Source: Miller (1998)

Source: Miller (1998)

Second, as the World Bank concluded in the mid 1990s, solar is actually more cost-effective than the combination of kerosene and battery charging:

Solar home systems provide energy services at a lower economic cost than the kerosene or battery option. ... Moreover, PV systems have the added benefit of being able to provide more and better light, and more conveniently, than batteries or kerosene.35

These assertions were backed up the World Bank's findings in the field (see Table 3.6).

Table 3.6 Monthly amortized costs of solar and kerosene/battery charging

Solar home system

Kerosene and batteries

Equipment Monthly cost ($)


Monthly cost ($)

50 watt SHS: 8.25 8 hrs of area lighting 6 hrs of task lighting 60Wh for radio/TV

2 wick lanterns 1 mantle lantern 1 battery

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