Do It Yourself Solar Energy

DIY Home Energy System

This ebook guide teaches you how to escape complete dependence the power grid and learn how to live mostly on your own power and make sure that you are dependent on Yourself. You will be able to slash your energy bill by over 75% and not have to depend on greedy energy companies. The largest energy corporations are a monopoly for a given area, so they do not need to care about customer service or doing right by the people they service. You will learn how to break this monopoly and depend on yourself. Make your home immune to power shortages, blackouts, and energy failures; live free of any worry that the grid will totally fail you! You will learn practical steps such as how to build your own solar panel for less than $60! Once you start relying more on solar power you will be able to easily protect your family from dangerous power outages, and live free! Read more...

DIY Home Energy System Summary


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Free Energy Dependence on Pressure

The free energy, G, is defined as We saw that the enthalpy does not change when the pressure is altered isothermally. Thus, isothermally, pressure can only alter the free energy through its effect on the entropy, S Consequently, the energy of isothermal compression of a gas is entirely free energy. This is an important effect. It is possible to change the efficiency (and the voltage) of a fuel cell by changing the pressure of products and reactants.

Renewable Energy Systems

Renewable energy systems are defined as complete energy supply and demand systems based on renewable energy as opposed to nuclear and fossil fuels. They include supply as well as demand. The transition from traditional nuclear and fossil fuel based systems to renewable energy systems involves coordinated changes in the following Integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources, such as wind power Changes such as insulation and efficiency improvements of electric devices leading to changes in the energy demand for heat, electricity, or fuel are defined as changes in the demand system. In addition to the preceding renewable energy technologies, renewable energy systems include both technologies, which can convert from one form of energy into another for example, electricity into hydrogen as well as storage technologies that can save energy from one hour to another. Mathiesen (Mathiesen and Lund 2009) and Blarke (Blarke and Lund 2008) comprise these technologies under the designation...

Renewable Energy Outline

In the METI renewable energy policy, new energy sources are defined and promoted which include photovoltaic (PV) power generation, wind power generation, solar thermal energy, ocean thermal energy, waste power generation, waste thermal energy, waste fuel production, biomass power generation, biomass thermal energy, biomass fuel production, cool energy of snow and ice, clean energy vehicles, natural gas cogeneration, and fuel cells 2 . Both R&D and policy measures to introduce renewable energy are strongly promoted because of their effectiveness in realizing sustainable energy systems in the future. In the 2005 METI report Prospect for Supply and Demand in 2030, national targets for introducing various new energy sources by 2010 are presented in Table 2.6.

Market development for renewable energy

Looking at the markets where renewable energy carriers might compete facilitates an understanding of the demand for renewable energy. The potential markets for renewable energy and the role played by the public sector to develop these markets depend on specific conditions in each country and region. Providing efficient energy-using technologies and renewable energy is a public good in many developing countries, with a wide range of benefits for sustainable development. Thus, governments must find an effective balance between liberalization and directing markets towards wider social goals. It is within developing countries that much work is necessary to develop markets for renewable energy. This implies a change in focus, away from the historically dominating resource and technology assessments. A market perspective brings into question what underlies a market, such as social conditions, demand for products and services, and consumer knowledge (UNDP, 2005). The use of renewable energy...

What is Renewable Energy

Certain forms of energy are called renewable because these fuel sources are constantly replenished and will not run out. Renewable energy like the sun and wind is readily available throughout the United States. Renewable energy technologies take this energy and convert it into usable forms of energy most often electricity, but also heat, chemicals, or mechanical power. These technologies are often described as clean or green because they produce little or no pollutants. Most renewable energy comes directly or indirectly from the sun. The sun's rays transmit solar energy that can heat and light homes, heat water, cook food, generate electricity, and power industrial processes. Heat from the sun causes air temperature differences that, along with the Earth's rotation, cause the wind to blow. The wind powers generators that

The Evolution of Renewable Energy Policy Making in India The renewable policy context

Two major issues have been responsible for putting renewable energy sources in the right perspective in India the widening gap between energy consumption and supply and the resultant polluting emissions generated by using conventional fossil fuels. Furthermore, renewable energy technologies have an important role to play in the socio-economic development of the communities in developing countries, including India. India was among the few first countries in the world to have launched a major programme for harnessing renewable energy. By the 1990s the government of India came to recognize the importance of renewable energy as a means of decentralized energy systems which could meet the requirements of far-flung rural areas. The government of India had given a new thrust to its efforts at the beginning of the Eighth Five-Year plan (1992 97) which included the use of renewable energy technologies for power generation. Over the past two decades, several renewable energy technologies have...

The renewable energy advocates

In Spain two key groups have emerged as the most active and vocal advocates for renewable energy and the systemic changes needed to bring about its development independent developers and civil society organizations. The independent developers' role was a key one. Smaller than traditional utilities, they also differed in that they wanted to use renewable energy mainly small-scale hydro and wind. To protect and promote their common interest, these firms formed umbrella associations. This allowed them to speak with a unified voice and the content, in many cases, was quite different from what upper management of traditional utilities were saying about renewable energy. A 1992 agreement to promote wind power provides an example of the pressure that multi-stakeholder coalitions applied to foster Spanish renewable energy development. At a time when the official IDAE objective was 175MW, a coalition comprising a nationwide environmental organization (Asociacion Ecologista de Defensa de la...

The Value of Renewable Energy in a Competitive Wholesale Market Introduction

This section deals with the valuing of renewable energy generation when competing against other forms of generation in an electricity market. The following section deals with the issue of the 'green value' of the electricity. There are two basic differences between renewable energy generation and 'conventional' generation with regard to trading in an electricity market. These are the relatively small size of renewable energy generation units the variability or lack of controllability for most renewable energy generation units. The first issue indicates that such generators tend to have less teverage in a competitive market. In order to make a reasonable profit, electricity suppliers have relatively large customer bases and may demand thousands of MW. Renewable energy generators may only produce tens of MW (though some of the proposed offshore wind farms may produce significantly more than this). Many of the power exchanges, for example, do not accept bids or offers of less than 1 MW...

Renewable energy sources

Table 1.1 lists the main renewable energy sources used for electrical power generation, along with the distinctive types of development for energy conversion and extraction. Apart from the production of heat or chemicals, the generation of electrical energy is the main purpose. Table 1.1 Renewable energy sources for electrical power generation Renewable resource Municipal solid waste (MSW) Hydro photovoltaic Source Tyndall Centre (2003)

Renewable energy resources and technologies

Renewable energy, with its low carbon footprint, the relative speed with which it can be deployed into developed and developing communities alike, and its ability to generate new kinds of businesses and green jobs, is a key element of the transition to a Green Economy . Assessing the renewable energy sources available in or near to a city is a crucial step before developing policies that support the deployment of renewable energy technologies. The variability of some renewable energy sources such as wind and solar can be problematic when attempting to continually match electricity supply with demand (Fig. 13). Electricity demand by season on the left (depicted as MWh per half hour intervals over 24 hour periods) shows a higher demand in winter (June July), peaks in the evenings and troughs at night and mid-afternoons. This partly matches the local wind resource (shown on the right as mean annual wind speeds over half hour intervals) with peaks in the afternoons in spring and autumn...

