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How can society convert to 100 percent renewable energy? The answer to that question is the main topic of this book. Two important aspects must be considered. First, from a technical point of view, which technologies can we use to make sure that the resources available meet the demands? To answer this question, this book presents an energy system analysis methodology and a tool for the design of renewable energy systems. This part includes the results of more than ten comprehensive energy system analysis studies. The large-scale integration of renewable energy into the present system has been analyzed, as well as the implementation of 100 percent renewable energy systems.

Second, in terms of politics and social science, how can society implement such a technological change? To answer that question, this book introduces a theoretical framework approach, which aims at understanding how major technological changes, such as renewable energy, can be implemented at both the national and international levels. This second aspect involves the formulation of the Choice Awareness theory, as well as the analysis of 11 major empirical cases from Denmark and other countries.

With regard to the implementation of the change from fossil fuels to renewable energy, Denmark is an interesting case. Like many other Western countries, Denmark was totally dependent on the import of oil at the time of the first oil crisis in 1973. Almost all transport and residential heating was based on oil. Furthermore, 85 percent of the electricity supplied in Denmark was produced from oil. Altogether, prior to the oil crisis, more than 90 percent of the primary energy supply was based on oil.

Denmark, like many other countries, was unprepared for the sudden rise in oil prices. Danish energy planning had been based on the principle of supplying whatever was demanded. Power stations were planned and built on a prognosis based on the historical development of needs. Denmark had no minister of energy and no energy department, no action plans in the case of being cut off from oil supplies, and no long-term strategy for the future in case oil resources were depleted.

Nevertheless, more than 30 years later, Danish society has proved its ability to implement rather remarkable changes. Figure 1.1 shows the development of the primary energy supply of Denmark since 1972 and illustrates two important factors: Half of the oil consumption has been replaced by other

© 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-375028-0.00001-7

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Getting Started With Solar

Getting Started With Solar

Do we really want the one thing that gives us its resources unconditionally to suffer even more than it is suffering now? Nature, is a part of our being from the earliest human days. We respect Nature and it gives us its bounty, but in the recent past greedy money hungry corporations have made us all so destructive, so wasteful.

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