National sectoral energy price projections were taken from the Fossil2 output. Projected regional price differentials for 2000, calculated from the EIA spreadsheet data, were applied to the Fossil2 sectoral price tracks to 2030 to provide some regional variation in energy prices (see Figures J-6 through J-ll).
Models are available to calculate cost of energy (COE) or rate of return for various project ownership and financin g assumptions 9,10 . The FATE-2P model, developed by Princeton Economic Research, Inc. 10 is used to calculat e COEs in a separate chapter of this TC compendium. Commercial tools to assist utilities in customizing analyses o f windpower projects for site-specific conditions and turbine-specific design features do not currently exist. A recentl y developed wind energy curriculum entitled Harvesting The Wind is available from the Sustainable Resource s Council, Minneapolis, Minnesota 11 . It includes a project feasibility assessment spreadsheet tool suitable fo r evaluating privately-owned wind energy projects in the Midwest. This tool, available on diskette, allows use of default
There are now over 10,000 Home Power readers and 7,528 have responded on the information portion of the subs form. The percentages in the spreadsheet below are computed on the basis of those responding to the survey (7,528 people). Amazing facts 1) over 39 are now making all, or most, of their electricity, and 2) over 78 want to make all, or most, of their own power in the future. The equipment portion of the survey shows extensive usage of all types of RE equipment and substantial future growth.
Calculation of estimated energy production is simple using spreadsheets or by writing a program to do the calculation from a histogram and a power curve. The data would be in tabular form and can be graphed using spreadsheets or generic plot programs. Spreadsheets for calculation of energy production are available at the accompanying website for Renewable Energy and the Environment.
After such a successful user test, we couldn't wait to stick it to this inverter. Bob-O Schultze came to Home Power central to witness the event. We lined up all the monster loads, broke out the two Fluke 87 meters, and proceeded. We used a 0.5 precision shunt (50 mV. at 200 Amperes) in series with the battery inverter cable. What follows below is a spreadsheet showing the raw data of an afternoon's rigorous testing. Watts are calculated fields for both 12 VDC and 120 vac wattages. This was done by multiplying volts times amps. Efficiency is the output wattage divided by the input wattage. The hard facts are in the spreadsheet, no editorial verbiage here
The FATE2-P (Financial Analysis Tool for Electric Energy Projects) financial analysis model was used to analyze th e data provided in the Technology Characterizations. This spreadsheet model was developed by Princeton Economi c Research, Inc. and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy. FATE2-P can be used for either the revenue requirements or the discounted rate of return approach. It is used by the DOE renewable energy R&D programs for its planning activities. The model is publicly available, and has been used by a number o f non-DOE analysts in recent studies. Other models will produce the same results given the same inputs.
TEMP RECORDER Collect and store indoor outdoor temperatures with this portable electronic data logger. Then with the serial port, use spreadsheet software to graph the results. 89.95 plus 6 S & H. TENSOR Instruments, 342 Roberta St., Thunder Bay, Ontario P7A 1A3 Canada (807) 683-6917
The total sum of the resource consumed from any initial time to any time, T, can be estimated by summing up the consumption per year. This can be done by using a spreadsheet on personal computers or calculated. If r is known as a function of time, then the total consumption can be found by integration. For exponential growth, the total consumption is given by
Windpower Workshop includes a comprehensive list of British consultants, dealers, and manufacturers of small wind turbines, a seven-page glossary, and a useful list of equations. What sets these formulas apart is their presentation. Hugh provides them in a helpful format suitable for keying into a spreadsheet so the readers can make their own calculations. Do-It-Yourselfers will greatly appreciate that gesture.
Same spreadsheet is used for problems 15 and 17. Notice that if frequency distribution does not add to 1 (close), you have made a mistake. Student answers will vary due to estimation of flow from graph. With spreadsheet, easy to change average wind speed. At 6 m s, farm windmill 50 m3 electric-electric 83 m3. 17. Electric-electric system, water pumped 48 cubic m. See problem 15 for spreadsheet.
For this round of testing, I chose a 5-minute time interval to sample and store all three temperatures and irradiance. This allows me to see the response to transient events such as system start-up and passing clouds. Downloading the data to a computer and exporting that information to a spreadsheet file is simple with the software supplied with the logger. Once in a spreadsheet, the data must be manipulated to calculate thermal power for both the sun (on the collector array) and the plumbing loop. To get the total solar power, multiply irradiance in watts per square meter (W m2) times the surface area of the collectors (m2).
Projections of energy demand and prices out to 2030 were required for development of the market construct. Regional detail was essential because of the dispersed nature of many renewable energy resources. At the time this study was initiated, uniform guidance on die market construct was unavailable from DOE. Thus, it was necessary to draw from several sources. The primary sources used to define the market construct to 2000 were the Annual Energy Outlook 1989 (AEO) and Annual Outlook for U.S. Electric Power 1989 (AOEP), prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). For the post-2000 period, national energy price and demand projections were taken from a preliminary run of the DOE-PE Fossil2 model (dated 7 26 89). Also used were sectoral and regional energy price and demand trend extrapolations provided by EIA in a PC spreadsheet file (NEWELF.WK1, dated 8 15 89).