Renewable Energy Programs

The following are the renewable energy programs being developed Solar thermal Wind energy Photovoltaic Biomass Geothermal Small hydro power Energy from waste Ocean energy PREGA is an acronym for the Netherlands Cooperation Fund on Promotion of Renewable Energy, Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Abatement. The main objective of PREGA is to promote investments in renewable energy, energy efficiency, and greenhouse-gas abatement technologies in developing member countries. Such investments will Develop capacities of national policy makers, technical experts, and staff of financing institutions to promote renewable energy, energy efficiency, and greenhouse-gas abatement Support policy, regulatory, and institutional reforms, including removal of

Renewable and Solar Energy Technologies Energy and Environmental Issues

Abstract A critical need exists to investigate various renewable and solar energy technologies and examine the energy and environmental issues associated with these various technologies. The various renewable energy technologies will not be able to replace all current 102 quads (quad 1015 BTU) of U.S. energy consumption (USCB 2007). A gross estimate of land and water resources is needed, as these resources will be required to implement the various renewable energy technologies. Keywords Biomass energy conversion systems ethanol geothermal systems hydroelectric power photovoltaic systems renewable energy solar wind power

Scenarios for renewable energy

Many scenarios have been developed to illustrate future global demand and supply of energy (see Table 2.8). The year 2050 has been chosen for illustrative purposes, which in the literature is a frequently selected year for long-term energy scenarios. Special attention is given to several sets of scenarios the Renewables-Intensive Global Energy Scenario (RIGES) the scenarios presented by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) and the World Energy Council (WEC) the set of scenarios developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and scenarios defined by Shell International (SI). It is important to note that a larger renewable energy share of total energy supply does not necessarily mean a high quantity of renewable energy, because it depends on the total energy use in the scenario. Table 2.8 Scenarios for renewable energy, 2050 Table 2.8 Scenarios for renewable energy, 2050 Total renewable energy ( )

Chapter Institutional Considerations for Renewable Energy Development

This chapter addresses issues related to renewable energy development, especially for water pumping applications. Water pumping is one of the simplest and most cost-effective applications for solar and wind energy technologies in remote rural communities however, as with all development projects, institutional issues must be considered for long-term success. The critical links for any renewable energy project are the technology and the implementing agencies and the infrastructure that support it. Technical aspects are vital to ensure successful implementation of renewable energy projects, but they are not enough to guarantee the future of a project. Technically acceptable designs and installations often fail because of a lack of focus on institutional issues. This is especially true for development programs that introduce new technologies such as solar and wind water pumping in rural settings. However, as with all mechanical and electrical systems, the implementing agency and user...

The Future Direction of Indian Renewable Energy Policies

It is important for national policies in India to keep up with the maturing industry. Already a comprehensive renewable energy policy for all-round development of the sector has been formulated by the MNES. Policy measures aim at overall development and the promotion of renewable energy technologies and applications. Specifically, these will focus on policy initiatives encouraging private investment and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). The growth in demand for renewable energy has had profound implications on industry and has also led to a growth in international industrial partnerships in the renewable energy sector. A new thrust is being given to consolidate the progress made so far, by undertaking efforts to remove constraints and bottlenecks for accelerated utilization, and also to venture in new directions across the entire spectrum of rural energy, solar energy and power generation by using RETs. Although the MNES has been supporting R&D for technology and human resources...

Are the renewable energy policies consistent with policies and measures for other parts of the energy sector or are

Government policy, or rhetoric, sometimes from various departments, is not always fully aligned rather it is dynamic and may be contradictory. This affects renewable energy investment when there is inherent conflict between statements and policies on energy or the environment. Any business must acknowledge that legislation can change from term to term. In so doing, business must look to longer-term indicators to assess possible futures. Thus a business considering renewable energy investment will be looking closely at government policies towards climate change, energy pricing, pollution or extended producer liability.2 I will also be looking at the relative support government gives to other industries. If a government spends millions of dollars on fossil fuel research but nothing on renewable energy research, what insight does that provide into its views on the future energy mix

Accelerating a Renewable Energy Future

At the outset we asked two essential questions about solar. First, why was a technology with such enormous potential so slow to diffuse in emerging markets throughout the 1980s and 1990s And second, why at just the point when many were starting to give up on solar, did diffusion pick up in some emerging markets so quickly at the turn of the new century We asked these questions not just because they were relevant to solar, but because through answering them, we could shine a light on the much bigger picture of renewable energy diffusion. We now return to these questions, and summarize our solar findings in the first part of this concluding chapter. The second part then returns to diffusion research and the analytical framework developed in Chapter 2. Here I show how the framework can be used to explain the diffusion of a range of renewable energy and energy-efficient innovations. In the third and final part, I identify five 'big picture' lessons from Selling Solar for the challenge of...

Solar Energy in Sweden Finland

A two week study tour (or one week option) of community scale renewable energy projects, research labs, and technology exhibition centers in Sweden and Finland, including solar, wind, and biomass. Both countries have major national initiatives to develop renewable energy. Opportunity to attend 1991 International Symposium on Energy and Environment in Espoo, Finland, August 25-28. Option to depart USA on August 22 for a one week tour to exhibition centers and symposium only. Full tour (two weeks) will include a visit to production plant for highly-insulated building components, and ferry across the Baltic Sea from Sweden to Finland with a seminar held on board. For more information on the Sweden Finland tour or the 1992 Denmark Germany tower contact the Minnesota Energy Council, POB 8222, St Paul, MN 55108, 612-378-2973

Renewable energy innovations

Technological innovation is critical to the reshaping of energy systems in ways that encourage sustainable development (Johansson et al, 1993a). However, the development and diffusion of sustainable and affordable renewable energy technologies is not occurring fast enough or widely enough (Turkenburg, 2002). The challenge of stimulating novel technologies is primarily one for industrialized countries, which have the technical and economic resources for sustained research and development, and for the dissemination of renewable energy technologies. Without effective policy it is unlikely that new technologies can overcome barriers and penetrate the market to any significant extent (see Table 2.9).

Box Definition of renewable energy

In a broad sense, the term 'renewable energy sources' refers to hydro energy, biomass energy, solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy and ocean energy. The term 'new' renewables suggests a greater focus on modern and sustainable forms of renewable energy. In particular, these are modern biomass energy, geothermal heat and electricity, small-scale hydropower, low-temperature solar heat, wind electricity, solar photovoltaic and thermal electricity, and ocean energy (tidal, wave, current, ocean thermal, osmotic and marine biomass energy). In 2004, renewable energy provided 17 per cent of global primary energy consumption, mostly traditional biomass, and about 19 per cent of electricity, mostly large-scale hydropower. 'New' renewables contributed only 2 per cent of the world's primary energy use. However, 'new' renewables, often based on indigenous resources, have the potential to provide energy services with low or zero emissions of both air pollutants and greenhouse gases. A rapid...

Current policies relating to renewable energy project deployment

I Necessary bank loans required for capital investment in renewable energy installations are guaranteed by the council. A public campaign for the promotion of renewable energy and project installations has been undertaken. In 1997, Sams0 was completely dependent on oil and coal, which was imported from the mainland. Today, it is carbon-neutral and uses 100 renewable energy in all areas other than transport, which is also making significant strides to meet this goal. As one resident simply stated, Our successes can easily be replicated elsewhere.

Money myth Because renewable energy is more expensive and capital intensive the best governments can do is to throw

As each renewable energy technology becomes more commercially mature, governments become less significant as providers of the direct capital support needed to make up the cost difference relative to conventional generation. What governments can do instead is focus on policy design and legislation to attract private sector investment. Governments' critical role is their use of legislation and market dynamics to leverage private sector investment into renewable power projects and industries. Past successful policies provided secure markets for projects by legislating to distribute the premium costs of renewable energy development onto the energy consumer (who is ultimately responsible for the source of the pollution in the first place) or onto the taxpayer (whose natural and social assets are being protected). Wide distribution of this cost ensures that its price impact is minimized. We will see practical examples of success and failure in the country chapters later in the book.

Financial incentives for renewable energy

Financial incentives reduce the costs of renewable energy by lowering the price paid for RETs or energy, increasing the payment received, or reducing the cost of production. They include market compensation in the form of tax credits, rebates and payments to subsidize investment in a technology or in energy production. Such incentives have been used extensively in Europe, Japan, the US and India one of the few developing countries with tax credits to date.5 Long-term, low-interest loans and loan guarantees work to reduce the cost of capital. And the reduction or elimination of subsidies for conventional energy, while not a subsidy for renewable energy, helps to level the playing field so that renewables are better able to compete on a cost basis.

Box Example of effectiveness assessment the Renewable Energy and International Law Project

The Renewable Energy and International Law Project (REILP) is supported by the UK Foreign Office's Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership, the law firm Baker & McKenzie and several universities (Yale, the Centre for Energy, Petroleum and Mineral Law and Policy at the University of Dundee, and others). Other project partners include the World Conservation Union (IUCN - through its Environmental Law Programme), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the Australian and US governments, and the secretariat of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The project is looking at ways in which international law can be used as a tool to support the development of renewable energy, and, conversely, ways in which it may currently be impeding that development. It has not been possible to identify, in a clear and convincing way, which initiatives work, which do not, and why. While success and failure are always relative, and conditioned upon the particular context, a...

