The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 is a U.S. law enacted in response to the 1973-74 energy crisis caused by the Arab oil embargo. Its purpose was to reduce U.S. dependency on high-priced oil imported from politically unstable countries, to prepare the United States for energy shortage conditions, and to improve energy efficiency and conservation. One of its measures for protecting the country from future oil shortages was the establishment of the SPR. It authorized the stockpiling of up to one billion barrels of petroleum in the SPR to tap into during energy emergencies. The law also gave the president of the United States the authority to withdraw crude oil from the SPR in response to an energy emergency and distribute it to oil companies by competitive sale. In addition, it established incentives for increasing domestic oil production, including offshore drilling in the United States, and called for increased production of other energy sources. Another policy the act established is the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) program, which sets minimum requirements for the number of miles per gallon of gas that cars and light trucks should be able to achieve. Under the CAFE program automobile manufacturers are required to average at least a minimum specified miles per gallon for each category of cars they make.
Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 Public Law 94-163 94th Congress
Sec. 6234. — Strategic Petroleum Reserve
(1) A Strategic Petroleum Reserve for the storage of up to 1 billion barrels of petroleum products shall be created pursuant to this part. By the end of the 3-year period which begins on December 22, 1975, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (or the Early Storage Reserve authorized by section 6235 of this title, if no Strategic Petroleum Reserve Plan has become effective pursuant to the provisions of section 6239(a) of this title) shall contain not less than 150 million barrels of petroleum products.
(2) 'Beginning on October 24, 1992, the President shall take actions to enlarge the Strategic Petroleum Reserve to 1,000,000,000 barrels as rapidly as possible. Such actions may include —
(A) petroleum acquisition, transportation, and injection activities at the highest practicable fill rate achievable, subject to the availability of appropriated funds;
(B) contracting for petroleum product not owned by the United States as specified in part C of this subchapter;
(C) contracting for petroleum product for storage in facilities not owned by the United States, except that no such product may be stored in such facilities unless petroleum product stored in facilities owned by the United States on the date such product is delivered for storage is at least 750,000,000 barrels;
(D) carrying out the activities described in section 6240(h) of this title;
(E) the transferring of oil from the Naval Petroleum Reserve; and
(F) other activities specified in this subchapter.
(b) Strategic Petroleum Reserve Plan
The Secretary, not later than December 15, 1976, shall prepare and transmit to the Congress, in accordance with section 6421 of this title, a Strategic Petroleum Reserve Plan. Such Plan shall comply with the provisions of this section and shall detail the Secretary's proposals for designing, constructing, and filling the storage and related facilities of the Reserve.
(c) Levels of crude oil to be stored
(1) To the maximum extent practicable and except to the extent that any change in the storage schedule is justified pursuant to subsection (e)(6) of this section, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Plan shall provide that:
(A) within 7 years after December 22, 1975, the volume of crude oil stored in the Reserve shall equal the total volume of crude oil which was imported into the United States during the base period specified in paragraph (2);
(B) within 18 months after December 22, 1975, the volume of crude oil stored in the Reserve shall equal not less than 10 percent of the goal specified in subparagraph (A);
(C) within 3 years after December 22, 1975, the volume of crude oil stored in the Reserve shall equal not less than 25 percent of the goal specified in subparagraph (A); and
(D) within 5 years after December 22, 1975, the volume of crude oil stored in the Reserve shall equal not less than 65 percent of the goal specified in subparagraph (A).
Volumes of crude oil initially stored in the Early Storage Reserve and volumes of crude oil stored in the Industrial Petroleum Reserve, and the Regional Petroleum Reserve shall be credited toward attainment of the storage goals specified in this subsection.
(2) The base period shall be the period of the 3 consecutive months, during the 24-month period preceding December 22, 1975, in which average monthly import levels were the highest.
(d) Plan objectives
The Strategic Petroleum Reserve Plan shall be designed to assure, to the maximum extent practicable, that the Reserve will minimize the impact of any interruption or reduction in imports of refined petroleum products and residual fuel oil in any region which the Secretary determines is, or is likely to become, dependent upon such imports for a substantial portion of the total energy requirements of such region. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve Plan shall be designed to assure, to the maximum extent practicable, that each noncontiguous area of the United States which does not have overland access to domestic crude oil production has its component of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve within its respective territory.
