

36.0

+20/-20

33.8

+20/-20

32.7

+20/-20

31.7

+20/-20

Cost per swept area

$/m2

441

+10/-20

338

+20/.20

303

+20/-20

284

+20/-20

276

+20/-20

267

+20/-20

Operations and Maintenance Cost

Annual O&M Cost*

$/turbine

10,000

+20/-30

10,400

+20/-30

11,700

+20/-30

11,300

+20/-30

11,100

+20/-30

11,000

+20/-30

$/kW-yr

20.00

+20/-30

13.87

+20/-30

11.70

+20/-30

11.30

+20/-30

11.10

+20/-30

11.00

+20/-30

Levelized Overhaul and Replacement Cost

$/kW-yr

4.8

+20/-50

4.3

+20/.50

3.6

+15/-50

3.1

+15/-50

2.2

+15/-50

2.1

+15/-50

Annual Land Lease [1,15,161

% ofrevenue

3.0

+30/-30

3.0

+30/-30

2.5

+40/-30

2.5

+40/-30

2.5

+40/-40

2.5

1. The +/- range bounds a technology envelope that includes emerging/leading technology characteristics on the + side for performance and on the - side for cost. The range also includes uncertainty of achieving technical success and sales volume, and the natural variation in projects from normal market demands.

2. Plant (windfarm) construction period is assumed to require 1 year.

* Annual O&M is expressed as $/turbine and $/kW-yr. These are two expressions of one cost and are therefore not additive.

Notes:

1. The +/- range bounds a technology envelope that includes emerging/leading technology characteristics on the + side for performance and on the - side for cost. The range also includes uncertainty of achieving technical success and sales volume, and the natural variation in projects from normal market demands.

2. Plant (windfarm) construction period is assumed to require 1 year.

* Annual O&M is expressed as $/turbine and $/kW-yr. These are two expressions of one cost and are therefore not additive.

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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