O Mean Flap Mom B Data a Max Flap Mom B Adams

10 12 14 16 Mean Windspeed, m/s

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Figure 50. 10-Minute mean, maximum, and minimum values of Blade 1 flap bending for

Configuration C

The summary statistics for Configuration C do not include the site-specific turbulence inputs that were included in the Configuration A FAST summary statistics shown previously. Configuration C statistics use the IEC Category A turbulence conditions. Figure 51 shows the actual turbulence intensities for the test data as compared to the IEC test case.

Figure 51. IEC Category A and test data turbulence intensities.

10 12 14

Mean Windspeed, m/s

Figure 51. IEC Category A and test data turbulence intensities.

Time series comparisons are made by driving the ADAMS model with measured wind data. Measurements of the hub-height horizontal and vertical wind speeds and the wind direction are used for the comparisons. Measurements of instantaneous horizontal wind shear were not available. Horizontal wind shear is known to be an important driver of yaw and furling motions [17], but it is difficult to measure. Driving a model with "hub-height" wind data misses small-scale turbulence effects but captures the large-scale, slow variations in wind characteristics.

Figure 52 is a plot of blade elastic twist versus rotor RPM and Figure 53 is a time series plot of blade elastic twist for the SWRT that shows the large amount of live twist during one 10-minute time series file with an average wind speed of 16.2 m/s. Figures 54-57 show the same time series file for various parameters. The FAST modeling results without torsional stiffness are also shown. The results demonstrate the importance of blade live twist to modeling, especially for the RPM. Modeled sensitivity analyses show the importance of the aerodynamic pitching moment to the blade live twist.

Rotor RPM

Rotor RPM

Figure 52. Elastic twist versus rotor RPM for one 10-minute test of Configuration C

Figure 52. Elastic twist versus rotor RPM for one 10-minute test of Configuration C

100 200 300 400 Time, s

800 750 700 650 600 550

500 M

400 350 300 250 200

100 200 300 400 Time, s

Figure 53. Elastic twist of blade tip and rotor RPM versus time for same 10-minute test (negative twist is toward feather)

Time, s

Figure 54. Rotor RPM versus time for same 10-minute test

Time, s

Figure 54. Rotor RPM versus time for same 10-minute test

Time, s

Figure 55. Rotor furl versus time for same 10-minute test

Time, s

Figure 55. Rotor furl versus time for same 10-minute test

Time, s

Figure 56. Rotor thrust versus time for same 10-minute test

Time, s

Figure 56. Rotor thrust versus time for same 10-minute test

Test

Test

0 100 200 300 400 500 600

Time, s

Figure 57. Yaw error versus time for same 10-minute test

0 100 200 300 400 500 600

Time, s

Figure 57. Yaw error versus time for same 10-minute test

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