Do It Yourself Solar Energy

DIY Home Energy System

This ebook guide teaches you how to escape complete dependence the power grid and learn how to live mostly on your own power and make sure that you are dependent on Yourself. You will be able to slash your energy bill by over 75% and not have to depend on greedy energy companies. The largest energy corporations are a monopoly for a given area, so they do not need to care about customer service or doing right by the people they service. You will learn how to break this monopoly and depend on yourself. Make your home immune to power shortages, blackouts, and energy failures; live free of any worry that the grid will totally fail you! You will learn practical steps such as how to build your own solar panel for less than $60! Once you start relying more on solar power you will be able to easily protect your family from dangerous power outages, and live free! Read more...

DIY Home Energy System Overview


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Contents: Video Course
Author: Jeff Davis
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Price: $47.00

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My DIY Home Energy System Review

Highly Recommended

I started using this ebook straight away after buying it. This is a guide like no other; it is friendly, direct and full of proven practical tips to develop your skills.

This ebook does what it says, and you can read all the claims at his official website. I highly recommend getting this book.

Free Energy Dependence on Pressure

The free energy, G, is defined as We saw that the enthalpy does not change when the pressure is altered isothermally. Thus, isothermally, pressure can only alter the free energy through its effect on the entropy, S Consequently, the energy of isothermal compression of a gas is entirely free energy. This is an important effect. It is possible to change the efficiency (and the voltage) of a fuel cell by changing the pressure of products and reactants.

Free Solar Panels Found Source

Solar panels are getting better and better everyday. New manufacturing process is making them more efficient and cheaper everyday too. Now homeowners who have had solar panels on their home, some for over 20 years are upgrading. It's just like buying a new care every few years. Installers and dealers are now getting frequent calls from homeowners wanting to put up a new solar panel array. Call your local dealer or installer, better yet, call a bunch of them and see if they will save out old solar panels that are being replaced. It's that easy.

Wait a minute Solar Panels

That's right, and the light went on in my head. Here was our source of free solar panels. I asked Jane to quickly write down the name and phone number of the company written down on the sign. It was obviously a rental company. On Monday morning we called them up to inquire about the solar panels. The company receptionist said that 'Yes, the signs get hit all the time, and yes, we could probably have the cracked solar panels after the insurance company looked at them. It turns out that this company installs 5- 65 watt solar panels on each unit. After getting the company approval we totaled away 13 slightly damaged solar panels. That meant we had over 200 watts of solar panels, about 1000 worth for the cost of going to get them That is about as close to free solar panels as you will ever find. Just find out the name of the company who rent signs to the highway maintenance company and give them a call.

Inexpensive Solar Panels

Solar panels are very fragile and frequently get broken during shipping and occasionally during installation. What do they do with these solar panels You guessed it. To the dump, or in some cases they go back to the manufacturer. These panels you will not get for free usually. Most of the solar panels can be bought for one quarter of their wholesale price though. Be sure to test the solar panels to see how many watts they are producing before you buy them though. Usually the relative amount of watts produced compared to the actual amount they were supposed to produce when new will determine the price you will pay. There will be no warranty in any case, so make sure of what you are buying. We have also found one more source of inexpensive solar panels. Used solar panels are available on e-bay. Yes, get an account, it's pretty simple and start shopping. Usually some pretty good deals here.

Find Free Solar Panels

Solar Panels are expensive At 800usd for a 170 watt panel it would take over 10,000 to power the normal off grid home with solar energy. We had it in the back of our heads that there must be a source of inexpensive (preferably free) solar panels. We just had to find out where that source was In our search for sources of free or inexpensive solar panels we have found two sources of free solar panels And one source of very, very inexpensive solar panels.

Appreciating solar energys versatility

You can use solar energy in many ways, each with different costs and complexity. Later chapters and the upcoming section titled Small to Supergiant Choosing Your Level of Commitment talk about some projects you can tackle. But for now, consider that solar power lets you do any of the following 1 Cook Using the sun and your vivid imagination, along with a few easy-to-build ovens and heaters, solar power can help you put dinner on the table. (See Chapter 9.) 1 Heat water Use solar energy to heat your domestic water supply or let sun-warmed water heat your house. You may need no electrical pumps or moving parts other than the water itself. (See Chapters 10, 11, and 12.)

Helping the World through Solar Power

Investing in solar energy Looking at the benefits of solar power Solving for challenges To understand the role solar energy can play in your home, you need to have a good understanding of where your own energy comes from, where it's used, and how much pollution each of your energy sources generates. In this chapter, I explain how solar fits into your day-to-day life and why it's such a good energy option. only 1 percent from renewables such as solar energy.

Solar Power Hardware Highlights

For solar energy gearheads like us, nothing beats a few days on the Solar Power Conference exhibit floor. Inside, manufacturers from around the world debut new PV and solar thermal products, and share visions of equipment that's on the horizon. The excitement surrounding the product innovations on display is palpable, and you can't help but get the sense that big things are underway in renewable energy equipment research and development.

The economic logic of the solar energy supply chain

Fossil fuel and solar energy generation are intrinsically very different processes, and the opportunities they present for maximizing availability and efficiency with respect to both resource consumption and financing strategies are correspondingly diverse. Besides the differing environmental impact, the disparities between the supply chains demonstrate just how absurd it is to evaluate the economic potential of energy sources solely on the basis of the capital cost of the power generation plant required. it is because of such absurd reasoning that there has been such reluctance to exploit the potential of renewable resources. The shorter the supply chain ie, the smaller the number of distinct processing steps involved the greater the scope for reducing the costs of energy generation. If improved solar technologies can be introduced on a large scale, they represent not just the least environmentally damaging strategy for meeting energy needs, they are also potentially the most...

Utilisation of Passive Solar Energy

The term Utilisation of Passive Solar Energy was first introduced in the seventies of the last century. At that time, the criterion of adding auxiliary energy was used to clearly distinguish between active solar energy applications. When auxiliary units (such as fans) were used, the systems were referred to as hybrid systems. However, the delimitation between passive and active systems remained fluid for a window equipped with automatic shading devices is both passive and hybrid. Only recently, the term Passive Solar Energy Utilisation has been defined in a more realistic and precise manner. According to the new definitions passive solar systems convert solar radiation into heat by means of the building structure itself, i.e. by the transparent building envelope and solid storage elements. Utilisation of passive solar energy (often also referred to as passive solar architecture) is thus characterised by the use of the building envelope as absorber and the building structure as heat...

Solar Energy Alternatives

The nuclear fusion reactions in the sun yield a huge amount of energy which is estimated at 3.47 x 1024kJ per unit time. Only a small part, about 5 x of this energy is irradiated onto the earth's surface. The incident solar energy is distributed in many ways as shown in Fig. 7.1. Solar energy is clean, undepletable, and harmless to living organisms on the earth because the harmful short wavelength ultraviolet rays are absorbed before reaching the troposphere by the stratospheric Zekai Sen, Solar Energy Fundamentals and Modeling Techniques DOI 10.1007 978-1-84800-134-3, Springer 2008 Solar energy on

Solar Energy and Desalination Plants

Water is an extremely important commodity for the improvement of arid (desert) and semi-arid environments. As for the water production technology, desalination plants widely use fossil fuels. Hence, for the improvement of these regions it is necessary to shift from fossil fuel usage to some environmentally friendly energy source, such as solar energy as it is available abundantly in such environments. It is necessary to develop a sustainable water production system using the renewable energy that is presented by solar energy instead of fossil fuels in these regions. Specifically, the Arabian Gulf countries have the latest water production technology and the use of the solar energy alternative for this purpose must be investigated in spite of fossil fuel availability. The relationships of the natural energy sources and the sea water desalination technology are shown in Fig. 7.13. At present, the energy sources used for water production are mainly heat and pressure. The latter is...

