Schematic Diagrams and Service Manuals
Typically, schematic diagrams show resistors, capacitors, inductors, and wires as ideal components. In many cases, components can be considered as ideal. However, at high frequencies such approximations are often no longer valid. The frequency-dependent departures from ideality are mainly due to parasitic capacitances and parasitic inductances. Electromagnetic theory dictates that any two conductors will have a capacitance between them and that any conductor used for carrying current will have inductance. Parasitic capacitance and inductance create reactive impedance that varies with frequency. For a capacitor, the impedance is Zc -j 2pfC. At DC, capacitive impedance is infinite an open circuit. Capacitive impedance decreases with frequency. For an inductor, impedance is ZL j2nfL. At DC, inductive impedance is zero a short circuit. Inductive impedance increases with frequency. These parasitic impedances cause real components to behave differently at high frequencies. The parasitic...
The pump shown in this schematic diagram is an impeller type of pump which operates in a similar way to the previously mentioned slide-pump where each revolution of the pump represents a known volume of water throughput. This turbine is controlled by the revolutions of the pump. When the pump is stationary it operates very nearly the same as a stop-valve. In addition, the suction produced by flow at the conical wall has an effect back through the inlet to the pump. When the turbine is running, the pump effectively acts as a 'moderator' which does not require much in the way of energy input.
A rough schematic diagram of the original device is shown in Figure 6. With the advances that have occurred in computers, this form of analysis can now be undertaken by a special Windows program, after A D conversion of the analogue signal. This procedure and the discoveries arising from it, will be described in the next Section.
Figure 1.7 shows a schematic diagram of the possible direct drive device. It shows a semi submerged float coupled to a totally submerged hollow tube, open to the sea at both ends. Part of the tube forms a cylinder enclosing a piston connected to a rod, it is relative motion between the rod and the float which forms the basis for power take off.
Since a theoretical link was established between gravity and electromagnetism, two mass fluctuation technologies are presently under investigation. Both technologies are electrical devices with the first being inductive-based, and the second being capacitive-based. Shown below is a simplified schematic diagram that highlights their operation.
Figure 15.5 Schematic diagram, not to scale, of hydrothermal power stations in a hyperthermal region, e.g. the Geysers geothermal field, California. Figure 15.5 Schematic diagram, not to scale, of hydrothermal power stations in a hyperthermal region, e.g. the Geysers geothermal field, California. Figure 15.6 Schematic diagram of heat extraction from a hot dry rock system. Figure 15.6 Schematic diagram of heat extraction from a hot dry rock system.
A schematic diagram of the test arrangement is shown in Fig. 5. The generator is coupled by a belt to the drive motor behind it, together with the power supplies and metering both contained within and external to the Sunburst power and metering cabinet. The panel of the test cabinet provided power for the generator magnet and motor field. Meters on the panel were n ot functional and were not used external meters were supplied. It was decided to use a d-c drive motor, primarily to facilitate load tests at different speeds and to simplify accurate motor input power measurements. The actual motor used was a surplus d-c generator from a DC-6 aircraft, rated at 400 amperes at 30 volts output from 3000 to 8000 rpm and capable of over 40 hp when used as a motor with appropriate forced air cooling. Half of the motor brushes were removed to reduce friction losses. Referring to Figure 9, variable d-c supplies for the motor armature and field and the homopolar generator magnet were provided by...
FIGS. 1 and 2 are schematic diagrams of a magnetic rotating apparatus related to one embodiment of the present invention. In the specification, the term magnetic rotating apparatus will include an electric motor, and from its general meaning of obtaining turning force from the magnetic forces of permanent magnets, it will refer to a rotating apparatus utilizing the magnetic forces. As shown in FIG. 1, in the magnetic rotating apparatus related to one embodiment of the present invention, a rotating shaft 4 is rotatably fixed to a frame 2 with bearings 5. To the rotating shaft 4, there are fixed a first magnet rotor 6 and a second magnet rotor 8, both of which produce turning forces and a rotated body 10, which has mounted therealong a plurality of rod-shaped magnets 9 for obtaining the turning forces as energy. They are fixed in such a manner as to be rotatable with the rotating shaft 4. At the first and second magnet rotors 6 and 8, there are provided, as will be described later in...
Figure 7.28 Schematic diagram of a stand-alone photovoltaic system. (a) 12V DC system with battery charge controller, with possible 240 V (or 110 V) AC appliances. (b) System with maximum power tracker (MPPT). Figure 7.28 Schematic diagram of a stand-alone photovoltaic system. (a) 12V DC system with battery charge controller, with possible 240 V (or 110 V) AC appliances. (b) System with maximum power tracker (MPPT).
A schematic diagram shows components and their interconnections in a logical sense. In other words, a component may be placed to the left of another component on the schematic, but the physical placement of the components may be completely different. The companion to the schematic diagram is the layout diagram. A layout diagram is the blueprint of the physical product, showing the actual placement of components and the physical connections between them. Modern electronic circuits are constructed on printed circuit boards (PCBs). PCBs are constructed from layers of dielectric with copper traces for components and connections. The simplest PCB is a single layer of dielectric with copper traces on top and bottom. Components are placed on the top and can also be placed on the bottom of the board. Layers of dielectrics can be stacked and pressed into a sandwich. These inner layers are used as additional space for signal routing. Components, of course, can only be placed on the outer (top...
Figure 14.1 Schematic diagram of an OTEC system. A heat engine operates between the warm water from the ocean surface and the cold water from the ocean depths. Figure 14.1 Schematic diagram of an OTEC system. A heat engine operates between the warm water from the ocean surface and the cold water from the ocean depths.
Figure 16.5 Schematic diagram of a fuel cell. Hydrogen and oxygen are combined to give water and electricity. The porous electrodes allow hydrogen ions to pass. Figure 16.5 Schematic diagram of a fuel cell. Hydrogen and oxygen are combined to give water and electricity. The porous electrodes allow hydrogen ions to pass.
The inlet area is divided by six appropriately curved fins, as indicated in the plan-view schematic diagram at the bottom of the Figure. These conduit sections could have vertical dividers if so desired. The shape (or any equivalent design of conduit) produces the necessary rotation and angle of water flow needed at the turbine inlet.
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