Methodology Of Lifecycle Assessment

The increasing awareness of environmental impacts associated with the production, consumption, and disposal of commodities has led to the development of life-cycle assessment (LCA), which is a widely accepted and internationally standardized method to analyze and quantify environmental impacts of products and services. A typical life-cycle assessment (LCA) analysis consists of four independent elements 8 Definition of goal and scope Life-cycle inventory analysis Life-cycle impact assessment...

Availability Of Biomass Resources

World bioma production 6.9 x 1017 kcal World bioma production 6.9 x 1017 kcal FIGURE 1.1 Biomass resources production and utilization. FIGURE 1.1 Biomass resources production and utilization. In the United States, it is estimated that agriculture accounts directly and indirectly for about 20 of the gross national product (GNP) by contributing 750 billion to the economy through the production of foods and fiber, the manufacture of farm equipment, the transportation of agricultural products, etc....

Introduction

Fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas are used to generate a very large proportion of the electricity in the world. Firing with these fuels gives rise to carbon dioxide, which is a greenhouse gas discharged to the atmosphere. So there is keen interest in reducing the CO2 emissions from sources such as fossil fuels. On the other hand, the carbon dioxide generated in the combustion of biofuels is not considered to contribute to the net CO2 content of the atmosphere, since it is absorbed...

Info

Source Cannon, J.S., Harnessing Hydrogen The Key to Sustainable Transportation, New York Inform, 1995 available on-line at http www.ttcorp.com nha. With permission. Source Cannon, J.S., Harnessing Hydrogen The Key to Sustainable Transportation, New York Inform, 1995 available on-line at http www.ttcorp.com nha. With permission. FIGURE 8.2 General presentation of energy pathways. FIGURE 8.2 General presentation of energy pathways. like transportation is called, very indicatively, well-to-wheel...

Enhancements In The Profitability Of Pha Production

6.2.1 Factors Influencing the Profitability of Bioplastic Production Conventional plastics like polyethylene PE and polypropylene PP are produced at a price of less than US 1 kg. In 1995, the Monsanto Company sold PHA products at about 17 times the price of petrol-based plastics. It is clear that to achieve a truly cost-effective process, all production steps must be taken into account 15 . Hanggi pointed out that the raw materials constitute the major part of the production cost for...

Palm Oil As Diesel Substitute

Many researchers have investigated the possibility of using vegetable oils straight or blended as a diesel substitute. A good account of their attempts was reported in the 1983 JAOCS Symposium on Vegetable Oils as Diesel Fuels Klopfenstein and Walker, 1983 Pryde 1983 Strayer et al., 1983 . The symposium revealed that vegetable oils have good potential as alternative fuels if some problems could be overcome satisfactorily. These include high viscosity, low volatility, and the reactivity...

Renewable Resources In

Renewable Resources Found Goa

FIGURE 1.6 Direct extraction of biomass to provide biopolymers for use in manufacture of biobased products. FIGURE 1.7 Conversion to biomonomers and other chemicals and polymers. FIGURE 1.7 Conversion to biomonomers and other chemicals and polymers. short-life, single-use, disposable packaging materials and consumer products can and should be engineered to retain inherent biodegradability properties, thereby offering an environmentally responsible disposal option for such products.

References

Van Os, G., The European plastic industry a sunset industry, EPF, special issue, July 2001, 19. 2. Packtech D4.1, Assessment of the Extent of Uptake and Use of Recyclable and Biodegradable Materials for use in the Food Industry Packtech D4.4 Technical Appraisal and Recommendation of the Use of Alternative Recyclable Technologies and Biodegradable Material Alternatives for Specific Applications of this Project available on-line at http www.pack-tech.org, 2003. 3. Plastics Resource available...

Inulin And Fructose

Inulin Lauryl Carbamate

A relative newcomer in the carbohydrate field is inulin, a fructan Figure 2.9 consisting of p-linked 2 1 fructofuranose units with an a-glucopyranose unit at the reducing end. Inulin GFn is obtained in Belgium and The Netherlands from the roots of chicory. The average degree of polymerization is relatively low, n 12 45 . Small amounts of purefructan Fm, are also present in unulin. Another interesting inulin-containing crop is the Jerusalem artichoke 46 . Inulin is applied as a health additive...