Solar Energy and the Hydrogen Economy

Solar energy is a virtually inexhaustible and freely available energy source. More sunlight ( 1.2 X 105 TW) falls on the earth's surface in 1 h than is used by all human activities in 1 year globally. The sun is earth's natural power source, driving the circulation of global wind and ocean currents, the cycle of water evaporation and condensation that creates rivers and lakes, and the biological cycles of photosynthesis and life. It is however a dilute energy source (1 kW m2 at noon, Chapter 2) about 600-1000 TW strikes the earth's terrestrial surfaces at practical sites suitable for solar energy harvesting.27 Covering 0.16 of the land on earth with 10 efficient solar conversion systems would provide 20 TW of power,28 nearly twice the world's consumption rate of fossil energy and an equivalent 20,000 1-GWe nuclear fission plants. Clearly, solar energy is the largest renewable carbon-free resource amongst the other renewable energy options. Consider the total amounts possible for each...

Renewable and Solar Energy Technologies Energy and Environmental Issues

Abstract A critical need exists to investigate various renewable and solar energy technologies and examine the energy and environmental issues associated with these various technologies. The various renewable energy technologies will not be able to replace all current 102 quads (quad 1015 BTU) of U.S. energy consumption (USCB 2007). A gross estimate of land and water resources is needed, as these resources will be required to implement the various renewable energy technologies.

Solar Energy at the ANU

There are several areas within the ANU which have an interest in solar energy. This site is a presentation of the solar activities carried out within the Department of Engineering, which is part of the College of Engineering and Computer Science. Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems ARC Centre of Excellence for Solar Energy Systems Much of this research has lead to technology transfer to commercial partners to carry out solar energy infrastructure projects.

Using More Solar Energy in Your Existing Home

Although many of the choices for enhancing the solar energy performance of your home are straightforward, based on the concepts presented here, sometimes the correct approach is not so obvious. For instance, if you live in a climate that's both hot in the summer and cold in the winter as is most of the United States and you're not able to add overhangs to your south-facing windows, would it be better for them to admit or reject solar energy Or if you're totally renovating the south side of your home, what would be the ideal amount of windows

Active Solar Energy Systems

Active solar energy systems are employed in residential and commercial industrial buildings for the provision of space conditioning (heating and or cooling) and or hot water. Another common application is the heating of swimming pool water. The basic building block of an active solar energy system is the collector. The collector contains a receiver or absorber that converts the incident solar radiation into heat. The heat collected by the absorber is transferred to a working fluid, such as a water-glycol solution or air, for transport directly to the load or to storage for later use. Transport is usually accomplished with pipes, pumps, and valves for liquid systems and with ducts, dampers, and fans for air systems. For liquid systems, insulated tanks are generally used to store the working fluid until there is a demand for the heat. For air systems, potential storage media include rocks or phase-change materials. Normally, storage capacity is limited to that required to meet the...

Heating Water with Solar Energy

Another way to use renewable energy in your home is to use solar energy for water heating. Today's systems carry a rating that tells you how well they'll meet your hot water needs. And they provide a clean, reliable, and cost-effective source of hot water. If you're currently using an electric water heater, solar water heating is a cost-effective alternative. In fact, a study by the Florida Solar Energy Center SRCC publishes the thermal-performance ratings of solar energy equipment. They also offer a directory of certified solar systems and collectors as well as a document (0G-300-91) that details the operating guidelines and minimum standards for certifying solar hot-water systems. buildings and effectively using solar energy.

Solar Energy Utilization in Israel

There is no single legislation concerning solar energy utilization in Israel. The above-mentioned Article 9 of the Law for Planning and Building (1970) 4 is probably the most important solar legislation, and has been the government's predominant contribution to Israel's success in the solar area. The law requires the builder (not the homeowner ), since 1980, to install a solar water heating system in every new building. Other laws and regulations describe in detail the size of the installation required for the various types of buildings, set minimum standards for the quality of the solar equipment and installation, and provide the regulations for retrofit installation of solar water heaters in existing multi-apartment buildings. Based on government data 5 an average single-family domestic solar water heater saves 1250 kWh electric power per year the total contribution to the country is about 1.6 billion kWh per year, 21 of the electricity for the domestic sector or 5.2 of the national...

Divorcing the Grid Going Solo with Solar Power Systems

Looking at the pros and cons of living off-grid Specifying the right solar power systems Looking at a real-life scenario i No utility power is available, period. This situation may be the case if you're living in a remote location. You have a number of options, but solar power is one of the best, particularly if you're concerned with pollution. Solar solutions include not only PV panels and solar water heating systems but also wind and water power, so the options are diverse. i Bringing utility power in costs way too much. If you're off the beaten path, you can probably get the utility company to bring power in, but you'll have to pay for the long line lengths and poles, trenches, and the like. This job can sometimes cost more than 100,000. A standalone solar power system can save you a lot of money.

Solar power technology without technocracy

In any case, even centralized solar power generation in sunnier parts of the world would inevitably need to be supplemented by local PV, wind, small-scale hydro and biomass plant. Yet the history of power generation and supply teaches us that although large-scale generation plant may be technically compatible with small-scale plant, combining the two produces structural conflict. Operators of large-scale plant need to run at full capacity to recoup their costs the unpredictable output of small-scale producers is an irritant. There is little reason to assume that operators of large-scale solar power plant would behave any differently towards smaller suppliers than operators of nuclear and coal-fired plants. In the case of fossil fuels, the obsession with large-scale production and supply is a reflection of the underlying economic realities. In the case of solar power, the same obsession would be ill-considered, an expression of the industrial fantasies typical of the 20th century....

Wind and Water Solar Power

Hydro power is also a built-in energy storage mechanism because you can make a reservoir from which you can draw water any time you want it. In fact, a reservoir is generally a good idea because it makes pressures constant. Of course, the big problem with hydro power is that you need to be by a river or stream (or dam) to be able to use it. Most people don't have this luxury, but for those who do, this is an excellent and economical source of solar power. The good news is that you can get rebates and subsidies for wind and water power the exact same as for PV systems and water heating systems. They're all solar power and are therefore grouped together in this regard.

Gibbs Free Energy and Ideal Performance

The maximum electrical work (Wel) obtainable in a fuel cell operating at constant temperature and pressure is given by the change in Gibbs free energy (AG)12 of the electrochemical reaction, 12. Total energy is composed of two types of energy 1) free energy, G, and unavailable energy, TS. Free energy earns its name because it is the energy that is available or free for conversion into usable work. The unavailable energy is unavailable for work because of the disorder or entropy of the system. Thus, G H - TS. For changes in free energy at constant T and P, the equation can be written as AG AH - TAS. This is an important equation for chemical and physical reactions, for these reactions only occur spontaneously with a decrease in free energy, G, of the total system of reactants and products. The overall reactions given in Table 2-2 can be used to produce both electrical energy and heat. The maximum work available from a fuel source is related to the free energy of reaction in the case of...

Optimum distance of solar energy system support structures

Tilt Angles And Shading

Photovoltaic and solar thermal systems are often installed on the ground or on flat roofs. Support racks are used to mount the solar energy systems. Usually these are tilted to get higher annual irradiances, as explained in the section on irradiance on tilted surfaces (see p60). Furthermore, horizontally installed solar energy systems have relatively high losses due to soiling, for example, through deposition of air pollutants, bird excrement or other dirt deposits on the surface of the collector. Rain or snow can clean tilted surface more easily. As a general rule, the lower the tilt angle the lower is the cleaning effect of rain and snow. In central European climates, average soiling losses in the range of 2-10 per cent can be expected for surfaces tilted at 30 if these are never cleaned manually. These losses can increase significantly for lower surface tilt angles. In other climatic regions with long periods without rain these losses can also increase significantly. The distance d...

What does it take to solar power my home

Producing electricity by photovoltaic cells is fairly expensive compared to other types of generation. However, when considering the cost of solar energy, figure in all of the carbon emissions that you aren't producing, and the toxic waste that you aren't making. Solar Power for Your Home It is also interesting to see how much energy our solar array is producing. This can be useful for accounting purposes, say if we are selling the solar energy back to the grid, or simply to benchmark the performance of our solar system and see if it is in line with our design predictions. A watt hour meter is shown in Figure 10-45.

