Methodology Of Lifecycle Assessment

The increasing awareness of environmental impacts associated with the production, consumption, and disposal of commodities has led to the development of life-cycle assessment (LCA), which is a widely accepted and internationally standardized method to analyze and quantify environmental impacts of products and services. A typical life-cycle assessment (LCA) analysis consists of four independent elements 8 Definition of goal and scope Life-cycle inventory analysis Life-cycle impact assessment...

Availability Of Biomass Resources

World bioma production 6.9 x 1017 kcal World bioma production 6.9 x 1017 kcal FIGURE 1.1 Biomass resources production and utilization. FIGURE 1.1 Biomass resources production and utilization. In the United States, it is estimated that agriculture accounts directly and indirectly for about 20 of the gross national product (GNP) by contributing 750 billion to the economy through the production of foods and fiber, the manufacture of farm equipment, the transportation of agricultural products, etc....

Part I

Technologies for Application and Utilization of Renewable Resources Rationale, Drivers, Standards, and Technology for Biobased Materials 1.1.1 Biomass Renewable Resources Drivers 4 1.1.2 Government Policy Drivers 5 1.1.3 Environmental Considerations 5 1.2 Rationale and Drivers for Biobased Products 6 1.2.2 Standards for Biobased Materials Products 9 1.2.3 Examples of Biobased Content 11 1.3 Material Design Principles for the Environment 1.3.1 Biodegradability Criterion 1.3.2 Biobased Materials...

Enhancements In The Profitability Of Pha Production

Lipid Utilization

6.2.1 Factors Influencing the Profitability of Bioplastic Production Conventional plastics like polyethylene PE and polypropylene PP are produced at a price of less than US 1 kg. In 1995, the Monsanto Company sold PHA products at about 17 times the price of petrol-based plastics. It is clear that to achieve a truly cost-effective process, all production steps must be taken into account 15 . Hanggi pointed out that the raw materials constitute the major part of the production cost for...

Palm Oil As Diesel Substitute

Many researchers have investigated the possibility of using vegetable oils straight or blended as a diesel substitute. A good account of their attempts was reported in the 1983 JAOCS Symposium on Vegetable Oils as Diesel Fuels Klopfenstein and Walker, 1983 Pryde 1983 Strayer et al., 1983 . The symposium revealed that vegetable oils have good potential as alternative fuels if some problems could be overcome satisfactorily. These include high viscosity, low volatility, and the reactivity...

Renewable Resources In

Renewable Resources Found Goa

FIGURE 1.6 Direct extraction of biomass to provide biopolymers for use in manufacture of biobased products. FIGURE 1.7 Conversion to biomonomers and other chemicals and polymers. FIGURE 1.7 Conversion to biomonomers and other chemicals and polymers. short-life, single-use, disposable packaging materials and consumer products can and should be engineered to retain inherent biodegradability properties, thereby offering an environmentally responsible disposal option for such products.

Inulin And Fructose

Inulin Lauryl Carbamate

A relative newcomer in the carbohydrate field is inulin, a fructan Figure 2.9 consisting of p-linked 2 1 fructofuranose units with an a-glucopyranose unit at the reducing end. Inulin GFn is obtained in Belgium and The Netherlands from the roots of chicory. The average degree of polymerization is relatively low, n 12 45 . Small amounts of purefructan Fm, are also present in unulin. Another interesting inulin-containing crop is the Jerusalem artichoke 46 . Inulin is applied as a health additive...

Info

Andreeva, D. et al., Au alpha-Fe2O3 catalyst for water-gas shift reaction prepared by deposition-precipitation, Appl. Catal. A, Gen., 169, 9, 1998. Andreeva, D. et al., Low-temperature water-gas shift reaction on Au alpha-Fe2O3 catalyst, Appl. Catal. A, Gen., 134, 275, 1996. Andreeva, D. et al., Low-temperature water-gas shift reaction over Au alpha-Fe2O3, J. Catal., 158, 354, 1996. 122. Venugopal, A. and Scurrell, M.S., Low temperature reductive pretreatment of Au Fe2O3 catalysts, TPR TPO...