The Conversion of Renewable Energy into Electrical Form

Renewable energy is available in a variety of forms. Uniquely, biomass is available in the form of combustible fuel and thus can play a similar role in generation as conventional fossil fuels. To generate electricity, all other renewables require a number of conversion stages that differ from those found in systems based on traditional fuels. Solar energy is available as radiation ranging from ultraviolet to infrared. Conversion into electricity can be implemented thermally by solar furnaces that raise steam to drive conventional turbines or through solid state photovoltaic devices that utilize the radiation to separate charges in semiconductor junctions. The efficient operation of PV based systems depends on interfacing the PV array to the grid through a power electronic converter. Renewable Energy in Power Systems Leon Freris and David Infield 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

Transition to Renewable Energy

Despite its environmental and economic benefits, the transition to large-scale use of renewable energy presents several difficulties. Renewable energy technologies, all of which require land for collection and production, will compete with agriculture, forestry, and urbanization for land in the United States and world. The United States is at maximum use of its prime cropland for food production per capita today, but the world has less than half the cropland per capita that it needs for a diverse diet (0.5 ha) and adequate supply of essential nutrients (USDA 2004). In fact, more than 3.7 billion people are already malnourished in the world (UN SCN 2004, Bagla 2003). With the world and US populations expected to double in the next 58 and 70 years, respectively, all the available cropland and forestland will be required to provide vital food and forest products (PRB 2006). As the growing U.S. and world populations demand increased electricity and liquid fuels, constraints like land...

Renewable Energy and Democracy

In the 1970s, an energy movement arose in Denmark as in many other Western countries. This movement was constituted among others by the antinuclear movement (OOA) and the Danish Organization for Renewable Energy (OVE). When the OOA was created and these energy problems were discussed, the issues of democracy and living conditions in local communities played major roles in the arguments against nuclear and in favor of renewable energy. With regard to nuclear, some were afraid of the consequences of such technology in terms of security and ownership. The question was how to guard the plants and the transport of radioactive waste without having to hire security staff and erecting fences. Who should own and operate these big power stations If ownership was assigned to big companies, it would mean that local communities would lose influence. Also, how should space for nuclear power stations be allocated and radioactive waste be disposed of without impacting the quality of life for the...

The Renewable Energy

When the provisions for clean generation were reviewed, policy-makers decided to include solar production in this portfolio. Brought into force on 1 April 2000, The Renewable Energy Law (REL) provided for a payment of 50 Euro cents (67 US cents) per kWh for energy generated from PV panels.

Large Scale Integration of Renewable Energy

The large-scale integration of renewable energy sources into existing energy systems must meet the challenge of coordinating fluctuating and intermittent renewable energy productions with the rest of the energy system. Meeting this challenge is essential, especially with regard to electricity production, since electricity systems depend on an exact balance between demand and supply at any time. Given the nature of photovoltaic (PV), wind, wave, and tidal power, little can be gained by regulating the renewable source itself. Large hydropower producers are an exception, since such units are typically well suited for electricity balancing. However, in general, the possibilities of achieving a suitable integration are to be found in the surrounding supply system that is, in power and CHP stations. The regulation in supply may be facilitated by flexible demands for example, heat pumps, consumers' demand, and electric boilers. Moreover, the integration can be helped by different energy...

Subsidy reform and renewable energy levelling the playing field

While subsidies often have detrimental impacts, governments can have a clear and pressing policy goal for which subsidies are an appropriate instrument. The existence of market barriers to the introduction of climate-friendly technologies provides an example where subsidies may be justified. Renewable energy sources, which often have high initial (capital) costs and concomitant risks, may be Subsidies for renewable energy may be usefully focused in three areas (1) reducing technical barriers (2) overcoming market impediments (including through the internalizing of externalities) and (3) addressing administrative barriers and social and environmental constraints.

Renewable energy resource assessment

It would be wise for a local government to initially establish the type and amount of energy resources currently consumed by the whole community. It should also assess the sub-set of those resources used for undertaking the specific work programme when operating the services and facilities as a local authority. Determining the energy available, the energy demand projections, the resulting emissions from energy use, the type and amount of renewable energy resources, and the energy flows and balances should be conducted by and summarised in an energy status report (as has been accomplished by Nagpur city)102. This is usually required as a first step before encouraging the increased collection and use of local renewable energy sources. Seasonal and daily variations in energy demand need to be considered when evaluating the potential for renewable energy supply. For the renewable resources whose supply varies over the short term, particularly solar, wind and wave power, storage and...

Renewable Energy at Home

DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND RENEWABLE ENERGY For more information on Clean Energy Clean Energy for the 21st Century brochure This 8-page brochure describes the programs and initiatives of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Discover the breadth and depth of our programs and the wide range of customers we serve. This brochure will help you gain a greater understanding of the ways in which we're working to ensure a secure and prosperous energy future for America. Document no. DOE GO-10099-911. Clean Energy for the 21st Century poster This attractive poster displays a variety of energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies. Great for science fairs and energy-related events, the poster is a colorful reminder of the impact that energy has on our everyday lives. Quantities are limited to five copies per request. To order the Clean Energy for the 21st Century brochure and or the poster, visit our Web site at...

Percent Renewable Energy Systems

The basic recommendation is to raise the awareness that an energy system based on 100 percent renewable energy is an option. Based on the case of Denmark, this book presented two studies of the technical challenges and perspectives of converting present energy systems into a 100 percent renewable energy system. Each study involved two or three alternatives that were based on either biomass or wind power. The studies concluded that a 100 percent renewable energy supply based on domestic resources was physically possible in Denmark and that the first step toward 45 percent in 2030 was feasible for Danish society. The first study identified some key improvements of system flexibility as being essential to the conversion of the energy system into a 100 percent renewable system. The analyses showed that the Danish energy system could be converted into a 100 percent renewable energy system when combining 180 TJ year of biomass with 5 GW PV and between 15 and 27 GW wind power. In the...

Market penetration of renewable energy

The ongoing slow process of market take-over by renewable energy technologies has been linked to political debates and concrete actions to speed up or slow down the transition process. Political initiatives to facilitate introduction have been based on the belief that fossil resources are close to their peak production and will gradually have to be marketed at higher and higher prices, as they physically get more difficult to extract, or in some regions simply get exhausted. In recent decades, a substantial part of the world have acknowledged the reality of increased greenhouse warming as a result of fossil fuel combustion, and used this an the key argument for a rapid introduction of renewable energy sources. One should also take notice of the strong vested interests opposing renewable energy development the fossil and nuclear fuel lobbies, large utility preservation organisations and economic advisors opposing any kind of fair market establishment that involves consideration of the...

Pending policies relating to renewable energy project deployment

I T he overall policy objective is to become 100 renewable energy dependent. Sticks I T solar access ordinance for new neighbourhood planning has been prepared. It exempts the cost of on-site wind and solar energy projects from sales and property taxes and provides the necessary safety requirements. I Where possible, adopting net-metering and other policies to encourage on-site renewable energy use by building owners is being encouraged. A draft interconnection agreement and net-metering policy has been prepared with the utility. I Educational efforts in the community will be made to target the opportunities for renewable energy utilisation and provide information to enable options to be evaluated. Once established, the Sustainable Resource Office will be the vehicle for education, including about how to further reduce emissions and energy use with day-to-day lifestyle choices, including lawn mowers, incandescent light bulbs versus LEDs, water heaters, etc.

What unknowns exist in the policies that might affect the size of the market the prices paid for renewable energy or

Unknowns are like the dark matter of renewable energy they can mean the difference between the universe exploding or collapsing. Some of the variables that can interfere with market growth include the level of support, the duration of support eligibility, the duration of support schemes and the quantity of renewa-bles required under the scheme (upper limits). Again, however, it comes back to increasing the bankability of projects and minimizing the uncertainties that expose projects to risk. Many would agree that one of the factors responsible for successful German renewable energy policies is the minimization of such uncertainties. The price for various types of energy was clearly set out and the scheme did not have cut-off dates within the lifetime of likely projects. Developers still had to deal with variables including hardware costs, fuel costs or size, exchange rates and so forth, but thereafter the system into which they were selling was to a large extent set in stone (subject...