(e) Plan provisions
The Strategic Petroleum Reserve Plan shall include: (1) a comprehensive environmental assessment;
(2) a description of the type and proposed location of each storage facility (other than storage facilities of the Industrial Petroleum Reserve) proposed to be included in the Reserve;
(3) a statement as to the proximity of each such storage facility to related facilities;
(4) an estimate of the volumes and types of petroleum products proposed to be stored in each such storage facility;
(5) a projection as to the aggregate size of the Reserve, including a statement as to the most economically-efficient storage levels for each such storage facility;
(6) a justification for any changes, with respect to volumes or dates, proposed in the storage schedule specified in subsection (c) of this section, and a program schedule for overall development and completion of the Reserve (taking into account all relevant factors, including cost effectiveness, the need to construct related facilities, and the ability to obtain sufficient quantities of petroleum products to fill the storage facilities to the proposed storage levels);
(7) an estimate of the direct cost of the Reserve, including —
(A) the cost of storage facilities;
(B) the cost of the petroleum products to be stored;
(C) the cost of related facilities; and
(D) management and operation costs;
(8) an evaluation of the impact of developing the Reserve, taking into account —
(A) the availability and the price of supplies and equipment and the effect, if any, upon domestic production of acquiring such supplies and equipment for the Reserve;
(B) any fluctuations in world, and domestic, market prices for petroleum products which may result from the acquisition of substantial quantities of petroleum products for the Reserve;
(C) the extent to which such acquisition may support otherwise declining market prices for such products; and
(D) the extent to which such acquisition will affect competition in the petroleum industry;
(9) an identification of the ownership of each storage and related facility proposed to be induded in the Reserve (other than storage and related facilities of the Industrial Petroleum Reserve);
(10) an identification of the ownership of the petroleum products to be stored in the Reserve in any case where such products are not owned by the United States;
(11) a statement of the manner in which the provisions of this part relating to the establishment of the Industrial Petroleum Reserve and the Regional Petroleum Reserve will be implemented; and
(12) a Distribution Plan setting forth the method of drawdown and distribution of the Reserve.
(f) Purpose of drawdown and distribution; requests for funds for storage
(1) The drawdown and distribution of petroleum products from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve is authorized only under section 6241 of this title, and drawdown and distribution of petroleum products for purposes other than those described in section 6241 of this title shall be prohibited.
(2) In the Secretary's annual budget submission, the Secretary shall request funds for acquisition, transportation, and injection of petroleum products for storage in the Reserve. If no requests for funds are made, the Secretary shall provide a written explanation of the reason therefore
Sec. 6241. — Drawdown and distribution of Reserve
(a) Power of Secretary
The Secretary may drawdown and distribute the Reserve only in accordance with the provisions of this section.
(b) Drawdown and distribution of Reserve in accordance with Distribution Plan contained in Strategic Petroleum Reserve Plan
Distribution Plan contained in Strategic Petroleum Reserve Plan
Except as provided in subsections (c), (f), and (g) of this section, no drawdown and distribution of the Reserve may be made except in accordance with the provisions of the Distribution Plan contained in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Plan which has taken effect pursuant to section 6239(a) of this title.
(c) Drawdown and distribution of Early Storage Reserve in accordance with Distribution Plan contained in Early Storage Reserve Plan
Drawdown and distribution of the Early Storage Reserve may be made in accordance with the provisions of the Distribution Plan contained in the Early Storage Reserve Plan until the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Plan has taken effect pursuant to section 6239(a) of this title.
(d) Presidential finding prerequisite to implementation of Distribution Plan (1) Neither the Distribution Plan contained in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Plan nor the Distribution Plan contained in the Early Storage Reserve Plan may be implemented, and no drawdown and distribution of the Reserve or the Early Storage Reserve may be made, unless the President has found that implementation of either such Distribution Plan is required by a severe energy supply interruption or by obligations of the United States under the international energy program.
(2) For purposes of this section, in addition to the circumstances set forth in section 6202(8) of this title, a severe energy supply interruption shall be deemed to exist if the President determines that —
(A) an emergency situation exists and there is a significant reduction in supply which is of significant scope and duration;
(B) a severe increase in the price of petroleum products has resulted from such emergency situation; and
(C) such price increase is likely to cause a major adverse impact on the national economy.
(e) Price levels and allocation procedures
The Secretary may, by rule, provide for the allocation of any petroleum product withdrawn from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve in amounts specified in (or determined in a manner prescribed by) and at prices specified in (or determined in a manner prescribed by) such rules. Such price levels and allocation procedures shall be consistent with the attainment, to the maximum extent practicable, of the objectives specified in section 753(b)(1) of title 15.