Free Energy Charger Circuit

Solar Charger Circuit Schematic

Figure 13-4 Solar-powered phone charger schematic car charger. Figure 13-4 Solar-powered phone charger schematic car charger. Figure 13-5 Solar-powered phone charger schematic USB type. Figure 13-5 Solar-powered phone charger schematic USB type. Project 3M Build Your Own Solar-Powered Radio There are some commercially available radios powered by solar energy however, it is relatively easy to build your own. We are basing this circuit around the MK484 integrated circuit, which takes all the hassle out of building a simple radio. The integrated circuit looks like a transistor with three pins, and reduces the amount of external components needed considerably. two renewable energy sources solar power, and for less sunny days human wind-up power in order to make sure that even when the sun doesn't shine, you aren't without your tunes

Electrifying Solar Energy

Junior Solar Sprint

Dvance scouts for renewable energy have plied Minnesota's lakes since 1992. The scouts are high and middle school technology students, piloting solar-powered boats built in class. The Minnesota Renewable Energy Society (MRES) has organized all but the first of the Regattas and hosted the Junior Solar Sprint model car competition as a companion event. The Solar Boat Regatta is an educational event, and the atmosphere is something between a Little Rascals romp and a science fair. Rules and judging are designed to force teams to operate on power from solar panels and to consider their boats as real world systems that need to use power frugally. Boats may be built from scratch or may use modified commercial hulls. The field runs from commercial canoes balancing solar panels, kids, batteries, and trolling motors, to sleekly sculpted polystyrene dreams with inlaid photovoltaic panels. MRES wants teams to Anderson had an interest in solar power and a history of finding projects to get his...

Thin Film Solar Panels

Recently a new product was introduced into the market that could provide some much needed answers for solar power users. Amorphous silicon PV or thin film technology could make rigid solar panels obsolete if some better research is done. Thin film solar panels are produced by applying silicon material on glass or stainless steel, or more commonly between two pieces of flexible laminate material. Most customers like the almost seamless blending of solar panels right into their roof top. Saving you the cost of regular shingles or steel roofing, thin film solar panels are a good choice. solar panels- not nearly by half. You would need twice the space to accommodate their installation. As mentioned earlier, with increased research this could be the answer. We have a couple smaller panels and they seem to work fine, but we like our monocrystalline solar panels and are going to stick with them. Your choice.

Schematic Figure Of Stirling Engine In Solar Powered Stirling Engine

Kinematic Stirling Engine

Dish engine technology is the oldest of the solar technologies, dating back to the 1800s when a number of companie s demonstrated solar powered steam-Rankine and Stirling-based systems. Modern technology was developed in the late 1970s and early 1980s by United Stirling AB, Advanco Corporation, McDonnell Douglas Aerospace Corporatio n (MDA), NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and DOE. This technology used directly-illuminated, tubular sola r receivers, the United Stirling 4-95 kinematic Stirling engine developed for automotive applications, and silver glas s mirror dishes. A sketch of the United Stirling Power Conversion Unit (PCU), including the directly illuminate d receiver, is shown in Figure 6. The Advanco Vanguard system, a 25 kW e nominal output module, recorded a record solar-to-electric conversion efficiency of 29.4 (net) using the United Stirling PCU 1,11 . This efficiency is defined as the net electrical power delivered to the grid, taking into account the electrical power...

Activity Adding The Servo To The Solar Panels Parts Required

Below are the directions for mounting the servo on the solar panel tray, as shown in Figure 4-13 and Figure 4-14. V Line up the holes drilled in the standoff with the holes in the solar panel tray tab, and thread the screws through the holes, as shown in Figure 4-14. Attaching the Servo to the Solar Panel Tray

Avalanche Gravity Power Free Energy

Avalanch Drive Gravity Power Free Energy

The difficulty with designing a system of this type is to devise a successful and practical mechanism for moving the weights in towards the hub when they are near the lowest point in their elliptical path of movement. Dale's design uses a spring and a latch to assist control the movement of each weight. The key to any mechanical system of this type is the careful choice of components and the precise adjustment of the final mechanism to ensure that operation is exactly as intended. This is a common problem with many free-energy devices as careless replication attempts frequently result in failure, not because the design is at fault, but because the necessary level of skill and care in construction were not met by the person attempting the replication. http A Practical Guide to Free-Energy Devices Author Patrick J. Kelly

Portable Solar Power Generator

Power Plant Generator

I have included the most basic setup below but there are some extra features you can add if you have some money left over. You can build on this system by using multiple solar panels and batteries. 1. Energy source - Solar panel(s) (12V is fine) 1. Energy source - Solar panel(s) (12V is fine) This is a really simple solar power setup that you can create for less then 200. You can either purchase your solar panel or make your own. We will discuss the process of building the actual solar panel later on in the book.

Florida Solar Energy Center

Workshop Schedule for 1991 (subject to change). The Photovoltaic System Design Workshop will be held at the Florida Solar Energy Center on, Oct. 22-24, 1991. This workshop will cover solar electric technology and the design of stand-alone and utility interactive PV systems. Cost 150, in-state, 300 out of state.

Tried and True Monocrystalline Solar Panels

For most of you this is the type of solar panels you will build because these types of cells are readily available. This type of solar panel is produced from a single silicon ingot or crystal. Manufacturing costs are very high because of this process making them the most expensive solar modules on the market. They are, however the most efficient type of solar panel making them the correct choice when space is at a premium.

The Free Energy Device Handbook

Free Magnetic Field Energy

FREE-ENERGY DEVICES AND THE TERM 'EFFICIENCY' AND ITS CONNOTATIONS The matter of temperature of beyond-unity devices brings to mind Tesla's electric car. It is stated in my notes that the machine becomes very hot during operation. This, of course, is to be expected, as the 'free-energy section' of the machine is a It is my opinion, after many years' experience in the free-energy research field, that a table of negative time negative energy 'rating' be formulated in relation to devices using permanent magnets in free-energy applications. I am, at present, endeavouring to work out a system of magnetic radiation field strength measurement as a possible means of evaluating rotary devices that utilise permanent magnets. A system of this nature would distinguish 'beyond-unity shoptalk' from 'conventional shoptalk' and the term 'efficiency' would remain relegated to conventional devices. As the future 'beyond-unity empire' will grow and mature, so conventionalism, along with its present...

Solar Energy International

Solar Energy International Many people today do not believe in the concept of free energy because they think that it violates the Second Law of Thermodynamics. This law states that the energy available from a closed system is always less than the energy put into that system. I believe I can present a viewpoint of free energy that is consistent with the Second Law. Normally energy is thought of as being produced by transforming it from one state to another. Since there is always some loss of energy in this process, it is consistent with the Second Law. Consider this concept a latent pool of potential or virtual energy coexistent with the continuum itself. If we now use a certain amount of energy to create a system which allows this latent pool to flow in a useable form, we have free energy if there is more flow than input. This still does not violate the Second Law. The flow output is still less than the sum of the flow input plus the energy necessary to sustain the system. However,...

Activity Shielding The Solar Panels

Hooded Figure Side View

This experiment uses the same circuits from the previous experiments to read the solar panel voltages. A cardboard hood and a servo will be added to the solar panels, and the servo will be connected to the board. You will also need the following household (or school-room) items that are not included in the kit Before mounting the solar panel to the servo it will first be necessary to add a box-like hood around the solar cells. The reason for this is to block out any sidelight that will affect the voltages being generated by both the left and right solar panels. In effect, the hood will act to tunnel the light coming directly from the sun onto the solar panels. This will make tracking the sun a lot more precise, since the hood greatly reduces reflected side lighting. You can use any convenient material like cardboard or rigid construction paper to make a hood. We used corrugated cardboard for our example. V Construct a simple box out of heavy paper or cardboard by bending a strip at...