What outcomes are actually intended from the renewable energy policies

There are many reasons (and therefore many potential objectives) for accelerating renewable energy development. They include sustainability objectives, energy policy reform, renewable energy production, new generating capacity, indigenous fuel manufacture, greenhouse gases (GHGs) mitigation, distributed generation, increment size, energy cost and least-cost planning (internalization), energy security, new industry manufacturing development, development of intellectual property in new technologies, job creation, rural development and nuclear phase-out. So, in this case, the country's renewable energy policy priorities, in order and beginning with the most important, will be new generating capacity, reliability, energy security, small increment size, low-cost generation and finally sustainabil-ity objectives.

Other Clean Energy Sources

Even by combining energy efficiency measures and renewable energy generation, most of us will have to use fossil fuels to meet our energy needs. But we can use the cleanest energy sources available. For instance, natural gas burns much cleaner than other fossil fuels, and can be used to heat your home, provide water heating, and power appliances such as clothes dryers, usually at a

Renewable energy technologies

I Around 40 GWh of renewable electricity is generated annually at present. With 1 800 hours of sunshine received annually, the solar resource in the city is one of the best in Germany. The rapid uptake of solar PV has also been supported by the national feed-in-tariff law and under the Renewable Energy Act, power is sold to the grid. Approximately 60 local buildings have significant solar PV systems integrated into their designs. These include the 100 kWp system installated on Trade Fair Centre roof 365 kWp above an expressway tunnel 240 PV panels on the 19-floor fa ade of the railway station as well as various PV panels installed on the City Hall, the Fraunhofer Research Institute for Solar Energy Systems, half of the 70 schools, several churches, a few factories (including 570 kWe installed on the Solar-Fabrik manufacturing plant), private houses, supermarkets and multi-storey car parks (Fig. 35). By 2009 over 12 MWp of PV capacity had been installed in total, producing around 10...

Solar Electricity Today The Renewable Energy Resource Directory

This is a vastly updated and expanded listing of most every manufacturer, distributor, and dealer in the field of renewable energy. It contains over 800 listings spanning the topics of publications, dealers, manufacturers and specific hardware by type (like batteries or controls, for example). Names and complete addresses, most with phone numbers, make this resource directory essential for anyone in the biz and anyone purchasing components or services. Editor Paul Wilkins deserves the Medal of Excellence with PV clusters for the great work he's put into this new directory.

Solar Energy In The Mediterranean An Infinite Energy Resource

By far the biggest energy resource in countries in the Near and Middle East and North Africa is solar irradiance, with a potential that is by several orders of magnitude larger than the total world electricity demand. This resource can be used both in distributed photovoltaic systems and in large central solar thermal power stations. Thus, both distributed rural and centralised urban demand can be covered by renewable energy technologies. I Photovoltaics Hydropower I Wind CSP Plants I Photovoltaics Hydropower I Wind CSP Plants

Solar Tomorrow Million Solar Homes

To give ourselves a benchmark for what accelerated diffusion might look like, we can turn to the objective set by the G8 at the start of the new millennium. At the Okinawa Summit in 2000, the G8 called for the formation of a task force to assess barriers and recommend actions to accelerate the diffusion of renewable energy technologies in emerging markets. And the final communiqu at the G8 Genoa summit 2001 stated that

The energy future and the role of renewable energy

Nuclear energy sources, this leads to the general prediction that renewable energy sources must take over at some stage, and the only debate is on how soon this will happen. It has been suggested that fusion energy constitutes an alternative to renewable energy as the long-term solution. However, as elaborated in section 3.7.3, it is not clear at present whether fusion energy on Earth will ever be come a feasible and practical source of controlled energy supply. It will create nuclear waste in amounts similar to those of fission technologies and will counteract the development towards decentralised technologies characterising the present trend. It is probably an exaggeration to imagine that the introduction of one kind of energy technology rather than another will determine or solve such institutional problems. What may be true, though, is that certain types of technology are more suitable for societies organised in a particular way and that the kind of technology imagined in...

National policy and strategy for renewable energy

The World Bank commissioned an international consulting firm in 2003 to prepare strategy and policy documents for renewable energy-based rural electrification in Cambodia. This activity was a follow-up to the REAP, and was seen as an important precursor to the Rural Electrification and Transmission project. This project will be implemented with loan funding from both the World Bank and the ADB, and a grant from the Global Environment Facility. This is an extensive project with activities ranging from building a transmission line from Vietnam to Phnom Penh for importing power, to the establishment of a Rural Electrification Fund (REF) to support the development of rural mini-grids, especially those based on renewable energy generation.

Policy for All Round Development of Renewable Energy

Fiscal incentives are being offered to increase the viability of RE projects the main incentive is 60 accelerated depreciation. Other incentives include a tax holiday, lower customs duty, sales tax, and excise tax exemption for RE projects. The Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency is the main financing institution for renewable energy projects. It offers financing of the renewable projects with lower interest rates, which vary with the technology, depending on its commercial viability. Though interest rates are falling in India, they are not in the renewables sector for various reasons, but mainly due to perceived high risk. The interest rates vary from 11 (for biomass cogeneration) to 14.5 (for wind). The Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol has started offering additional stream of revenue making renewable energy projects more attractive.

Imagine renewable energy on a larger scale

They are spending millions of dollars on research programs for alternative energy sources such as ethanol derived from corn. They're offering tax breaks to people who drive hybrid vehicles and corporations who invest in the research of renewable energy. If even a fraction of the money spent on the US military every year went into the development of renewable energy sources we would see advancement in technologies and the cost of renewable energy start to go down almost immediately.

The three distinctive stages of renewable energy development

When looking at the historical development of renewable energy in India we can see three distinct stages 2 The second stage, from the early 1980s to the end of that decade, witnessed a major expansion of activity with the emphasis on large-scale demonstration and subsidy-driven extension activities, mainly in the field of biogas, improved cooking stoves and solar energy.

Conversion of renewable energy sources

For hydropower, development is expected to be largely restricted to efforts to deal better with environmental and social impacts. This could lead to emphasis on smaller, cascading schemes instead of the very large dam installations seen in the past. Still, the basic technology must be considered as fully developed, and as the cost of environmentally sound hydro schemes is rarely lower than that of fossil plants, the expansion rate of hydropower globally has slowed to nearly zero. There are still possible new sites available, and if social acceptance can be regained after the disasters of the past (flooding the homes of hundreds of thousands people and destroying treasures of cultural heritage - most recently in Turkey), then environmentally integrated hydro could add a further substantial amount to global renewable energy supply.

Economic potentials of renewable energy

Substantial cost reductions in the past few decades in combination with government policies have made a number of renewable energy technologies competitive with fossil fuel technologies in certain applications. However, making these renewables competitive will require further technology development and market deployment, as well as an increase in production capacities to mass-production levels (Johansson and Goldemberg, 2002 van Sark et al, 2005). The present status of 'new' renewables shows that substantial cost reductions can be achieved for most technologies (see Table 2.7). Experience curves for renewable energy Table 2.7 Status of renewable energy resources and technologies, 2001 Table 2.7 Status of renewable energy resources and technologies, 2001 Solar energy Photovoltaic electricity Note Data from several sources, including wind turbines produced in Denmark (Neij et al, 2003), photovoltaics worldwide (Parente et al, 2002), and ethanol produced in Brazil (Goldemberg et al,...

Renewable energy some characteristics

Solar energy manifests itself as low-temperature solar heat, high-temperature solar heat, wind electricity and photovoltaics. Low-temperature solar heat is produced by the absorption of sunlight by darkened surfaces that convert it into heat, which can be used for warming water or other fluids. High-temperature solar heat can be obtained by focusing sunlight and heating fluids to a high temperature so that they can be used to generate electricity. The warming of the atmosphere by solar heating leads to turbulence manifested as wind, which can be used to generate electricity. Photovoltaics is the direct conversion of the ultraviolet component of sunlight into electricity in appropriate surfaces. These forms of energy are all, by definition, renewable. Geothermal energy manifests itself in the form of hot water or vapour and can be used for heat or electricity production in some specific regions. It is generally considered to be a renewable energy source. Tidal energy can be used to...

