Titanium Dioxide Early Work

Historically, this is the material which really sparked interest in the solar photoelec-trolysis of water. Early papers on TiO2 mainly stemmed from the applicability of TiO2 in the paint/pigment industry255 although fundamental aspects such as current rectification in the dark (in the reverse bias regime) shown by anodically formed valve metal oxide film/ electrolyte interfaces was also of interest (e.g., Ref. 52). Another driver was possible applications of UV-irradiated semiconductor/electrolyte interfaces for environmental remediation (e.g., Refs. 256, 257).

Representative early work on this remarkable material is presented in chronological order in Table 5, with all these studies aimed toward the photoelectrolysis of water. Further summaries of this early body of work are contained in Refs. 5, 6, 1720, 25 and 32.

Table 5. Representative examples of early work (i.e., prior to ~1985) on the use of TiO2 for the photoelectrolysis of water.

Table 5. Representative examples of early work (i.e., prior to ~1985) on the use of TiO2 for the photoelectrolysis of water.

Entry

Title of article

Comments

Reference

number

1

Electrochemical Photolysis of Water

First demonstration of the feasibility of

54

at a Semiconductor Electrode

water splitting.

2

The Quantum Yield of Photolysis of

Very low quantum yields (~10-3) were

224

Water on TiO2 Electrodes

measured when no external bias was

applied. The effect of photon flux also

explored.

3

Photoelectrolysis of Water Using

Study shows the necessity of a bias

225

Semiconducting TiO2 Crystals

potential for rutile photoanodes.

4

Photoelectrolysis of Water in Cells

Both single crystal and polycrystalline

226

with TiO2 Anodes

TiO2 used and external quantum effi-

ciency measured.

5

A Photo-Electrochemical Cell with

Cell configuration also employs an illu-

227

Production of Hydrogen and Oxy-

minated p-GaP photocathode (c.f. Ref.

gen by a Cell Reaction

60).

6

Photoassisted Electrolysis of Water

The initial claim in Ref. 54 supported

228

by Irradiation of a Titanium Dioxide

along with data on the wavelength re-

Electrode

sponse and the correlation of product

yield and current.

7

Semiconductor Electrodes 1. The

Comparison of the behavior of CVD and

229

Chemical Vapor Deposition and

single crystal n-TiO2 presented.

Application of Polycrystalline n-

Type Titanium Dioxide Electrodes

to the Photosensitized Electrolysis

of Water

8

Formation of Hydrogen Gas with an

See text.

55

Electrochemical Photo-cell

9

Hydrogen Production under Sunlight

See text.

56

with an Electrochemical Photo-cell

10

Photoproduction of Hydrogen:

230

Potential Dependence of the Quan-

tum Efficiency as a Function of

Wavelength

11

Photoelectrolysis of Water with

A hybrid structure, involving a p-n junc-

231

TiO2-Covered Solar-Cell Electrodes

tion Si cell coated with a TiO2 film by

CVD, is studied.

12

Electrochemical Investigation of an

Two types of TiO2 films studied, namely,

232

Illuminated TiO2 Electrode

anodically formed layers on Ti sheets

and those prepared by plasma jet spray-

ing of TiO2 powder.

13

Intensity Effects in the Electrochemi-

Quantum efficiency observed to approach

233

cal Photolysis of Water at the TiO2

unity at low light intensities.

Anode

14

Improved Solar Energy Conversion

Heat treatment of Ti metal found to

234

Efficiencies for the Photocatalytic

influence performance.

Production of Hydrogen via TiO2

Semiconductor Electrodes

Hydrogen Generation from Irradiated Semiconductor-Liquid Interfaces 185 Table 5. Continuation.

Entry Title of article Comments Reference number

Entry Title of article Comments Reference number

15

Near-UV Photon Efficiency in a TiO2 Electrode: Application to Hydrogen Production from Solar Energy

235

16

Novel Semiconducting Electrodes for the Photosensitized Electrolysis of Water

Appears to be the first study on doping TiO2 to extend its light response into the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum.

236

17

Photoelectrolysis of Water in Sunlight with Sensitized Semiconductor Electrodes

Similar observations as in Ref. 236 for Al3+-doped TiO2.

237

The Quantum Yields of Photoelectric Decomposition of Water at TiO2 Anodes and p-Type GaP Cathodes

The behavior of single crystals of two different orientations (J and || to the C axis) and polycrystalline TiO2 reported.

A more detailed study as in Ref. 227 by the same research group.

239

20

Anomalous Photoresponse of n-TiO2 Electrode in a Photo-electrochemical Cell

The behavior of surface states at the TiO2-electrolyte interface is focus of this study.

240

21

An Effect of Heat Treatment on the Activity of Titanium Dioxide Film Electrodes for Photosensitized Oxidation of Water

Heat treatment in argon atmosphere found to improve performance of both anodic and pyrolytically prepared TiO2 films.

241

22 23

Preparation of Titanium Dioxide Films as Solar Photocatalysts Photoelectrochemical Behaviour of TiO2 and Formation of Hydrogen Peroxide

Low-cost polyimide plastic used as film substrate.

Other than the OER, reduction of O2 to H2O2 also observed.

243

24

Photodeposition of Water over Pt/TiO2 Catalysts

Powdered photocatalyst is employed.

244

25

Photocatalytic Decomposition of Gaseous Water over TiO2 and TiO2-RuO2 Surfaces

As above but gaseous water used at room temperature.

245

26

Photoelectrolysis of Water with Natural Mineral TiO2 Rutile Electrodes

Natural samples compared with Fe-doped synthetic single crystal TiO2.

246

27

Models for the Photoelectrolytic Decomposition of Water at Semiconducting Oxide Anodes

Although title is general, theoretical study focuses on the TiO2-electrolyte interface and the effect of surface states.

247

28

Photosynthetic Production of H2 and H2O2 on Semiconducting Oxide Grains in Aqueous Solutions

Hydrogen peroxide formation observed in TiO2 powder suspensions as in Ref. 243 for TiO2 films.

248

Table 5.

Continuation.

Entry number

Title of article

Comments

Reference

29

Influence of pH on the Potential Dependence of the Efficiency of Water Photo-oxidation at n-TiO2 Electrodes

Quantum efficiency for water photooxi-dation is shown to be pH-dependent.

249

30

Photocatalytic Water Decomposition and Water-Gas Shift Reactions over NaOH-Coated, Platinized TiO2

As in Entry 24 (Ref. 244) by the same research group.

250

31

Photosensitized Dissociation of Water using Dispersed Suspensions of n-Type Semiconductors

Focus of study on TiO2 and SrTiO3 using EDTA as an electron donor and Fe3+ as acceptor for tests of water reduction and oxidation activity respectively (c.f. Figs. 1b and 1c).

251

32

Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution from an Aqueous Hydra-zine Solution

Pt-TiO2 photocatalyst used and both H2 and N2 evolution observed.

252

33

Conditions for Photochemical Water Cleavage. Aqueous Pt/TiO2 (Anatase) Dispersions under Ultraviolet Light

As in Entries 24 and 25 (Refs. 244, 245) photocatalyst dispersions studied.

253

34

Colloidal Semiconductors in Systems for the Sacrificial Photolysis of Water. 1. Preparation of a Pt/TiO2 Catalyst by Heterocoagulation and its Physical Characterization

254

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Responses

  • leslie
    How does hydrogen generation work tio2?
    1 month ago

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