System Description

Battery energy storage can be integrated with renewable energy generation systems in either grid-connected or stand -alone applications. For stand-alone systems, batteries are essential to store electricity for use when the sun is no t shining or when the wind is not blowing. For grid-connected systems, batteries add value to intermittent renewabl e resources by facilitating a better match between the demand and supply.

The system characterized in this appendix consists of a 30 kWh battery energy storage system operating with a 30 kW PV array to shave peak load on the utility side of the meter. This system is sized for commercial or small industria l applications (low-rise buildings where PV arrays are mounted on the roof and the battery system is installed indoors ) as opposed to residential (1-4 kW) or utility (multi-MW) applications. Although batteries can be charged either by the PV array when PV output exceeds on-site requirements, or by the grid during off-peak hours for use during peak periods when rates are higher, only the latter case is considered in this appendix based on the data available. This data is from the first-of-a-kind-product.

As indicated in Figure 1, the system components include a "max power tracker", the battery subsystem, a power conditioning subsystem (PCS), switchgear and structural/mechanical items. The PV array consists of fixed PV modules that use large-area, solid-state semiconductor devices to convert sunlight into DC power. The PV subsystem i s characterized elsewhere in this document.

Max Power Tracker
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