The Experiments with Renewable Energy Hardware

The solar cells are a major component of the Renewable Energy building materials. These are used for the direct current experiments. Each solar cell generates approximately 0.4 volts at 100 mA (milliamperes) under no load. Take a look at them now. There are eight of them and they fit into a convenient holder that allows you to hook them up in a number of series and parallel arrangements. Don't worry about what appear to be damaged cells with lines and streaks this is how they come. Also look at the back of each solar cell to see the + (positive) and - (negative) screw terminals. When the cells are placed in the enclosure you can also view the + and - terminals through the holes

Money myth Renewable energy is more expensive than thermal power

Current renewable energy is only more expensive than thermal (nuclear and fossil) generation if the environmental and social impacts, the 'externalities', are not priced. Failure to acknowledge this in some way leads to distorting policy frameworks. Furthermore, renewable prices are declining and even in the most hostile markets they will continue to converge in price with conventional energy sources without externality pricing.

Task specific photovoltaic modules

All photovoltaic modules are classed as some form of TSPM (Task Specific Photovoltaic Module). This means that every solar panel is designed to perform a particular task. Conventional solar panels are called BSPMs (Battery Specific Photovoltaic Modules). Most panels sold commercially are of this type and are designed solely to charge battery systems. These panels come in 12 volt, 24 volt and 48 volt configurations. Most have short circuit current ratings of from 2 to 10 amperes. ESPMs (Electrolyzer Specific Photovoltaic Modules) are uniquely designed to match the power requirements of electrolyzer systems. This 11 makes them more energy efficient and economical for their intended use.

Elements of photovoltaic panel construction

A single photovoltaic cell does not produce much voltage and the current output is limited by its size. To augment either the voltage or the current output, solar cells can be connected in either series or parallel. Although it is not always the case, usually the sun-facing surface of the solar cell is negative and the back side is positive. Connecting two or more cells to each other creates a string. A string is a row of cells connected to each other in either series or parallel. Multiple strings are then connected to each other in series or parallel to form the whole of the solar panel or module. Two or more solar panels connected together form an array. Arrays can be connected in series, parallel or in series-parallel.

Photovoltaic power production

The task is to estimate the radiation on a surface tilted towards either North or South by an angle approximately equal to the latitude (as this gives the optimum performance) on the basis of the horizontal surface solar radiation data available. No great accuracy is aimed at, because the actual solar panel installations in the 2050 scenario will be of two types 1. Building integrated panels that will anyway be influenced by the structures at hand some solar panels will be mounted on vertical facades, others on roofs being either flat or tilted, typically by angles 30 , 45 or 60 . In all cases, the orientation may not be precisely towards South or North, although we estimate the resource as comprising only those buildings facing approximately correctly and not being exposed to strong shadowing effects from other structures. The penalty of incorrect orientation and tilting angle is often modest and mostly influences the distribution of power across the seasons (cf. Chapter 3). 2....

Wait a minute Solar Panels

That's right, and the light went on in my head. Here was our source of free solar panels. I asked Jane to quickly write down the name and phone number of the company written down on the sign. It was obviously a rental company. On Monday morning we called them up to inquire about the solar panels. The company receptionist said that 'Yes, the signs get hit all the time, and yes, we could probably have the cracked solar panels after the insurance company looked at them. It turns out that this company installs 5- 65 watt solar panels on each unit. After getting the company approval we totaled away 13 slightly damaged solar panels. That meant we had over 200 watts of solar panels, about 1000 worth for the cost of going to get them That is about as close to free solar panels as you will ever find. Just find out the name of the company who rent signs to the highway maintenance company and give them a call.

Find Free Solar Panels

Solar Panels are expensive At 800usd for a 170 watt panel it would take over 10,000 to power the normal off grid home with solar energy. We had it in the back of our heads that there must be a source of inexpensive (preferably free) solar panels. We just had to find out where that source was In our search for sources of free or inexpensive solar panels we have found two sources of free solar panels And one source of very, very inexpensive solar panels.

Appreciating solar energys versatility

You can use solar energy in many ways, each with different costs and complexity. Later chapters and the upcoming section titled Small to Supergiant Choosing Your Level of Commitment talk about some projects you can tackle. But for now, consider that solar power lets you do any of the following 1 Cook Using the sun and your vivid imagination, along with a few easy-to-build ovens and heaters, solar power can help you put dinner on the table. (See Chapter 9.) 1 Heat water Use solar energy to heat your domestic water supply or let sun-warmed water heat your house. You may need no electrical pumps or moving parts other than the water itself. (See Chapters 10, 11, and 12.) I Provide indoor lighting The technological boom in light-emitting diodes (LEDs) small, electronic lights that take very little current and provide long lifetimes has enabled a number of effective solar lighting systems for in-home use with very low power requirements. You can light your porches and even rooms in your...

Helping the World through Solar Power

Investing in solar energy Looking at the benefits of solar power Solving for challenges To understand the role solar energy can play in your home, you need to have a good understanding of where your own energy comes from, where it's used, and how much pollution each of your energy sources generates. In this chapter, I explain how solar fits into your day-to-day life and why it's such a good energy option. only 1 percent from renewables such as solar energy.

Solar Power Hardware Highlights

For solar energy gearheads like us, nothing beats a few days on the Solar Power Conference exhibit floor. Inside, manufacturers from around the world debut new PV and solar thermal products, and share visions of equipment that's on the horizon. The excitement surrounding the product innovations on display is palpable, and you can't help but get the sense that big things are underway in renewable energy equipment research and development.

The economic logic of the solar energy supply chain

Fossil fuel and solar energy generation are intrinsically very different processes, and the opportunities they present for maximizing availability and efficiency with respect to both resource consumption and financing strategies are correspondingly diverse. Besides the differing environmental impact, the disparities between the supply chains demonstrate just how absurd it is to evaluate the economic potential of energy sources solely on the basis of the capital cost of the power generation plant required. it is because of such absurd reasoning that there has been such reluctance to exploit the potential of renewable resources. The shorter the supply chain ie, the smaller the number of distinct processing steps involved the greater the scope for reducing the costs of energy generation. If improved solar technologies can be introduced on a large scale, they represent not just the least environmentally damaging strategy for meeting energy needs, they are also potentially the most...

Short History Of Solar Technologies

Modern attempts to harvest the sun's energy directly date back to the 1870s, and the first solar motor company was founded in 1900. The first documented design was a concentrating solar power (CSP) device, which focuses the heat of the sun using lenses or mirrors to drive thermal engines or generators. In the 1870s, CSP systems were used to drive steam engines, which in turn were used to do something else, usually to pump water (although they were also used to make ice, in order to impress investors and astonish the public). Probably the most familiar kind of solar equipment to most people is solar hot water systems, which provide domestic hot water, pool heating, and space heating. Solar hot water experienced an explosion of popularity in the 1970s, thanks to generous federal and state incentives made available under the Carter administration. Unfortunately, the flood of money, directed at a less-than-fully-developed technology and market, led to a Wild West atmosphere in much of the...

Utilisation of Passive Solar Energy

The term Utilisation of Passive Solar Energy was first introduced in the seventies of the last century. At that time, the criterion of adding auxiliary energy was used to clearly distinguish between active solar energy applications. When auxiliary units (such as fans) were used, the systems were referred to as hybrid systems. However, the delimitation between passive and active systems remained fluid for a window equipped with automatic shading devices is both passive and hybrid. Only recently, the term Passive Solar Energy Utilisation has been defined in a more realistic and precise manner. According to the new definitions passive solar systems convert solar radiation into heat by means of the building structure itself, i.e. by the transparent building envelope and solid storage elements. Utilisation of passive solar energy (often also referred to as passive solar architecture) is thus characterised by the use of the building envelope as absorber and the building structure as heat...