Solar Powered Water Pumping

A quiet revolution is taking place in the way water is pumped beyond the electric power lines. Solar power provides a welcome alternative to fuel-burning generators, cumbersome windmills and tedious handpumps. Over 20,000 solar pumps are in use throughout the world. Most of them are small systems for remote homes, livestock and village drinking water. Never had a minute's worth of trouble says Arizona farmer Gary Scott of his solar pump. Echoing Scott's report is Gary Richards, electrician at the Philmont Boy Scout Ranch in New Mexico, where 13 solar pumps are operational and another 7 are planned. We were looking at a 5,000 repair bill for our generator-driven pump and a new solar pump was selected because it was the same cost says Richards. Philmont administrators already knew about the high reliability and low maintenance of solar power. Solar Technology Most well pumps are too fast and powerful for direct solar power. It is a fact of physics that the larger a pump is, the more...

Storing and Protecting Your Solar Energy

We know how to collect energy from the sun. Our problem now is to store it effectively. Solar energy, as everyone knows, is not constant. We have seasonal changes and clouds, which naturally affect the sun's intensity, and we also have night. One reason why heating domestic hot water with the sun makes so much sense is because water itself is such an excellent storage medium. In fact, if you're going to transport or store solar energy, using water or at least a fluid containing water is one of the best ways to do it. Even in this modem day and age, with all our technology, an insulated tank full of hot water is still one of the best ways to preserve many BTG's of energy. A single cubic foot of water can store 62.5 BTG's of heat per degree Fahrenheit. Stone, by comparison, has a heat-holding capacity of 36 BTG's per cubic foot per degree F. a little over half that of water. But air sometimes used as a medium to transfer solar energy only holds 0.018 BTG's per degree F. per cubic foot

Linear Solar Energy Models

Long-term average values of the instantaneous (or hourly, daily, monthly) global and diffuse irradiation on a horizontal surface are needed in many applications of solar energy designs. The measured values of these parameters are available at a few places. At others no measurements exist and here the usual practice is to estimate them from theoretical or empirical models that have been developed on the basis of measured values. In practical studies it is a logical and rational idea that the solar radiation is directly proportional to the sunshine duration. The formulation of the proportionality can be derived from the measurements of the variables through scatter diagrams and most often by the application of statistical regression methods. In this book, the reader is advised to look at the scatter diagrams visually and make interpretations prior to any modeling attempt. Like in any other discipline of science, early solar energy models have linear mathematical forms similar to...

Arco Solar Panel M51 Manual

RED ROCKS COMMUNITY COLLEGE has been offering SOLAR ENERGY TECHNOLOGY courses since 1976. We offer courses in active solar installation and maintenance, and passive solar design. Both options can lead to either a 1 year certificate or a 2 year associate of applied science degree. We are located about 10 miles west of Denver at the foot of the Rocky Mountains and within 3 miles of the National Renewable Energy Lab. When possible, we assist each other in studies of mutual interest. Fall semester starts 8-31-92. We also conduct summer workshops. Contact Jon Klima, 13300 W 6th Ave., Lakewood, CO 80401. 303-988-6160 X320. SELF-SUFFICIENT NORTH WISCONSIN Wind Solar Powered Home on 15A. Contemporary 3BR, 1 1 2 bath, Greenhouse, deck with screen enclosure and more In a majestic pinewoods setting. 57,900. (612) 699-9695 SOLAR PANELS (liquid) 4'x8', salvaged American Solar Kings, Pressure tested OK. 150 ea., 1,340 10. Community Builders, 1494 Cedar, Green Bay, WI 54302. 414-432-2882. TRADE...

Homemade Solar Panels

This is the fabrication technique that has evolved out of my trials and errors. I'm sure there are many different ways to build solar panels that would work just fine. You will also need a Solar I nverter, Inverters change Direct Current (DC) to Alternating Current (AC). Stand-Alone inverters can be used to convert DC from a battery to AC to run electronic equipment, motors, appliances, etc. Synchronous Inverters can be used to convert the DC output of a PV photovoltaic module,Solar panel, a wind generator or a cell to AC power to be connected to the utility grid. Multifunction inverters perform both functions.Also Solar Batteries are needed to collect or save the free energy from the sun,find the best batteries that will suit all your needs.The solar panel cells are made of photovoltaic (PV) cel Is you can buy these materials online (internet) or at a store near you,I bought my materials 20 miles from where I live in P.R. Please read carefully the Solar ebook that tells you step by...

Grid Intertied solar power system

This is the type of solar power system you should use if you a still using power from the grid. This is also known as on- grid, grid-tied or a utility interactive solar electric system. Please see the below diagram of a simple grid-intertied solar power system (next page) 1. Energy source - Solar panels

Maintenance of your solar panels

You should clean your solar panels at least once per year to insure maximum performance. A critical part of maintaining the solar powered battery charging system is keeping the panel clean. The amount of power that a panel will produce is directly related to the intensity of sunlight that reaches the internal crystals. A dirty panel will allow less light to reach the crystals resulting in reduced power output. A layer of dust or road grime can reduce power output by 15 to 25 . Combining dust with leaves and debris that cover two or three of the individual cells can reduce output power by 50 to 75 .

Solar Energy

The emergence of interest in solar energy utilization has taken place since 1970, principally due to the then rising cost of energy from conventional sources. Solar radiation is the world's most abundant and permanent energy source. The amount of solar energy received by the surface of the earth per minute is greater than the energy utilization by the entire population in one year. For the time being, solar energy, being available everywhere, is attractive for stand-alone systems particularly in the rural parts of developing nations. Occurrences of solar energy dynamically all over the world in the forms of wind, wave, and hydropower through the hydrological cycle provide abilities to ponder about their utilization, if possible instantly or in the form of reserves by various conversion facilities and technologies. It is also possible that in the very long term, human beings might search for the conversion of ocean currents and temperature differences into appreciable quantities of...

Solar Power

Parabolic Dish Stirling Engine

Solar collectors are the engines that drive all solar energy heating systems. If variety is the spice of life, then the full lineup of solar thermal collectors is a flavorful dish indeed. Although solar heating collectors have settled upon a few basic designs, they are still manufactured in an array of configurations. We'll look at the different classifications and types of collectors, and briefly examine the construction differences, which can affect system performance. For in-depth coverage of Solar Rating and Certification Corporation (SRCC) certified collectors, see the 2008 buyer's guide in HP123. protection from the weather, these systems are only for seasonal use in most climates. Solar pool heating systems have such a high benefit-to-cost ratio that they are routinely excluded from incentives for solar energy heating equipment. A central receiver system is another type of point-focus collector. It consists of a receiver tower surrounded by large mirrors called heliostats. The...

Solar Powered Flight

This summer's flight of a photovoltaic-powered airplane from California to Kitty Hawk, N.C., was a double milestone, making history in both aviation and photovoltaics. The cross-country jaunt by hang-glider specialist Eric Raymond, of Lake Elsinore, California, was by far and away the longest fuel-less flight ever, while the use of PV power to drive his 198-pound plane's three-HP motor marked a major, attention-grabbing breakthrough for renewable energy technology. This flight, which began in Desert Center, California, July 16, 1990 and ended in the coastal town of Spot, North Carolina on September 3, 1990, set a new world record for a solar-powered aircraft. Eric Raymond logged 2,523 miles during 125 hours and 1 minute in the air. Even before the historic flight was underway Raymond had flown from Desert Center to Phoenix and in doing so shattered the overall distance record for gliders, or fuel-less airplanes. The larger failure of the Lordsburg crash overshadowed that achievement,...

