Anthropogenic Composition of the Atmosphere

Climate change due to the use of CFCs is a major cause of imbalance and natural absorption of CO2 is another example of possible social costs from energy use, which are handed over to future generations by today's energy consumers. Again the major source of climate change is the poor combustion of fossil fuels. The atmosphere functions like a blanket, keeping the earth's heat from radiating into space. It lets solar insolation in, but prevents most of the ground infrared radiation from going...

Carbon Dioxide CO

The consumption of the fossil fuels is responsible for the increase of the CO2 in the atmosphere by approximately 3 x 1012 kg year (IPCC 2007). CO2 is a greenhouse gas and causes an increase in the average temperature on earth. The major problem is the fact that a large amount, approximately 98 of CO2 on earth, is dissolved in the water of the oceans (7.5 x 1014kg in the atmosphere, 4.1 x 1016kg in the ocean). The solubility of CO2 decreases with the increasing temperature of water by...

Contents

1 Energy and Climate 1.2 Energy and 1.3 Energy and 1.4 Energy and 1.5 Energy and the 1.6 Energy and the Atmospheric 1.7 Energy and the 2 Atmospheric Environment and Renewable 2.2 Weather, Climate, and Climate Change 2.3 Atmosphere and Its Natural 2.4 Anthropogenic Composition of the 2.4.1 Carbon Dioxide 2.4.2 Methane 2.4.3 Nitrous Oxide 2.4.4 Chlorofluorocarbons 2.4.5 Water Vapor 2.5 Energy Dynamics in the 2.6 Renewable Energy Alternatives and Climate Change 35 2.6.1 Solar 2.6.2 Wind 2.6.3...

Energy Dynamics in the Atmosphere

With the unprecedented increase in the population and industrial products and the development of technology, human beings search for ways of using more and more energy without harming or, perhaps, even destroying the natural environment. This is one of the greatest unsolved problems facing humankind in the near future. There is an unending debate that key atmospheric energy sources such as solar and wind power should be harnessed more effectively and turned directly into heat energy to meet the...

General

In the previous sections solar radiation modeling is discussed on a given single site. However, in practical solar energy assessment studies, it is necessary to have spatial (multiple sites) solar energy estimation procedures. The spatial solar energy distribution depends not only on the meteorological effects such as the clouds, aerosols, etc., but also on the topography, geographic location, and land use and soil type. In practice, single site measurements at a set of irregular locations are...

Info

Moet million oil equivalent ton (energy unit) Moet million oil equivalent ton (energy unit) Since energy cannot be created or destroyed and with the expected population increase, it is anticipated that there will be energy crises in the future, which may lead to an energy dilemma due to the finite amount of readily available fossil fuels. The population of human beings has increased in the last century by a factor of 6 but the energy consumption by a factor of 80. The worldwide average...

References

Bardossy A, Bogardi I, Kelly WE (1990a) Kriging with imprecise (fuzzy) variograms. I theory Math. Geology 22 63-79 Bardossy A, Bogardi I, Kelly WE (1990b) Kriging with imprecise (fuzzy) variograms. I application Math. Geology 22 81-94 Barnes SL (1964) A technique for maximizing details in numerical weather map analysis. J Mete-orol 3 396-409 Box GEP, Jenkins GM (1970) Time series analysis forecasting and control. Holden Day, San Francisco Clark I (1979) Practical geostatistics. Applied Science...

Spatial Variability

In general, spatial variability is concerned with different values for any property, which is measured at a set of irregularly distributed geographic locations in an area. The aim is to construct a regional model on the basis of measurement locations with records and then to use this model for regional estimations at any desired point within the area. Solar radiation varies both in time and space, and its sampling is based on the measurement stations' configuration. In many practical...

Water Vapor HO

Almost 70 of the earth's surface is covered by water bodies which are referred to collectively as the hydrosphere. Although there is not extensive human activity in the hydrosphere itself, the intensive activities on the land threaten the biological richness of oceans and especially the coastal areas where about 60 of the world's population live. Although legislative measures are taken, their application cannot be achieved due to lack of reliable data, planning, management, international...

Solar Energy Home

Careful building design makes the best use of natural daylight. In order to make the best use of solar energy, it is necessary to understand the climate of the re gion. Buildings that are inappropriate for the local climate cause energy wastage (Howell 1986). In order to gather radiation directly by devices, house roofs are constructed as discrete solar collectors. It is possible to consider a south-facing window as a kind of passive solar heating element. Solar radiation will enter during...