Solar Energy Alternatives

The nuclear fusion reactions in the sun yield a huge amount of energy which is estimated at 3.47 x 1024kJ per unit time. Only a small part, about 5 x of this energy is irradiated onto the earth's surface. The incident solar energy is distributed in many ways as shown in Fig. 7.1. Solar energy is clean, undepletable, and harmless to living organisms on the earth because the harmful short wavelength ultraviolet rays are absorbed before reaching the troposphere by the stratospheric Zekai Sen, Solar Energy Fundamentals and Modeling Techniques DOI 10.1007 978-1-84800-134-3, Springer 2008 Solar energy on

Solar Energy Workshops

Photovoltaic Design and Installation - Colorado Solar Energy for the Developing World - California Solar Technology for Rural Health Care - Colorado September 1991 - May 1992 Solar Home Program Workshops Photovoltaic Design and Installation - Colorado Advanced Photovoltaics for Remote Homes - Colorado Solar Home Design and Construction - Colorado Energy Efficiency and Solar Remodeling - Colorado Passive Solar Design for Professionals - Colorado Heating the Energy Efficient Home - Colorado Solar Building Skills - Colorado SOLAR ENERGY EXPO & RALLY

Solar Energy and the Hydrogen Economy

Solar energy is a virtually inexhaustible and freely available energy source. More sunlight ( 1.2 X 105 TW) falls on the earth's surface in 1 h than is used by all human activities in 1 year globally. The sun is earth's natural power source, driving the circulation of global wind and ocean currents, the cycle of water evaporation and condensation that creates rivers and lakes, and the biological cycles of photosynthesis and life. It is however a dilute energy source (1 kW m2 at noon, Chapter 2) about 600-1000 TW strikes the earth's terrestrial surfaces at practical sites suitable for solar energy harvesting.27 Covering 0.16 of the land on earth with 10 efficient solar conversion systems would provide 20 TW of power,28 nearly twice the world's consumption rate of fossil energy and an equivalent 20,000 1-GWe nuclear fission plants. Clearly, solar energy is the largest renewable carbon-free resource amongst the other renewable energy options. Consider the total amounts possible for each...

Solar Energy at the ANU

There are several areas within the ANU which have an interest in solar energy. This site is a presentation of the solar activities carried out within the Department of Engineering, which is part of the College of Engineering and Computer Science. Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems ARC Centre of Excellence for Solar Energy Systems Semiconductors and Solar Cells Group High Temperature Solar Thermal Group Sliver Technology Group Photovoltaic Processes Group Luminescent Concentrators Group Low Temperature Thermal Group Linear Concentrators Group Energy and Environment Group Hybrid Photovoltaic Thermal Systems Much of this research has lead to technology transfer to commercial partners to carry out solar energy infrastructure projects.

Using More Solar Energy in Your Existing Home

Although many of the choices for enhancing the solar energy performance of your home are straightforward, based on the concepts presented here, sometimes the correct approach is not so obvious. For instance, if you live in a climate that's both hot in the summer and cold in the winter as is most of the United States and you're not able to add overhangs to your south-facing windows, would it be better for them to admit or reject solar energy Or if you're totally renovating the south side of your home, what would be the ideal amount of windows

What Photovoltaics Can Do for

Perhaps you need reliable power in a location that is not connected to an electrical grid. In this case, photovoltaics may be the best and most cost-effective solution. Many locations in Canada that have a dry continental climate have the same number of daylight hours as some Mediterranean countries. A photovoltaic (PV) system used during the summer in Canada can take advantage of substantial daily amounts of solar energy. Contrary to what many people think, PV systems convert sunlight into electricity more efficiently at lower temperatures. However, the winter months in Canada provide half the hours of sunlight as in summer. Much of Canada experiences high winds in the winter, which can make a wind generator a logical addition to the system. Fuel-fired generators are then used only for backup. When capital cost is an issue, or when photovoltaics alone are not enough to replace an existing generator, you can use a wind generator as part of a hybrid PV system, thus reducing the use of...

The profitability of renewable energy and resources

An immediate and comprehensive transition to solar energy must take priority over all other economic considerations. Any further delay will cost society more than it would to make the transition. The quicker and more comprehensively fossil energy and resources can be supplanted by their solar counterparts, the greater the cost saving to society and the less the strain on government budgets threatened by ever higher clean-up costs in the wake of fossil-fuel-induced catastrophe, be it storm or flood damage or regional wars over energy, the growing cost of waste disposal or the cost of maintaining an ever more bloated environmental protection bureaucracy. Almost all environmental damage can be traced to the use of fossil and nuclear energy and fossil raw materials. The greater the investment in solar resources today, the lower the costs imposed on tomorrow. The debate about the cost of renewable energy illustrates just how far we have to go before we achieve the levels of civilized...

Active Solar Energy Systems

Active solar energy systems are employed in residential and commercial industrial buildings for the provision of space conditioning (heating and or cooling) and or hot water. Another common application is the heating of swimming pool water. The basic building block of an active solar energy system is the collector. The collector contains a receiver or absorber that converts the incident solar radiation into heat. The heat collected by the absorber is transferred to a working fluid, such as a water-glycol solution or air, for transport directly to the load or to storage for later use. Transport is usually accomplished with pipes, pumps, and valves for liquid systems and with ducts, dampers, and fans for air systems. For liquid systems, insulated tanks are generally used to store the working fluid until there is a demand for the heat. For air systems, potential storage media include rocks or phase-change materials. Normally, storage capacity is limited to that required to meet the...

Solar Energy Utilization in Israel

There is no single legislation concerning solar energy utilization in Israel. The above-mentioned Article 9 of the Law for Planning and Building (1970) 4 is probably the most important solar legislation, and has been the government's predominant contribution to Israel's success in the solar area. The law requires the builder (not the homeowner ), since 1980, to install a solar water heating system in every new building. Other laws and regulations describe in detail the size of the installation required for the various types of buildings, set minimum standards for the quality of the solar equipment and installation, and provide the regulations for retrofit installation of solar water heaters in existing multi-apartment buildings. Based on government data 5 an average single-family domestic solar water heater saves 1250 kWh electric power per year the total contribution to the country is about 1.6 billion kWh per year, 21 of the electricity for the domestic sector or 5.2 of the national...

Divorcing the Grid Going Solo with Solar Power Systems

Looking at the pros and cons of living off-grid Specifying the right solar power systems Looking at a real-life scenario i No utility power is available, period. This situation may be the case if you're living in a remote location. You have a number of options, but solar power is one of the best, particularly if you're concerned with pollution. Solar solutions include not only PV panels and solar water heating systems but also wind and water power, so the options are diverse. i Bringing utility power in costs way too much. If you're off the beaten path, you can probably get the utility company to bring power in, but you'll have to pay for the long line lengths and poles, trenches, and the like. This job can sometimes cost more than 100,000. A standalone solar power system can save you a lot of money.

Global Use of Renewable Energy Sources

The contribution of renewable energy sources to the global primary energy supply was 13.5 per cent in 2001 (IEA, 2003b). Biomass is the most important renewable energy source today and has a share of 80 per cent among the renewables. Only three centuries ago, renewable energy sources provided virtually the entire global energy supply and many studies show that this might be achieved again in the future. However, other renewable energy sources such as solar power and wind power will be crucial in the future. This section shows the installed capacity and the growth rates of recent years for different renewable energy sources, starting with the electricity supply where renewables provided about 18 per cent of the global demand in 2001.

Applications of photovoltaic cells

We have explored some of the properties of individual photovoltaic cells and seen how light can be used to produce electricity, now let's look at some applications of solar cells. Figure 10-35 The HEESI satellite powered by solar power. Image courtesy NASA. Figure 10-35 The HEESI satellite powered by solar power. Image courtesy NASA. In addition to powering devices in remote locations with no access to the power grid, we can also construct large photovoltaic arrays, which generate a significant quantity of electricity which can be fed into the grid when it is not being used on-site. The great thing about photovoltaic cells, is that they can be used in place of things like roof tiles and shingles so although we cover the building with photovoltaic cells, which are expensive, we save on the cost of the roofing material.

Solar power technology without technocracy

In any case, even centralized solar power generation in sunnier parts of the world would inevitably need to be supplemented by local PV, wind, small-scale hydro and biomass plant. Yet the history of power generation and supply teaches us that although large-scale generation plant may be technically compatible with small-scale plant, combining the two produces structural conflict. Operators of large-scale plant need to run at full capacity to recoup their costs the unpredictable output of small-scale producers is an irritant. There is little reason to assume that operators of large-scale solar power plant would behave any differently towards smaller suppliers than operators of nuclear and coal-fired plants. In the case of fossil fuels, the obsession with large-scale production and supply is a reflection of the underlying economic realities. In the case of solar power, the same obsession would be ill-considered, an expression of the industrial fantasies typical of the 20th century....

Wind and Water Solar Power

Hydro power is also a built-in energy storage mechanism because you can make a reservoir from which you can draw water any time you want it. In fact, a reservoir is generally a good idea because it makes pressures constant. Of course, the big problem with hydro power is that you need to be by a river or stream (or dam) to be able to use it. Most people don't have this luxury, but for those who do, this is an excellent and economical source of solar power. The good news is that you can get rebates and subsidies for wind and water power the exact same as for PV systems and water heating systems. They're all solar power and are therefore grouped together in this regard.