Rtp Free Energy

According to the second law of thermodynamics, the entropy of a closed system suffering any transformation cannot diminish. It can, at best, remain unchanged as the result of the transformation, or else it must increase. If you add up the entropies of the aluminum and of the oxygen, you will discover that the sum exceeds the entropy of the oxide formed. This means that when aluminum combines with oxygen, only part of the chemical energy can be transformed into electricity, while the rest must appear as the heat associated with the missing entropy. That part that can (ideally) be converted into electricity is called the free energy. Calculate the free energy of the aluminum oxygen reaction. Changes of enthalpy and free energy (RTP), per kmole of CO2, are

Free Solar Panels

Solarcells Fence

These panels cost me absolutely nothing, that is, free. I just hauled them away. How Where This is one of the reasons you bought this book, right Have you seen flashing arrow signs on the highway near road construction Many of these are solar powered. The alpha numeric signs that flash words and numbers are also solar powered. These bulbs used in the sign to make the flashing arrows used to be powered by diesel engines, such as the Lister diesel engine. Now these signs are powered by solar panels, large batteries, and LED based illumination. A simple arrow board trailer typically has two 55-watt Siemans panels on it with two or three 8D-sized lead acid batteries. Each battery weighs about 200 pounds. Imagine this heavy trailer with six hundred pounds of batteries, several hundred pounds of metal, being hit by a drunk driver (BOOM). Well it happens all the time. Drivers hit these things on a VERY regular basis, especially during the wintertime. The panels end up getting cracked....

Free Energy Update

A new free energy magnet motor is coming on the scene. Troy Reed of Tulsa, OK has developed a permanent magnet device that produces free energy. It has two sets of stationary magnets and two sets of magnets mounted on freely turning disks. Spring-type injector pins are used to keep the motor turning at a constant RPM (about 500) as well as to overcome magnetic attraction. The device is started using a normal starter motor and then runs freely and continues to produce energy. For more information contact Reed Magnetic Motor, Inc., POB 700395, Tulsa, OK 74170, or call 918-743-1112. Another device that has been around for awhile is the N-Machine. The N-Machine was invented by Dr. DePalma, formerly of MIT. It has been tested by a variety of people and seems to work producing free energy. This device uses a magnetic field from permanent or electromagnets to produce voltage and current in a rotating disk. The disk is driven continuously by a normal high efficiency motor. A 90 page book is...

Solar Panel

Dear Home Power, Count two big votes for the People's Energy Phair (PEP) It's time to spread the news that we can live comfortably and sustainably within our daily income of solar energy. We're glad to see the proposed restriction on automobiles from the fair site. Along this line, we suggest the site be accessible by public transit, eg. bus or train. We live on a sailboat, so it would be nice also if we could get there by wind power.

Of solar energy

The present chapter looks at a thermodynamic engine concept considered particularly suited for conversion of solar energy. Other examples of the use of thermodynamic cycles in the conversion of heat derived from solar collectors into work will be given in Chapters 17 and 18. The dependence of the limiting Carnot efficiency on temperature is shown in Fig. 17.3 for selected values of a parameter describing the concentrating ability of the collector and its short-wavelength absorption to long-wavelength emission ratio. The devices described in Chapter 18 aim at converting solar heat into mechanical work for water pumping, while the devices of interest in Chapter 17 convert heat from a solar concentrator into electricity.

Solar Energy Home

Careful building design makes the best use of natural daylight. In order to make the best use of solar energy, it is necessary to understand the climate of the re 3. The available amount of solar energy If the house is insulated properly, it is not necessary to have large areal collectors, because the energy need will be small. Here lies the key problem in active solar space heating either to insulate the house to have less energy demand or to build poorly insulated houses and try to implement solar energy for space heating.

Learn Solar Energy

PV Systems Installation Solar Energy For International Development Solar Homes Healthy Buildings Ken Olson, principal Instructor, is formerly of Solar Energy International (SEI) and is an accredited Certified Vocational Instructor with over 25 years fulltime experience teaching practical hands-on & how-to Solar Energy.

Solar panels

Climbing around on roofs is statistically the most dangerous part of any installation. Injuries can be severe, maybe even fatal. Do you belong up on a roof Not just climbing around, but pulling heavy weights and tools and going back and forth a lot If you have a flimsy ladder, you're asking for big trouble. After all, solar panels are heavy and awkward. (Imagine hoisting a heavy piece of plywood around in the wind while you're balancing on a roof, and you get the idea.) Also pay attention to local ordinances. Sometimes building codes forbid solar panels in view from the street, although more and more state legislatures are banning this limitation.

Free Energy

The electric energy delivered to a load by a reversible fuel cell is called the free energy change owing to the reaction (designated AG). Usually, if there is a single product, AG is given per kilomole of product and is represented by gf (if at RTP). Again, since the cell delivers electric energy, the free energy change is negative, conforming to the convention for the sign of the enthalpy change of the reaction. As in the case of enthalpies, by convention, at RTP, the free energy of all elements in their natural state in this planet is taken as zero. ttThis assumes that the product water is created as a gas. If the water is created as a liquid, the reversible voltage will be 1.229 V, and the free energy is 237.1 MJ kmole. tttOwing to irreversibilities in practical cells, such a measurement cannot be carried out accurately. However, the reversible voltage can be estimated by connecting a voltage generator to the cell and observing its voltage-versus-current characteristic as the...

Wheel Gravity Generator

Free Energy Devices

You notice that not only does he have a heavy flywheel of a fair size, but that there are three or four other large diameter discs mounted where they also rotate at the intermediate speeds of rotation. While these discs may well not have been placed there as flywheels, nevertheless, they do act as flywheels, and each one of them will be contributing to the free-energy gain of the system as a whole. The Bedini Pulsed Flywheel. The Chas Campbell system is not an isolated case. On page 19 of the book Free Energy Generation - Circuits and Schematics John Bedini shows a diagram of a motor generator which he has had running for three years continuously while keeping its own battery fully charged.

Http Index.php Topic 2535.0.html

2n3055 Transistor Switch

The output waveform from Bob Boyce's triple-oscillator board is sharpened up by the use of carefully chosen opto-isolators, and that output would almost certainly drive Dave Lawton's Meyer replication Water Fuel Cell. It would also be interesting to see if it has the same effect on battery recharging as the John Bedini pulse-charging circuits, as it is distinctly possible that it has. You will notice that Bob defeats the Faraday maximum output by careful construction of the electrolyser, plus one apparently simple electronics board and one apparently simple transformer. Again, these components call for very careful, high-quality construction as is common for most successful free-energy devices. Serious warning needs to be given here. The combination of sharp pulsing and accurately wound toroid core composed of an iron powder matrix, draws in so much extra power from the environment that it is essential that it is only used with the electrolyser cell which is capable of soaking up...

Photosynthesis experiments

Project 47 Proving Biofuel Requires Solar Energy In this experiment, we are going to test the hypothesis that biofuel requires solar energy in order to be produced. In order to do this, we are going to set up two small test cells, which we will use to compare the growth of two samples of our biofuel, cress. Your results should confirm the hypothesis that solar energy is required for seeds to grow.

How To Build A Rotoverter Generator

How Build Free Energy

The input drive may be from an inverter driven from a battery charged via a solar panel. The system how needs to be 'tuned' and tested. This involves finding the best 'starting' capacitor which will be switched into the circuit for a few seconds at start-up, and the best 'running' capacitor. To summarise This device takes a low-power 110 Volt AC input and produces a much higher-power electrical output which can be used for powering much greater loads than the input could power. The output power is much higher than the input power. This is free-energy under whatever name you like to apply to it. One advantage which should be stressed, is that very little in the way of construction is needed, and off-the-shelf motors are used. Also, no knowledge of electronics is needed, which makes this one of the easiest to construct free-energy devices available at the present time. One slight disadvantage is that the tuning of the Prime Mover motor depends on its loading and most loads have...

Chapter Energy Tapping Pulsed Systems

One very interesting feature of free-energy devices is that although various devices which appear to be completely different and have different apparent applications, the background operation is often the same. It is clear that a sharp positive going DC electric pulse interacts with the surrounding energy field, making large quantities of free-energy available for anyone who has the knowledge of how to gather and use that extra energy.

The Biological Vacuum The Optimal Driving Force for Machines

Engine Exhaust System Walter Schauberger

Animating energies come into being when etherealised (helium-like) ethericities of carbone and the condensed waste of solar energy in gaseous form, so-called oxygen, become bound together and emulsify. This happens when the intermixture of diffuse substances takes place where a process of reduction occurs in lieu of oxidation. Whether animating or de-animating life-forces come into being is dependent on the way these substances intermix. The life-giving impulse can only be stimulated, if etherealised carbone (helium-like) ethericities bind the waste products of solar energy that materialise in the form of gas, i.e. so-called oxygen. On the other hand, decomposive, life-removing forces will be stimulated if the process of interaction proceeds in the reverse order. That is to say, if the oxygen ethericities bind the maternal ethericities of carbone. When heated, oxygen becomes aggressive, whereas with cold it becomes passive.