Photovoltaic PV Cells

PVs or solar cells (SC) convert sunlight directly into electricity. When photons strike certain semiconductor materials, such as silicon, they dislodge electrons which causes a potential difference to form between the specially treated front surface of the SCs and the back surface. In order to increase the voltage, individual cells are combined in a panel form. The most advanced photon utilization technology is the SC to which the PV effects of semiconductors are applied. SCs are the standard...

Renewable Energy Alternatives and Climate Change

Renewable energy sources are expected to become economically competitive as their costs already have fallen significantly compared with conventional energy sources in the medium term, especially if the massive subsidies to nuclear and fossil forms of energy are phased out. Finally, new renewable energy sources offer huge benefits to developing countries, especially in the provision of energy services to the people who currently lack them. Up to now, the renewable sources have been completely...

Hydrogen Storage and Transport

It is an unfortunate characteristic of solar energy that it arrives in a quite random manner depending on the meteorological conditions and it does not arrive at all time to suit our needs. Since the time of usage does not always match with the time of availability, it is necessary to store the solar energy at times of availability so as to use it at times of need. The need for new and renewable energy alternatives due to the depletion of conservative energy sources also brought about studies...

Heat Transfer and Losses

The easiest way of using collected solar radiation is for low temperature heating purposes. Most of the low-temperature solar heating systems depend on the use of glazing, because it has the ability to transmit visible light and to block infrared radiation. High-temperature solar collectors employ mirrors and lenses. Solar thermal engines are an extension of active solar heating and help to produce high temperatures to drive steam turbines to produce electric power. Solar ponds and even ocean...

Energy and the Atmospheric Environment

Even though the natural circulation in the atmosphere provides scavenging effects, continuous and long-term loading of atmosphere might lead to undesirable and dangerous situations in the future. Therefore, close inspection and control should be directed toward various phenomena in the atmosphere. Among these there are more applied and detailed research needs in order to appreciate the meteorological events in the troposphere, ozone depletion in the stratosphere, pollution in the lower...

Fuzzy Algorithm Application for Solar Radiation

A detailed account of the fuzzy sets and logic is given by Sen (1998) for the solar radiation estimation. He used fuzzy logical propositions in the forms of IF-THEN statements. Among a multitude of propositions, two of them are given here below for the sake of argument IF sunshine duration is long THEN the solar radiation amount is high. IF sunshine duration is short THEN the solar radiation amount is small. In these two propositions solar energy variables of sunshine duration and solar...

Hydrogen Energy

Hydrogen is the most abundant element on earth, however, less than 1 is present as molecular hydrogen gas H2 the overwhelming part is chemically bound as H2O in water and some is bound to liquid or gaseous hydrocarbons. It is thought that the heavy elements were, and still are, being built from hydrogen and helium. It has been estimated that hydrogen makes up more than 90 of all the atoms or 75 of the mass of the universe (Weast 1976). Combined with oxygen it generates water, and with carbon it...

Flat Plate Collectors

Free Energy Collector

The flat plate collectors are based on two important principles a black base that absorbs the solar radiation better than any other color and a glass lid that is needed to keep the heat in. Figure 7.2 shows the cross-section of the most commonly used flat plate collector. Its surface should be located perpendicularly to the solar radiation direction for the maximum solar energy gain. Here the sun's rays go through the glass cover and the air layer to warm up the black metal plate which in turn...

Linear Solar Energy Models

Long-term average values of the instantaneous (or hourly, daily, monthly) global and diffuse irradiation on a horizontal surface are needed in many applications of solar energy designs. The measured values of these parameters are available at a few places. At others no measurements exist and here the usual practice is to estimate them from theoretical or empirical models that have been developed on the basis of measured values. In practical studies it is a logical and rational idea that the...

M

ASHRAE 1981 Handbook of fundamentals, chapter 27. American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers, New York Barbour MC, Burk JH, Pitts WD 1978 Terrestrial plant ecology, 2nd edn. Cummings, Menlo Park Becquerel AE 1839 Recherges sur les effets de la radiation chimique de la lumiere solaire au moyen des courants electriques produits sous l'influence des rayons solaires. C R Acad Sci 9 145-149, 561-567 Cartwright TJ 1993 Modeling the world in a spreadsheet environmental...

Solar Noon Meridian

Earth Orbit And Declination

Fig. 3.23 Position of the sun by altitude and azimuth Fig. 3.23 Position of the sun by altitude and azimuth The zenith angle, 0z, is the angle between the vertical and the line connecting to the sun the angle of incidence of beam radiation on a horizontal surface . Likewise, the angle between the horizontal and the line to the sun is the solar altitude angle, the complement angle of the zenith angle , hence a a 0z 90 . The angle between the earth-sun line and the equatorial plane is called the...