(f) Removal or disposal of products in Industrial Petroleum Reserve
The Secretary may permit any importer or refiner who owns any petroleum products stored in the Industrial Petroleum Reserve pursuant to section 6236 of this title to remove or otherwise dispose of such products upon such terms and conditions as the Secretary may prescribe.
(g) Directive to carry out test drawdown
(1) The Secretary shall conduct a continuing evaluation of the Distribution Plan. In the conduct of such evaluation, the Secretary is authorized to carry out test drawdown and distribution of crude oil from the Reserve. If any such test drawdown includes the sale or exchange of crude oil, then the aggregate quantity of crude oil withdrawn from the Reserve may not exceed 5,000,000 barrels during any such test drawdown or distribution.
(2) The Secretary shall carry out such drawdown and distribution in accordance with the Distribution Plan and implementing regulations and contract provisions, modified as the Secretary considers appropriate taking into consideration the artificialities of a test and the absence of a severe energy supply interruption. To meet the requirements of subsections (d) and (e) of section 6239 of this title, the Secretary shall transmit any such modification of the Plan, along with explanatory and supporting material, to both Houses of the Congress no later than 15 calendar days prior to the offering of any crude oil for sale under this subsection.
(3) At least part of the crude oil that is sold or exchanged under this subsection shall be sold or exchanged to or with entities that are not part of the Federal Government.
(4) The Secretary may not sell any crude oil under this subsection at a price less than that which the Secretary determines appropriate and, in no event, at a price less than 90 percent of the sales price, as estimated by the Secretary, of comparable crude oil being sold in the same area at the time the Secretary is offering crude oil for sale in such area under this subsection.
(5) The Secretary may cancel any offer to sell or exchange crude oil as part of any drawdown and distribution under this subsection if the Secretary determines that there are insufficient acceptable offers to obtain such crude oil.
(6) (A) The minimum required fill rate in effect for any fiscal year shall be reduced by the amount of any crude oil drawdown from the Reserve under this subsection during such fiscal year.
(B) In the case of a sale of any crude oil under this subsection, the Secretary shall, to the extent funds are available in the SPR Petroleum Account as a result of such sale, acquire crude oil for the Reserve within the 12-month period beginning after the completion of the sale. Such acquisition shall be in addition to any acquisition of crude oil for the Reserve required as part of a fill rate established by any other provision of law.
(7) Rules, regulations, or orders issued in order to carry out this subsection which have the applicability and effect of a rule as defined in section 551(4) of title 5 shall not be subject to the requirements of subchapter II of chapter 5 of such title or to section 6393 of this title.
(8) The Secretary shall transmit to both Houses of the Congress a detailed explanation of the drawdown and distribution carried out under this subsection. Such explanation may be a part of any report made to the President and the Congress under section 6245 of this title.
(h) Prevention or reduction of adverse impact of severe domestic energy supply interruptions
(A) a circumstance, other than those described in subsection (d) of this section, exists that constitutes, or is likely to become, a domestic or international energy supply shortage of significant scope or duration; and
(B) action taken under this subsection would assist directly and significantly in preventing or reducing the adverse impact of such shortage, then the Secretary may, subject to the limitations of paragraph (2), draw down and distribute the Strategic Petroleum Reserve.
(2) In no case may the Reserve be drawn down under this subsection —
(A) in excess of an aggregate of 30,000,000 barrels with respect to each such shortage;
(B) for more than 60 days with respect to each such shortage;
(C) if there are fewer than 500,000,000 barrels of petroleum product stored in the Reserve; or
(D) below the level of an aggregate of 500,000,000 barrels of petroleum product stored in the Reserve.
(3) During any period in which there is a drawdown and distribution of the Reserve in effect under this subsection, the Secretary shall transmit a monthly report to the Congress containing an account of the drawdown and distribution of petroleum products under this subsection and an assessment of its effect.
(4) In no case may the drawdown under this subsection be extended beyond 60 days with respect to any domestic energy supply shortage.
(i) Exchange of withdrawn products
Notwithstanding any other law, the President may permit any petroleum products withdrawn from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve in accordance with this section to be sold and delivered for refining or exchange outside of the United States, in connection with an arrangement for the delivery of refined petroleum products to the United States.
(j) Purchases from Strategic Petroleum Reserve by entities in insular areas of United States and Freely Associated States (1) Definitions In this subsection:
(A) Binding offer
The term "binding offer" means a bid submitted by the State of Hawaii for an assured award of a specific quantity of petroleum product, with a price to be calculated pursuant to paragraph (2) of this subsection, that obligates the offeror to take title to the petroleum product without further negotiation or recourse to withdraw the offer.