Polycrystalline and Semicrystalline

Round-shape pv cell reduces material waste typically found in rectangular cell. (Depiction based on cell used by Applied Solar Energy Corporation, City of Industry, California.) Round-shape pv cell reduces material waste typically found in rectangular cell. (Depiction based on cell used by Applied Solar Energy Corporation, City of Industry, California.)

Project Build Your Own Solar Powered Torch

Msp430 Solar Schematic Garden Light

In lists of made-up useless things, solar-powered torches seem to come out somewhere at the top. After all, what use is there for something that produces light that is powered by light Until you realize that we can use batteries to store the energy this is a crucial leap in understanding Now doesn't the solar torch seem so much more interesting Figures 13-9 and 13-10 show a solar-powered torch and the solar torch in its packaging. One of the things you need to think about if you are going to house your project in a round torch case, is that you will need to ensure that either Figure 13-10 Solar-powered torch in its packaging. Figure 13-10 Solar-powered torch in its packaging. Figure 13-11 Solar-powered torch schematic. Figure 13-11 Solar-powered torch schematic. Project 36 Build Your Own Solar-Powered Often, the place where you want to position the warning light or strobe is totally remote from any source of power. Although we can often run things from batteries, sometimes we want to...

Make A flat panel solar cell

Cara Membuat Solar Cell Sendiri

Finally, another shot of the author's shadow. Note that the meter now reads about 4 microamperes, since no sunlight is falling on it.This is the same way you will build the bigger panels for your home ,remember these are home made to save you money and time, many people are using these methods and are using FREE ENERGY from the sun for there homes today, included there is also a FREE BONUS that will show you how to Build a Solar Water Heater and MUCH MORE, please leave me your positive feedback and after I will leave you the same feedback enjoy

Parabolic dish concentrators

Concentrator Solar Parabolic

If you want a cheap source for a solar parabolic mirror, the University of Oxford produce a solar energy kit (Figure 8-14), which is inexpensive, and comes with a budget plastic parabolic mirror. If you want a cheap source for a solar parabolic mirror, the University of Oxford produce a solar energy kit (Figure 8-14), which is inexpensive, and comes with a budget plastic parabolic mirror. Figure 8-14 University of Oxford solar energy kit. Figure 8-14 University of Oxford solar energy kit.

Positioning Your Solar Devices

Solar Clock Sundial

It is important to note that the position of the sun in the sky changes from hour to hour, day to day, and year by year. While this might be interesting, it is not very helpful to us as prospective solar energy users, as it presents us with a bit of a dilemma where exactly do we point our solar device What does this mean for us in practice Essentially, it means that we need to change the position of our solar devices if we are to harness the most solar energy all year round. Project 1 Build a Solar-Powered Clock CM Figure 3-5 Template for our solar-powered clock. your advantage. For example, in summer, you don't want too much solar gain in your house as it might overheat however, in winter that extra solar energy might be advantageous With our heliodon, it is possible to construct scale models that allow us to see, for example, if a certain tree will overshadow our solar panels. The heliodon is therefore a very useful tool for solar design, without having to perform calculations....

Operation Of The Invention

Tesla Battery Switch

However, the really important point here is the way that when these short pulses are applied to a lead-acid battery, a link is formed with the environment which causes large amounts of energy to flow into the circuit from outside. This is extra free-energy. Interestingly, it is highly likely that if the pulses generated by Dave Lawton's water-splitter circuit shown above, were fed to a lead-acid battery, then the same battery-charging mechanism is likely to occur. Also, if a Bedini pulse-charging circuit were connected to a water-splitting cell like the Lawton cell, then it is highly probable that it would also drive that cell satisfactorily. Two apparently different applications, two apparently different circuits, but both producing sharp high-voltage pulses which draw extra free-energy from the immediate environment. The Tesla Switch. It doesn't stop there. Nikola Tesla introduced the world to Alternating Current (AC) but later on he moved from AC to very short, sharp pulses of...

Chapter Moving Pulsed Systems

Simple Free Energy Devices

There are three categories of pulsed system and we will consider each in turn. These are drive-pulsed systems, energy-tapping pulsed systems and gravity free-energy pulsing systems. Here we will look at systems where an electrical pulse is used to cause the device to operate by creating a temporary magnetic field caused by electric current flowing through a coil or electromagnet as it is often called. Many of these systems are rather subtle in the way that they operate. One very well-known example of this is

Solar Thermal System

Molten Salt Power Tower System Schematic

Figure 9-1 is a schematic of a large-scale solar thermal power station developed, designed, built, tested, and operated with the U.S. Department of Energy funding. In this plant, the solar energy is collected by thousands of sun-tracking mirrors, called heliostats, that reflect the sun's energy to a single receiver atop a centrally located tower. The enormous amount of energy focused on the receiver is used to generate high temperature to melt a salt. The hot molten salt is stored in a storage tank, and is used, when needed, to generate steam and drive the turbine generator. After generating the steam, the used molten salt at low temperature is returned to the cold salt storage tank. From here it is pumped to the receiver tower to get heated again for the next thermal cycle. The usable energy extracted during such a thermal cycle depends on the working temperatures. The maximum ther-modynamic conversion efficiency that can be theoretically achieved with the hot side temperature Thot...

Learning The basics of our invention

By using this method it will take a lot of ground space, ground space that many people just do not have with the exception of farmers. If you do have the space then think BIG dig deep and have as many cells as you can get up to 2 to 4 acres. There are much better ways - vs - the old method as you will see. but by using Deckmans old way or our new methods, you can get as much free energy as you want with voltages or amperages as high as you want or desire. The higher the desired amperage the more costly it can get. We are always working to better our inventions to keep the cost down. Tech Advanced.htm

One school of thought advocates positioning your solar panels on a fixed surface such as a roof, positioned so as to harness as much sun as possible on average over the year. This approach certainly works, but as we saw in Chapter 3, the sun is not a fixed object in the sky it moves, and so this approach is not necessarily the best. One other solution is to actively track the sun using a device such as the trackers shown in Figures 14-1 and 14-2. What this entails is using motors, hydraulic actuators, or some other devices to move our solar panels to follow the sun. This approach does have some merits. With the sun always facing the panels as face-on as possible, the most possible energy is extracted, as the panels are operating at their greatest efficiency. In this chapter we will build a circuit that can be used to track the sun's movements and move a solar panel accordingly. The circuit is only simple, and will power a small motor to drive a demonstration display however, with...

Chapter Self Powered Engines

Energy Displacement Devices

This chapter is about 'self-powered' motors. Strictly speaking, they are not 'self-powered' but as they don't burn a fuel of any kind, in everyday language they can be described as 'self-powered'. In the same way that a solar panel in sunlight uses no fuel and yet puts out electrical power, these motors draw energy from the environment and provide us with mechanical power. In actual fact, power is never used up but just converted from one form into another. In the case of our trusty solar panel, some 17 of the radiation from the sun (mainly ultraviolet) is converted into electrical power and 83 goes in heating and other losses, but as we don't have to supply the sunlight, and the solar panel pours out the electricity which we want without us having to do anything to make it happen, we really don't care very much about its extremely low efficiency. As far as we are concerned, the electricity flowing from the panel is free-energy.

Fre Energy-movingpulsed

Teruo Kawai

It should be remarked that having an output power greater than the input power is considered impossible, due to the Law of Conservation of Energy. This is, of course, not true, as the Law (actually an expected result deduced from many measured observations) only applies to 'closed' systems and all of the 'over-unity' devices described here are not 'closed' systems. If the so-called Law applied to all systems, then a solar panel would be impossible, because when it is in sunlight, it produces a continuous electrical current. The power which you put in, is zero, the power coming out may well be 120 watts of electricity. If it is a 'closed' system, then it is impossible. Of course, it is not a 'closed' system as sunlight is streaming down on to the panel, and if you measure the energy reaching the panel and compare it to the energy coming out of the panel, it shows that the panel has an efficiency which is less than 20 .