The important concept is that crude estimates of resources give fairly good answers as to when production for finite resources will peak. Also, predictions on the future use of the resource can be made from past production, as production and consumption of a finite resource will probably be similar to the bell curve. Hubbert began his analysis of the U.S. oil production 5 in the early 1950s when he was with Shell Research. In 1956, Hubbert predicted that the U.S. oil production would peak mid-1970s, and he was very close, as the actual peak occurred in 1970. The prediction (logistic curve) of U.S. oil production in Figure 2.4 used actual oil production through 2006, and the prediction was calculated in a spreadsheet using the method of Deffeyes 6, chap. 7 . Notice that data include production from Alaskan oil fields and also show that imports are continuing to increase as the U.S. consumption has increased and production has decreased.
In 120 Volt wiring, the voltage loss due to oxidized mechanical connections is negligible because the input voltage is so high- 120 vac and thereby the current flow is low. Here, mechanical connections are standard and perfectly acceptable. In 12 Volt systems, however, the voltage loss is appreciable. For example, consider a 120 Watt load being powered via a mechanical connection with a resistance of 0.2 W ( a fairly typical funky connection's resistance). At 120 vac, the 120 Watt load will consume 1.0 Amperes of current (I P E, I 120 Watts 120 Volts, I 1.0 Amperes). At 12 VDC, the 120 Watt load will consume 10 Amperes of current (I P E, I 120 Watts 12 Volts, I 10.0 Amperes). In order to transfer 120 Watts of power, we must move ten times the current in a 12 Volt circuit as in a 120 Volt circuit. Increased current produces increased voltage loss across a bad connection. The voltage losses and power losses for this scenario are in the spreadsheet below (calculated at a variety of...
Data can be placed in spreadsheets for further analysis, as most data loggers allow export. Another benefit is that data analysis is not tied to a proprietary program, which sometimes even the manufacturer has trouble updating, especially if a subcontractor developed the software program.
The study focuses on a hydrogen delivery by means of a LH2 tanker truck from a hydrogen plant (depot) to hydrogen filling stations situated in a city. The truck delivery characteristics, such as numbers of filling stations, roundtrip distances, and number of deliveries per year were modelled using the spreadsheet model developed by 143 based on hydrogen demand for the city. Coverage of the hydrogen station was compared with the idealized numbers of gasoline stations. According to 143 numbers of the hydrogen stations are at least 10 (for a small market penetration) of the total gasoline stations
The efficiency of this inverter is very high. Especially at low output wattage. While 60 Hz. transformer based inverters have this same high efficiency around full power, they are very inefficient at low output power. The PowerStar UPG is uniformly very efficient. For example, consider the 25 watt lightbulb's test data on the spreadsheet. Here the UPG is 98 efficient. With a 25 watt load, most 1,000+ watt inverters are less than 30 efficient. We are so impressed with the uniformly high efficiency of the UPG that I have graphed it on this page. This graph uses our actual data from the spreadsheet.
Notice that at u 0 and u v0, the power is zero. In other words, there is no power output if the drag device is not moving, and the drag device cannot move faster than the wind. From Equations 6.7 and 6.12, the maximum power coefficient for a drag device can be calculated. The maximum power coefficient, CP(max) 4 27 0.15, which occurs when the drag device is moving at u 1 3 the wind speed. This maximum power coefficient is for a drag coefficient around 1. Some drag devices can have a drag coefficient greater than 1, so the maximum power coefficient could be as high as 20 . The maximum power coefficient can be found using calculus or can be estimated from a spreadsheet or graph of P A versus wind speed (Equation 6.12) for various values of u, from 0 to v0. Low efficiency is another reason there are not commercial drag devices for generating electricity.
Someone might say that the C-64 system is an old 8 bit machine without any potential. Bah I also have a full blown 386 system here with all the latest software, but if the average person looks carefully at their needs verses wish-list, they will find the Commodore C-64, 1541 disk drive and a compatible printer will fulfill all their needs for less than 500, new. Berkeley Softworks offers word processing, spreadsheet, database manager, desktop publishing, educational, and other software in an operating environment similar to Apple's Macintosh or PCs with Microsoft's Windows for about 33 each mailorder. You run everything with inputs from a mouse, very little keyboard expertise is needed. Their trade name is GEOS. Dedicated programs of every subject are available for the more advanced user for fractions of the cost of major computer software.
In the first step, the analyst enters the data into a spreadsheet in which time series plots are used to review the various instrument readings. The data acquisition system has failed if The usable data are then entered into a second spreadsheet with custom macros for processing. These macros apply additional filters in accordance with the IEC standard. The IEC standard requires that all data be used unless the following conditions are present
Residential application with rebate, IC 25,000, down payment 7,000, loan 18,000 at 10 (payment 4,000 year), O&M 2.5 * IC 500 year, energy production 50,000 kWh year (75 consumed directly, displacing 8 cents kWh electricity, and 25 sold to the utility at 4 cents kWh, with utility escalation at 3 year). Cash flow done in a spreadsheet. Residential application with rebate, IC 25,000, down payment 7,000, loan 18,000 at 10 (payment 4,000 year), O&M 2.5 * IC 500 year, energy production 50,000 kWh year (75 consumed directly, displacing 8 cents kWh electricity, and 25 sold to the utility at 4 cents kWh, with utility escalation at 3 year). Cash flow done in a spreadsheet.
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