(B) Category of petroleum product
The term "category of petroleum product" means a master line item within a notice of sale.
(C) Eligible entity
The term "eligible entity" means an entity that owns or controls a refinery that is located within the State of Hawaii.
(D) Full tanker load
The term "full tanker load" means a tanker of approximately 700,000 barrels of capacity, or such lesser tanker capacity as may be designated by the State of Hawaii.
(E) Insular area
The term "insular area" means the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the United States Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, the Freely Associated States of the Republic of the Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, and the Republic of Palau.
The term "offering" means a solicitation for bids for a quantity or quantities of petroleum product from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve as specified in the notice of sale.
(G) Notice of sale
The term "notice of sale" means the document that announces —
(i) the sale of Strategic Petroleum Reserve products;
(ii) the quantity, characteristics, and location of the petroleum product being sold;
(iii) the delivery period for the sale; and
(iv) the procedures for submitting offers.
(2) In general
In the case of an offering of a quantity of petroleum product during a drawdown of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve —
(A) the State of Hawaii, in addition to having the opportunity to submit a competitive bid, may —
(i) submit a binding offer, and shall on submission of the offer, be entitled to purchase a category of a petroleum product specified in a notice of sale at a price equal to the volumetrically weighted average of the successful bids made for the remaining quantity of the petroleum product within the category that is the subject of the offering, and
(ii) submit one or more alternative offers, for other categories of the petroleum product, that will be binding if no price competitive contract is awarded for the category of petroleum product on which a binding offer is submitted under clause (i); and
(B) at the request of the Governor of the State of Hawaii, a petroleum product purchased by the State of Hawaii at a competitive sale or through a binding offer shall have first preference in scheduling for lifting.
(3) Limitation on quantity
(A) In general
In administering this subsection, in the case of each offering, the Secretary may impose the limitation described in subparagraph (B) or (C) that results in the purchase of the lesser quantity of petroleum product.
(B)Portion of quantity of previous imports
The Secretary may limit the quantity of a petroleum product that the State of Hawaii may purchase through a binding offer at any offering to 1/12 of the total quantity of imports of the petroleum product brought into the State during the previous year (or other period determined by the Secretary to be representative).
(C) Percentage of offering
The Secretary may limit the quantity that may be purchased through binding offers at any offering to 3 percent of the offering.
(A) In general
Notwithstanding any limitation imposed under paragraph (3), in administering this subsection, in the case of each offering, the Secretary shall, at the request of the Governor of the State of Hawaii, or an eligible entity certified under paragraph (7), adjust the quantity to be sold to the State of Hawaii in accordance with this paragraph.
(B) Upward adjustment
The Secretary shall adjust upward to the next whole number increment of a full tanker load if the quantity to be sold is —
(i) less than 1 full tanker load; or
(ii) greater than or equal to 50 percent of a full tanker load more than a whole number increment of a full tanker load.
(C) Downward adjustment
The Secretary shall adjust downward to the next whole number increment of a full tanker load if the quantity to be sold is less than 50 percent of a full tanker load more than a whole number increment of a full tanker load.
(5) Delivery to other locations
The State of Hawaii may enter into an exchange or a processing agreement that requires delivery to other locations, if a petroleum product of similar value or quantity is delivered to the State of Hawaii.
(6) Standard sales provisions
Except as otherwise provided in this chapter, the Secretary may require the State of Hawaii to comply with the standard sales provisions applicable to purchasers of petroleum products at competitive sales.
(7) Eligible entities
(A) In general
Subject to subparagraphs (B) and (C) and notwithstanding any other provision of this paragraph, if the Governor of the State of Hawaii certifies to the Secretary that the State has entered into an agreement with an eligible entity to carry out this chapter, the eligible entity may act on behalf of the State of Hawaii to carry out this subsection.
The Governor of the State of Hawaii shall not certify more than one eligible entity under this paragraph for each notice of sale.
(C) Barred company
If the Secretary has notified the Governor of the State of Hawaii that a company has been barred from bidding (either prior to, or at the time that a notice of sale is issued), the Governor shall not certify the company under this paragraph.
(8) Supplies of petroleum products
At the request of the Governor of an insular area, the Secretary shall, for a period not to exceed 180 days following a drawdown of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve, assist the insular area or the President of a Freely Associated State in its efforts to maintain adequate supplies of petroleum products from traditional and nontraditional suppliers
Source: Excerpted from http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/casecode/uscodes/42/chapters/77/toc.html.
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