Acknowledment Of Power System

Several institutions worldwide provided current data and reports on these rather rapidly developing technologies. They are the American Wind Energy Association, the American Solar Energy Society, the European Wind Energy Association, the Ris0 National Laboratory, Denmark, the Tata Energy Research Institute, India, and many corporations engaged in the wind and solar power technologies. Many individuals at these organizations gladly provided help I requested.

Building Integrated pv Systems

In August 1997, The DOE announced that it will lead an effort to place one million solar-power systems on home and building roofs across the U.S.A. by the year 2010. This Million Solar Roof Initiative is expected to increase the momentum for more widespread use of solar power, lowering the cost of photovoltaic technologies.

Description Of The Preferred Embodiments

As shown in FIG. 4, the windings of the electromagnets 12 and 14 are connected to a DC power source 42 through a movable contact of a relay 40, which is connected in series with the windings. A series circuit containing the relay 40 (solenoid) and the detector 30 or microswitch is connected to the DC power source 42. In addition, from the viewpoint of energy conservation, a charger 44 such as a solar cell is connected to the DC power source 42. It is preferable that the DC power source 42 is constantly chargeable using solar energy or the like.

Solar Projects on the

Hopefully, this book has provided an interesting primer on solar energy. I rather hope that I have empowered you with the tools to go onwards and create your own solar inventions, powered by clean green energy. To help you on your way, and provide inspiration, I have compiled a list of projects, articles, and inspirational solar tech stories that I have rooted out for you on the web. This should provide creative inspiration for your own sustainably powered designs. All of these sites seem to be particularly interesting or quirky this highlights the need to be creative when finding applications for technologies, rather than being constrained by the dogma of existing applications. I truly hope they will inspire you, the reader, to go out there and create something truly unique. I've seen it all now a solar-powered coffee roaster Clean energy when used with fair-trade coffee makes for a guilt-free expresso. blog archive solar_roast_coffee.jpg home.html...

Flat Plate Collectors

Free Energy Collector

The flat plate collectors are based on two important principles a black base that absorbs the solar radiation better than any other color and a glass lid that is needed to keep the heat in. Figure 7.2 shows the cross-section of the most commonly used flat plate collector. Its surface should be located perpendicularly to the solar radiation direction for the maximum solar energy gain. In practice, most often the collectors do not move, and therefore, they must be located such that during one day the maximum amount of solar radiation can be converted into solar energy. For this reasons, fixed collectors must be located to face south (north) in the northern (southern) hemisphere. This implies that for given a latitude there is a certain angle which yields the maximum solar energy over the year. As a practical rule, for low latitudes the angle of the collector is almost equivalent to the angle of latitude, but increases by 10 at 40 N and 40 S latitudes. All these arrangements are for...

Solar cell technologies

There are a number of different technologies that can be used to produce devices which convert light into electricity, and we are going to explore these in turn. There is always a balance to be struck between how well something works, and how much it costs to produce, and the same can be said for solar energy. One of the caveats with this type of method, as you will see later, is that when a silicon crystal is grown, it produces a round cross-section solar cell, which does not fit well with making solar panels, as round cells are hard to arrange efficiently. The next type of solar cell we will be looking at, also made from silicon, is slightly different, it is a polycrystalline solar cell. Polycrystalline cells are still made from solid silicon however, the process used to produce the silicon from which the cells are cut is slightly different. This results in square solar cells. However, there are many crystals in a polycrystalline cell, so they perform slightly less efficiently,...

Other methods of generating hydrogen

There are also a number of other proposed methods for generating hydrogen from solar energy, which, although we are not going to examine them in detail here, are certainly of merit. One method proposed for making hydrogen using solar energy, is to use bacteria to produce it. Using a process of photosynthesis, certain algae and bacteria have been shown to produce hydrogen gas. This hydrogen can be harnessed and used to power the hydrogen economy. We have seen in the previous experiment, how we can use electricity, more specifically solar power, to generate hydrogen. We also saw that this hydrogen can be stored for later use. Now, in this part of the experiment, we are going to look at turning this hydrogen into electricity, and what is actually happening.

Background Of The Invention

Several alternative energy sources have been proposed, such as the sun (through direct solar power devices), nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. Due to the lack of public acceptance, cost, other pollutants, technical problems, and or lack of development, these sources have not wholly solved the problem. Moreover, the preparation of fuel for nuclear fission and nuclear fusion reactors has heretofore been a complicated process requiring expensive apparatus.

Energy and the Economy

Adaptation strategies and implementation are strongly motivated by the cost of energy (Rosenzweig et al., 2007). The nature of adaptation and mitigation decisions changes over time. For example, mitigation choices have begun with relatively easy measures such as adoption of low-cost supply and demand-side options in the energy sector (such as passive solar energy) (Levine et al., 2007). Through successful investment in research and development, low-cost alternatives should become

Fuzzy Algorithm Application for Solar Radiation

In these two propositions solar energy variables of sunshine duration and solar radiation are described in terms of linguistic variables such as long, high, short, and small. Indeed, these two propositions are satisfied logically by a simple AM. These linguistic variables are only a certain part set of the whole variability domain, i. e., of the full set. It can be understood from this argument that a set of relationships is sought between two variables as exemplified in Fig. 5.19.

Energy and the Atmospheric Environment

In order to reduce all these unwanted and damaging effects, it is consciously desirable to shift toward the use of environmentally friendly and clean renewable energy resources, and especially, the solar energy alternatives. It seems that for the next few decades, the use of conventional energy resources such as oil, coal, and natural gas will continue, perhaps at reduced rates because of some replacement by renewable sources. It is essential to take the necessary measures and developments toward more exploitation of solar and other renewable energy alternatives by the advancement in research and technology. Efforts will also be needed in conversion and moving toward a less energy demanding way of life. mentally friendly sources so as to reduce both environmental and atmospheric pollutions. Sustainable future development depends largely on the pollution potential of the energy sources. The criterion of sustainable development can be defined as the development that meets the needs of...

Weather Climate and Climate Change

The amount of the solar radiation incident on the earth is partially reflected again into the earth's atmosphere and then onward into the space. The reflected amount is referred to as the planetary albedo, which is the ratio of the reflected (scattered) solar radiation to the incident solar radiation, measured above the atmosphere. The amount of solar radiation absorbed by the atmospheric system plays the dominant role in the generation of meteorological events within the lower atmosphere (troposphere) and for the assessment of these events the accurate determination of planetary albedo is very important. The absorbed solar energy has maximum values of 300 W m2 in low latitudes. On the basis of different studies, today the average global albedo is at about 30 with maximum change of satellite measurement at 2 , which is due to both seasonal and inter-annual time scales. Furthermore, the maximum (minimum) values appear in January (July). The annual variations are as a result of...

Heat Transfer and Losses

Another way of benefiting from solar radiation is by passive solar heating devices which have different meanings. For instance, in the narrow sense, it means the absorption of solar energy directly into a building to reduce the energy required for heating the habitable space. Passive solar heating systems are integral parts of the building and mostly use air to circulate the collected energy without pumps or fans. In the broad sense, passive solar heating means low-energy building designs, which are effective in reducing the heat demand to the point where small passive solar gains make a significant contribution in winter. There are three heat transfers that should be considered in any solar energy design for efficiency. For any solar radiation collector to work efficiently it is necessary to reduce the heat losses or to minimize them. As a material is heated by solar radiation, it seeks to reach equilibrium with its surroundings by conduction, convection, and radiation processes.

