Solar Energy Alternatives

The nuclear fusion reactions in the sun yield a huge amount of energy which is estimated at 3.47 x 1024kJ per unit time. Only a small part, about 5 x of this energy is irradiated onto the earth's surface. The incident solar energy is distributed in many ways as shown in Fig. 7.1. Solar energy is clean, undepletable, and harmless to living organisms on the earth because the harmful short wavelength ultraviolet rays are absorbed before reaching the troposphere by the stratospheric

Zekai Sen, Solar Energy Fundamentals and Modeling Techniques DOI: 10.1007/978-1-84800-134-3, ©Springer 2008

Indirect reflection long wave (0.81xl014kW)

Direct reflection short wave (0.52x1014kW)

Solar energy on the earth (1.73xl014kW)

Power station (Industry)

On site (Domestic)


Hydrogen production (Industry)

Photochemical reaction (Industry)

L Illumination and sanitation (Domestic, agriculture)


- Drying (Agriculture, industry)

Solar furnace (Industry)

Heat engine (Power station)

Cooking (Domestic, field)

Refrigeration (Ice plant)

Distillation (Water manufacturing)

Photolysis (4xl010kW)

Heating (domestic, pool, green house)

Climate and

Ocean (40.37x1012 kW)

Hydro-power (power station)

Solar Power

Solar Power

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