Determining a solar homes value

A solar home is going to cost more than a comparable conventional home. To figure out a fair offering price, you can ask your real estate agent for an estimate on how much a conventional home is worth in your potential home's neighborhood, and then add the value of the solar equipment. Some banks may not add any value for solar equipment (actually, it's more up to the appraiser, but that's a technicality). This can be a problem if you're trying to get a very high loan-to-value ratio, which is the amount of the mortgage you're applying for, divided by the sales price of the house. If you have a good down payment, it won't matter if the bank doesn't take the solar features into account. If the bank's disregard for solar becomes a problem, shop around for different banks. While some are completely ignorant of solar, others welcome it (see Chapter 22). When you're trying to figure out how much a solar home is worth, start with getting what are called comps in the real estate business....

Costs for a photovoltaic system

Whereas average investment costs of grid-connected photovoltaic systems exceeded 10,000 kWh at the beginning of the 1990s, these costs have been falling significantly. The cost reduction for photovoltaic systems has been nearly 50 per cent per decade over the past two decades. End user prices for single photovoltaic modules are now below 5 Wp. Inverters, support structures, cables and installation result in further costs. The specific investment costs decrease with the system size. The end user prices for grid-connected photovoltaic systems in the range of 5 kWp were about 7500 kWp in 2001, whereas prices close to 5000 kWp can be achieved for systems in the megawatt size range. Table 6.2 shows that the photovoltaic modules make up only about half of the total system cost. The cost of one kilowatt hour of electricity generated by a photovoltaic system is calculated here as an example. The underlying numbers have been also used in the examples later in the chapter. The investment costs...

The Renewable Energy Education Program

Photovoltaic Design And Installation - 2 weeks Learn simple, easy-to-use solar technologies which can provide clean water, meal preparation and preservation of food in developing countries Successful Designs Practical Use Field Experiences. Solar Home Design Principals - 2 weeks

Photovoltaic PV Cell Model

Photovoltaics are sandwiches of silicon, the second most abundant material in the world. One layer of silicon is treated with a substance to create an excess of electrons. This becomes the negative or N layer. The other layer is treated to create a deficiency of electrons, and becomes the positive or P layer. Assembled together with conductors, the arrangement becomes a light-sensitive NP Junction semiconductor. It's called a semiconductor, because, unlike a wire, the unit conducts in only one direction from negative to positive. Model of Crystalline Photovoltaic (PV) Element Presently, there are two types of PV cells crystalline, and amorphous. The crystalline units are the more common, generally blue-colored frosty looking ones. Amorphous means noncrystalline, and these look smooth and change color depending on the way you hold them. You see them now in solar-powered calculators and in some low-powered PV panels. Crystalline types are more efficient, but more expensive to...

Future development of costs for renewable energy systems

Costs for renewable energy systems will decrease further as they have done in the past. Increased production volume, more automation in production and the use of ever more sophisticated technologies will reduce the costs significantly. Production volumes of many renewable energy technologies are still relatively low and many involve multiple production steps, requiring expensive labour. Photovoltaic systems have also achieved noteworthy cost reductions over the past few decades. Figure 6.3 shows the reduction in photovoltaic module prices for three countries. The global progress ratio for photovoltaic systems has been around 0.8 over the past few decades. The installed global photovoltaic capacity has been doubling approximately every three years. The resulting cost reduction is about 50 per cent per decade. Further significant cost reductions are possible due to new solar cell materials and fast-increasing production volumes. Most other renewables also show progress ratios of between...

Use of renewable energy sources for electricity generation

The amount of wind power installed worldwide has grown rapidly since the mid-1990s. Between 1994 and 2002 the installed capacity grew nearly ten times. However, very few countries encourage this development. About 77 per cent of the global capacity in 2002 was installed in five countries. Table 1.12 shows the development of the generating capacity of wind power in these countries over recent years. Only in Denmark has wind power reached a market share of more than 10 per cent of the electricity supply. However, the potential in other countries is enormous. For instance, only 570 MW was installed in the UK in 2002, but the potential for wind power exceeds 1000 GW. In 2002 wind-generated electricity worldwide was about 50 TWh, which is 0.33 per cent of total global electricity generation. However, if the growth rates of wind power are maintained over the next two decades, wind power can become the most important renewable energy source for electricity generation, with a market share of...

Photovoltaic conversion

An essential constituent of photovoltaic cells is the p-n junction. A refresher on the semiconductor physics needed for understanding the p-n junction is given in Section 4.A at the end of this chapter. When a p-type and an n-type semiconductor are joined so that they acquire a common surface, they are

The Clean Energy Choice In Transportation Clean Fuels and Vehicles

Oe of the more challenging ways o use clean energy is in fueling our cars. Advanced transportation technologies including fuel cells, electric motors, advanced engines, improved materials, and other technologies aim to reduce pollution and minimize petroleum fuel use in cars, trucks, buses, fleet vehicles, and public transportation. Compared to current commercial vehicles, advanced vehicles achieve higher fuel economies and make greater use of alternative fuels. The most common alternative fuels in use are biodiesel, ethanol, hydrogen, methanol and natural gas.

See Our Extensive Line Of Renewable Energy Products

Solar RV Kits Solar Kits, Solar Equipment Throughout the years, as travel and schedule have allowed, I have given renewable energy (RE) presentations at my nieces' schools. In their early school days, it would be a short solar cooking demonstration with an assortment of solar cookers and a brief Q&A session beforehand. In the third and fourth grades, sun-baked muffins were the big hit. My audience is then set up to view a diagram I have drawn in a graphics program of our homestead. It shows the placement of our solar-electric (photovoltaic PV) modules that produce electricity for the house and for water pumping. It also shows where Camp Creek and our microhydro turbine, with its length of pipe, are situated relative to the house. Our wind turbine sits in the meadow just north of our home. The diagram helps give context for the next group of slides I show. This leads me into one of my favorite stories. My husband Bob-O, who installs RE systems for a living, had an off-grid client who...

Selling Your Solar Home for Big Bucks

The day will come when you need to sell your solar home. You want to get the most money you can for your home, of course. How do you accomplish this When you're ready to let the world know your home is for sale, find a real estate agent who knows solar houses and can help you capitalize on the buzz of solar homes. The right agent will let the right buyers know you've got a solar home for sale. At present, most people have no clear idea what solar means. They don't really care about a solar house, and these people aren't likely to pay more for your solar home than they would pay for a conventional home. As energy rates rise, this will change out of necessity. But one thing is always true of marketing You need to reach the right market to get the best price. There is no formula for what you can get for a solar home over a conventional home. Home values vary greatly from region to region, but the cost of solar is relatively constant, so the percentage difference for a solar home is going...

Million Solar Homes Fund

The 100 Million Solar Homes Fund ('the Fund') would take the same approach as the Million Solar Homes Initiative (MSHI) discussed earlier. But it would do so at a much larger scale. Finally, there is the question of who would manage the Fund. We saw earlier in the chapter that the World Bank was not supportive of the Million Solar Homes Initiative (MSHI). So we can imagine that it will not be that excited about the prospects of trying to reach 100 million solar homes by 2025. But if the Fund is to be established, then its natural home is in the World Bank. Above all other global institutions, the World Bank has demonstrated the capacity to accelerate the diffusion of solar on a sustainable basis. It also has the reach, the financial resources and the skill set to manage and execute such a Fund. A hundred million solar homes by 2025 is by no means a fantasy 25 per cent penetration of the total base of unelectrified households is possible in roughly 15 years with the right combination...

The Experiments with Renewable Energy Parts and Text

Similar to most Stamps in Class Student Guides, you need a BASIC Stamp 2 module with a Board of Education carrier board and the Parts Kit. The content of the Experiments with Renewable Energy Parts Kit is listed below. These replacement parts are available from Parallax but may also be sourced from common electronic suppliers. In an effort to provide the best quality and most up-to-date products for our customers, you may find that some of the actual parts received with this kit may differ from those listed in the table. Experiments with Renewable Energy Kit Experiments with Renewable Energy Text Solar Power Kit of Science

Gibbs Free Energy and Ideal Performance

The maximum electrical work (Wel) obtainable in a fuel cell operating at constant temperature and pressure is given by the change in Gibbs free energy (AG)12 of the electrochemical reaction, 12. Total energy is composed of two types of energy 1) free energy, G, and unavailable energy, TS. Free energy earns its name because it is the energy that is available or free for conversion into usable work. The unavailable energy is unavailable for work because of the disorder or entropy of the system. Thus, G H - TS. For changes in free energy at constant T and P, the equation can be written as AG AH - TAS. This is an important equation for chemical and physical reactions, for these reactions only occur spontaneously with a decrease in free energy, G, of the total system of reactants and products. The overall reactions given in Table 2-2 can be used to produce both electrical energy and heat. The maximum work available from a fuel source is related to the free energy of reaction in the case of...

Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy in India

Conservation Energy India

This has brought the focus on new and renewable sources of energy that have emerged as a viable option to supplement energy demand in various sectors. The Government of India has been making concerted efforts to develop and promote renewable energy applications, ranging from power generation to meeting cooking energy needs of the people through biogas plants. The Government of India has set up an agenda of electrifying all villages by 2007 and providing power to all by 2012. It is following a comprehensive and holistic approach to power sector development envisaging a six level intervention strategy at the National, State, Electricity Boards, Feeder, and Consumer levels. It is proposed to electrify all the unelectrified villages through grid connectivity and the remaining 25,000 remote villages through the use of renewable energy technologies. The importance of optimum and economic utilization of power has been realized lately, and the present capacity of 8,000 MW for interregional...

Optimum distance of solar energy system support structures

Tilt Angles And Shading

Photovoltaic and solar thermal systems are often installed on the ground or on flat roofs. Support racks are used to mount the solar energy systems. Usually these are tilted to get higher annual irradiances, as explained in the section on irradiance on tilted surfaces (see p60). Furthermore, horizontally installed solar energy systems have relatively high losses due to soiling, for example, through deposition of air pollutants, bird excrement or other dirt deposits on the surface of the collector. Rain or snow can clean tilted surface more easily. As a general rule, the lower the tilt angle the lower is the cleaning effect of rain and snow. In central European climates, average soiling losses in the range of 2-10 per cent can be expected for surfaces tilted at 30 if these are never cleaned manually. These losses can increase significantly for lower surface tilt angles. In other climatic regions with long periods without rain these losses can also increase significantly. The distance d...

What does it take to solar power my home

Producing electricity by photovoltaic cells is fairly expensive compared to other types of generation. However, when considering the cost of solar energy, figure in all of the carbon emissions that you aren't producing, and the toxic waste that you aren't making. Solar Power for Your Home So, how can we take the power from our photovoltaic cells, and turn it from DC low voltage It is also interesting to see how much energy our solar array is producing. This can be useful for accounting purposes, say if we are selling the solar energy back to the grid, or simply to benchmark the performance of our solar system and see if it is in line with our design predictions. A watt hour meter is shown in Figure 10-45.

3kw Solar Power Energy System For Home With Cheap Price And Good Quality Mail

I am asking this last question because I am trying to conceptualize how a solar powered village power system would work most effectively. I think it would work to have a largish community-owned hybrid PV wind facility to provide local grid power to a dozen or so homes within a thousand feet or so, each with their own modest grid-intertied generating capacity and battery bank. The cumulative initial cost would be large, but the ability of each residence to island would build in a dependability factor. If however, it would work for the separate homes to use the AC panels mentioned above, then the same generating capacity could be achieved Another issue Grid connected homes, at least in our part of the country, always have a 240 V service connection. Yet large inverters (except for the export models at 50 Hz) almost always seem to be limited to 120 V operation, requiring that two be piggy-backed to attain high voltage output, and requiring major cash output. Am I missing something here...

Solar Energy Expo Rally

Industry Day- August 9th. - For much needed networking & strategic planning for the future of renewable energy & conservation technologies. It was a fantastic Solar Energy Expo & Rally (SEER '90), a total success for a small community, Willits did it up first class. My compliments to those who did the nuts & bolts. Larilani Greenly, Sunshine Systems, Grass Valley, CA Great Lakes Renewable Energy Fair Inspired by the wonderful example of the Midwest Renewable Energy Fair in Amherst, Wisconsin, and noting that many of the participants were from Michigan, several of the attendees of MREF began planning soon thereafter for the first Great Lakes Renewable Energy Fair (GLREF). After resolving organizational structural details (The Great Lakes Renewable Energy Association, Inc., is applying for federal non-profit as well as state charitable corporation status), we have begun the logistical journey toward a July 19, 20, 21, 1991 fair date. This event will introduce the general public to...

Free Energy Charger Circuit

Solar Charger Circuit Schematic

Figure 13-4 Solar-powered phone charger schematic car charger. Figure 13-4 Solar-powered phone charger schematic car charger. Figure 13-5 Solar-powered phone charger schematic USB type. Figure 13-5 Solar-powered phone charger schematic USB type. Project 3M Build Your Own Solar-Powered Radio There are some commercially available radios powered by solar energy however, it is relatively easy to build your own. We are basing this circuit around the MK484 integrated circuit, which takes all the hassle out of building a simple radio. The integrated circuit looks like a transistor with three pins, and reduces the amount of external components needed considerably. two renewable energy sources solar power, and for less sunny days human wind-up power in order to make sure that even when the sun doesn't shine, you aren't without your tunes

Major barriers to renewable energy

While most renewable fuels are free, renewable energy projects have high up-front costs, and a number of factors combine to make many renewable energies more expensive than conventional energy. Distortions resulting from unequal tax burdens and existing subsidies, and the failure to internalize all costs and benefits of energy production and use, erect high barriers to RETs. Additional cost barriers range from the cost of technologies themselves (and the need to achieve economies of scale in production) to the lack of access to affordable credit, and the costs of connecting with the grid and transmission charges, which often penalize intermittent energy sources. Import duties on RETs and components also act to make renewable energy more costly. As a result, many of the cost barriers to renewables are perceived rather than real. In many countries, electric utilities maintain monopoly rights to produce, transmit and distribute electricity. High costs or a lack of standards for...

Electrifying Solar Energy

Junior Solar Sprint

Dvance scouts for renewable energy have plied Minnesota's lakes since 1992. The scouts are high and middle school technology students, piloting solar-powered boats built in class. The Minnesota Renewable Energy Society (MRES) has organized all but the first of the Regattas and hosted the Junior Solar Sprint model car competition as a companion event. Larger Minnesota renewable energy projects include multi-million dollar wind farms in the state's southwestern corner and the brilliant Green Streets exhibit at the Science Museum of Minnesota. But it's hard to beat the Regatta Sprint for color, educational value, and a youth-oriented family atmosphere. It is a hands-on grassroots effort in which volunteers, teachers, and, most of all, students work with and exhibit the technology which will take our sorry economy into the 22nd century. The Solar Boat Regatta is an educational event, and the atmosphere is something between a Little Rascals romp and a science fair. Rules and judging are...

Renewable energy technologies in the marketplace

The penetration of renewable energy into the energy system of human settlements on Earth is from one point of view nearly 100 . The energy system seen by the inhabitants of the Earth is dominated by the environmental heat associated with the greenhouse effect, which captures solar energy and stores it within a surface-near sheet of topsoil and atmosphere around the Earth. Only 0.02 of this energy system is currently managed by human society, as illustrated in Fig. 1.1. Within this economically managed part of the energy sector, renewable energy sources currently provide about 25 of the energy supplied. As the figure indicates, a large part of this renewable energy is in the form of biomass energy, either in food crops or in managed forestry providing wood for industrial purposes or for incineration (firewood used for heat and cooking in poor countries or for mood-setting fireplaces in affluent countries, residue and waste burning in combined power and heat plants or incinerators). The...

Thin Film Solar Panels

Recently a new product was introduced into the market that could provide some much needed answers for solar power users. Amorphous silicon PV or thin film technology could make rigid solar panels obsolete if some better research is done. Thin film solar panels are produced by applying silicon material on glass or stainless steel, or more commonly between two pieces of flexible laminate material. Most customers like the almost seamless blending of solar panels right into their roof top. Saving you the cost of regular shingles or steel roofing, thin film solar panels are a good choice. solar panels- not nearly by half. You would need twice the space to accommodate their installation. As mentioned earlier, with increased research this could be the answer. We have a couple smaller panels and they seem to work fine, but we like our monocrystalline solar panels and are going to stick with them. Your choice.

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Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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