The origin of photovoltaic solar cells

None of this would be possible if it hadn't been for the work of French Physicist Edmund Becquerel, who in 1839, discovered the photovoltaic effect. In fact, Becquerel is a bit of an inspiration for young Evil Geniuses wanting to experiment with solar energy, as he made his discoveries when he was only 19 In 1883, Charles Fritts, an American inventor, devised the first practical solar cell, when he took some selenium and covered it with a fine coating of gold. His cell wasn't particularly efficient, with 1 or so conversion efficiency from light to electricity however, his design of cell later found applications as a sensor in early cameras to detect the light level being used to sense light rather than to generate power in any real quantity. Albert Einstein went on to further develop the theory of the nature of light and the mechanism through which the photoelectric effect works, the discovery was considered so important that he won the Nobel Prize in 1905. Because of their high cost...

Photobiological solar cells

Arizona State University have initiated a project codenamed Project Ingenhousz which is looking at photosynthesis and how organisms can be used to harness solar energy to produce fuels that will wean us away from our carbon-based fossil fuels. Could your car one day run from hydrogen that has been produced by algae from solar energy


Since about 1995, Nick Pine has been answering any and all questions regarding heating, cooling, energy, and especially solar energy for heating and cooling through his Nick Pine web page and Usenet postings. His form and style of writing, and his explanations of mathematics, are nothing short of role model in quality. His archive of Usenet (newsgroup) postings on his website is a treasure trove of solar energy advice. will help you make a box that gets hot. Nick Pine's info will help you take a box that gets hot and use it to heat your house. Anyone who really wants to learn solar energy energy thermodynamics and more would be a lazy fool not to read everything Nick writes on a regular basis.

Hydrogen Storage and Transport

It is an unfortunate characteristic of solar energy that it arrives in a quite random manner depending on the meteorological conditions and it does not arrive at all time to suit our needs. Since the time of usage does not always match with the time of availability, it is necessary to store the solar energy at times of availability so as to use it at times of need. The need for new and renewable energy alternatives due to the depletion of conservative energy sources also brought about studies on the efficient usage and transmission of available energies. As is well known, the major criticism against these energy alternatives is the problem of energy storage (Tsur and Zemel 1992). Uneven solar energy potential in the world causes an imbalance in its production among various regions, some of which are relatively richer in solar energy than others. Such imbalances can be avoided only through an efficient energy transportation system. If the storage and transmission of solar energy can be...

Photosynthesis Fuel from the

We can harness solar energy in a lot of different direct ways, as we have seen already in this book. We can use the sun to meet our requirements for heat and electricity. Sometimes, as we saw in Chapter 17, we need energy sources that are portable and lightweight for powering cars, for example, and for transporting energy to sites where it is not appropriate to use solar energy directly. One way in which we can harness solar energy, is to produce plants that we can turn into fuels. Remember, plants use the sun's energy to grow. A plant takes in carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, water, and nutrients from the soil, and turns it into biological matter. The trees and flowers would not exist without the sun's energy. We see in Figure 18-1 the cycle that takes place. If we look at how ethanol (Figure 18-2) is produced, in Figure 18-3 we can see that the process is driven by solar energy. However, it is Coal comes from periods in the world's history when there were lots of trees and plants...

Renewable Energy Alternatives and Climate Change

In contrast, fossil fuels are stored solar energy from past geological ages. Even though the quantities of oil, natural gas, and coal are large, they are finite and for the long term of hundreds of years they are not sustainable. The world energy demand depends, mainly, on fossil fuels with respective shares of petroleum, coal, and natural gas at 38 , 30 , and 20 , respectively. The remaining 12 is filled by the non-conventional energy alternatives of hydropower (7 ) and nuclear energy (5 ). It is expected that the world oil and natural gas reserves will last for several decades, but the coal reserves will sustain the energy requirements for a few centuries. This means that the fossil fuel amount is currently limited and even though new reserves might be found in the future, they will still remain limited and the rate of energy demand increase in the world will require exploitation of other renewable alternatives at ever increasing rates. The desire to use renewable energy sources is...

Photovoltaic PV Cells

PVs or solar cells (SC) convert sunlight directly into electricity. When photons strike certain semiconductor materials, such as silicon, they dislodge electrons which causes a potential difference to form between the specially treated front surface of the SCs and the back surface. In order to increase the voltage, individual cells are combined in a panel form. The most advanced photon utilization technology is the SC to which the PV effects of semiconductors are applied. SCs are the standard bearer of the new energy technologies because of their great potential. Their successful development is dependent on cost reduction of the power-generating systems that include SCs. They must either be used together with storage devices or as supplements to conventional facilities. Due to their high cost they are still not practical for large-scale power generation. The few central solar generation facilities in operation are experimental and need large areas of land. With current technology...

Steven Harris Project Destiny

This Book, Solar Energy, and the Future of Energy vi Free Solar I could fill this book with examples of businesses that were started from another companies' waste, but this book is about using waste to gain knowledge through experimentation as well as to make solar energy related items, many of which can be sold, and all of which are fun. This Book, Solar Energy and the Future of Energy The real future of energy is not Proton Exchange Membranes (PEM) powering vehicles and homes, or Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC), and it sure as heck is not solar cells on roof shingles (what a failure). The strength we have in year 2003 is not the new technology. It is our ability to do mass manufacturing with world-class economics. In our wonderful disposable society (which is good), we make things faster and cheaper and in greater varieties with newer versions quicker and easier than we ever have before. It is only through mass manufacturing and 21st century material science that we will make solar...

Energy Cascade

The French solar energy pioneer, Trombe, considered the use of solar energy to heat water to make steam to turn a turbine, which in turn made electricity. This was a waste when the same energy could melt steel. This is true. You can take 4000F+ solar energy and melt iron (2300F), use the iron to melt brass (1800F), use the brass to melt aluminum (1200F), use the aluminum to melt zinc (900F), use the zinc to melt lead (600F), and use the lead to heat the water to make steam to turn the turbine to make electricity.

Future Expectations

It is expected that within the next two decades solar energy, whether transmitted through electrical lines or used to produce hydrogen, will become the cornerstone in the global energy policy. In the future, wherever solar energy is abundant, hydrogen can be produced without pollution and shipped to distant markets. For this purpose, the Sahara Desert in Africa can be regarded as the solar-hydrogen production area from where the hydrogen can be transmitted to consumption centers in Europe. Germany leads the effort to develop solar-hydrogen systems. There are demonstration electrolysis projects powered by PV cells already operating in Germany and the solar energy rich deserts of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Germany spends some 25 million annually on hydrogen research projects. The invention of optical fibers has led to extensive studies on the traditional methods of illumination and sterilization using the sun's radiation. Optic fibers provide a pathway to transmit solar beams almost...

Biomass Energy

Overall 14 of the world's energy comes from biomass, primarily wood and charcoal, but also crop residue and even animal dung for cooking and some heating. This contributes to deforestation and the loss of topsoil in developing countries. Biofuel production is largely determined by the supply of moisture and the length of the growing season (Olesen and Bindi 2002). By the twenty-second century, land area devoted to biofuels may increase by a factor of two to three in all parts of Europe (Metzger et al., 2004). Especially, in developing countries biomass is the major component of the national energy supply. Although biomass sources are widely available, they have low conversion efficiencies. This energy source is used especially for cooking and comfort and by burning it provides heat. The sun's radiation that conveys energy is exploited by the plants through photosynthesis, and consequently, even the remnants of plants are potential energy sources because they conserve historic solar...


Zekai Sen, Solar Energy Fundamentals and Modeling Techniques DOI 10.1007 978-1-84800-134-3, Springer 2008 Two of these points, namely, choice of water and air clarity will constitute the main topic of this chapter related to renewable energy sources in general but to solar energy in particular.

Energy and Industry

The net return from industrial material produced in a country is the reflection of energy consumption of the society in an efficient way. Otherwise, burning fossil fuels without economic industrial return may damage any society in the long run, especially with the appearance of renewable energy resources that are expected to be more economical, and therefore, exploitable in the long run. The extensive fossil fuel reservoirs available today are decreasing at an unprecedented rate and, hence, there are future non-sustainability alarms on this energy source. It is, therefore, necessary to diminish their exploitation rate, even starting from today, by partial replacements, especially through the sustainable alternatives such as solar energy.

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