Homemade Energy WISE Generator
The industrial career of the fossil fuels was launched in the industrial revolution with the invention of the steam-engine, which quickly began to replace human and animal muscle in the productive industries. The 'obsolete' technology of the steam-engine has not been consigned to history modern nuclear, coal-, gas- and oil-fired power-stations all still work on the same principle and, even today, it continues to shape the structure of the global economy. All the new technologies that have since been developed remain wedded to the same fossil fuel energy base pioneered by the steam-engine. In its time, James Watt's 1769 invention brought vastly increased energy efficiency, paving the way for the industrial revolution.15 Greater energy efficiency made mass production possible, with the result that consumption of energy and raw materials grew at a furious rate. Initially, the primary fuel was wood or charcoal. But as the steam-engine became more widely used, demand quickly outstripped...
In the1860s, French mathematician, August Mouchet proposed an idea for solar powered steam engines. In the following two decades, he and his assistant, Abel Pifre, constructed the first solar powered engines and used them for a variety of applications. These engines became the predecessors of modern parabolic dish collectors. At the conclusion of World War Two, scientist, novelist and visionary, Arthur C. Clark proposed the idea of satellites using solar powered steam engines.
Concentrating sunlight through the use of mirrors or lenses is historically associated with the generation of heat. Legend has it that Archimedes used mirrors and the sun's energy to set attacking Roman ships on fire.1 Children often discover that magnifying lenses can burn paper or tree leaves, sometimes after first burning their fingers. At the turn of the 19th century, several inventors and engineers used heat from solar concentrators to operate steam engines to pump water and later to generate electricity by means of rotating machinery.2 Several solar concentrator technologies being developed today use heat and rotating machinery. Large systems based on this technology have been generating electricity successfully in California since the 1980s.
Modern attempts to harvest the sun's energy directly date back to the 1870s, and the first solar motor company was founded in 1900. The first documented design was a concentrating solar power (CSP) device, which focuses the heat of the sun using lenses or mirrors to drive thermal engines or generators. In the 1870s, CSP systems were used to drive steam engines, which in turn were used to do something else, usually to pump water (although they were also used to make ice, in order to impress investors and astonish the public).
Accelerating economic and technological progress is the hallmark of the modern economic age. Today it is information technology (IT), biotechnology and genetic engineering that are developing by leaps and bounds before that it was the turn of aeronautics and space travel, atomic energy in its military and civilian applications, the motor car, electrification, the railway and the steam-engine. Each of these new technologies turned existing economic and political structures upside down, and profoundly changed the lives of both individuals and societies. Their effects are still felt today, with ramifications that cross physical, geographical, spiritual and ethical boundaries, the latter most especially where nuclear and biochemical weapons of mass destruction are concerned. They also operate on timescales that go beyond our capacity for responsible action. Nevertheless, as the pace of change continues to accelerate and permeate ever more aspects of our lives, the modern age is already...
Routes from biomass to powering fuel cells. Biomass can of course be burned in order to generate steam for driving steam turbines (or even steam engines) to make electric power. More interesting in this context are the chemical routes, i.e., anaerobic digestion of soft biomass and thermal processing of hard biomass to make syngas, a mix of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. This latter, thermal
Harnessing wind, water, and fire dates from early times. Sailboats have been used since at least 3000 B.C. and windmills were described by Hero of Alexandria around A.D. 100. By A.D. 300, windmills were used in Persia and later spread to China and Europe. Hero's toy steam engines were apparently built and operated. Vitruvius, the Roman architect whose book, first published in Hero's time, is still on sale today, discusses waterwheels used to pump water and grind cereals. In spite of available technology, ancients limited themselves to human or animal power. Lionel Casson (1981), a professor of ancient history at New York University, argues that this was due to cultural rather than economic constraints. Only at the beginning of the Middle Ages did the use of other energy sources become fashionable. The second millennium exploded with windmills and waterwheels.
The magnetic effects created by an electric current flowing through the coils of a conductor. The device utilizing this principle, called an electromagnet, is now one of the most archaic appliances still in common use. We can realize how outdated its operation is from the following example if the progress in propulsion systems were equal to that of magnetic field production devices, our only mechanical vehicle would still be a steam engine.
However, these myths have an excellent pedigree they do not emerge from out of the blue. The industrial revolution was driven by a technical breakthrough, which was the steam engine used to harness an energy-intensive fuel source coal. In a similar way, the internal combustion engine was a new technology applied to a 'new' highly concentrated fuel source oil. Nuclear power was another technical breakthrough which unlocked the new fuel source of uranium. Thus, since the industrial revolution, our view of progress has been tied to the idea of a breakthrough. However, with all but a few exceptions, most progress comes from combinations of steps which, when taken as a whole, appear as a breakthrough. A modern Mercedes Benz that does 300kph is not the result of the internal combustion engine breakthrough. It is the result of a century of steam engine design progress, then the combustion engine breakthrough, followed by a century of incremental development which has been paid for by...
The Coal Steam Engine The Industrial Revolution was a time of major socioeconomic change that began in England in the latter half of the 18th century. One of the driving forces behind it was the invention of a new energy resource a coal-powered machine devised by the British inventor Thomas Newcomen. This machine had an engine that burned coal in a boiler to create high-pressure steam. The steam drove a shaft that could pump water from coal mines, enabling the British to extract higher-quality coal for heating. With this invention, coal soon surpassed wood as the primary source of thermal energy. But the device's real impact on energy would not be truly felt until a Scottish inventor, James Watt, added improvements to the coal-powered steam engine, beginning in 1765. Watt's steam engine could be used for purposes other than pumping water, and it soon became the energy powerhouse behind the operation of silk mills and other textile factories, first in England in the 18th century and...
The lower cost of wind power to water power and the fact that more sites were available for windmills than there were for water mills caused an increase in the use of windmills. In The Netherlands, this growth contributed to the country's golden age (from 1590 till about 1670). As late as 1850, 90 of the power used in Dutch industry came from the wind. Steam supplied the rest. Industrialization, first in Europe and later in America, led to a gradual decline in the use of windmills. The steam engine took over the tasks previously performed by windmills.
Proportional feedback in the form of a centrifugal or fly-ball governor was used to regulate the speed of grain grinding windmills by controlling the force between the millstones around 1750 5 . It must be noted that, in 1788, James Watt used a similar system for speed control of steam engines. The fly-ball governor and linkage kept the millstones apart, allowing the rotor to run unloaded up to a specified rotational speed. At this speed, the fly-balls rose up and allowed the millstones to move together and absorb torque. As the wind ramped up, the miller increased the flow rate of grain to absorb more torque. If the wind increased even more, it was necessary to turn the rotor out of the wind and stop it. Next, the sheets of canvas that were stretched over the wooden framework of the sails were reefed in order to reduce the swept area, and the milling process could be restarted. The spring sail, invented by the Scottish millwright A. Meikle in 1772, replaced the sheets of canvas with...
Over 'surprisingly fast ships in the 1920s, trucks in the 1930s and locomotives in the 1950s'.26 Similarly, improvements to the incandescent light-bulb by Edison's team of engineers were central to the diffusion of grid electrification itself.27 The diffusion of the steam engine is explained by Watt's improvements to the Newcomen engine, which opened 'the way to continuing advances in efficiencies that eventually brought the steam-engine within the reach of all branches of the economy and made of it a universal prime mover'.28 And improvements to high-yielding varieties (HYVs) of seeds and their adaptation to local conditions are said for instance to explain 'the dramatic speed with which new HYVs were diffused among peasants in South and Southeast Asia', and that such examples clearly 'demonstrate the power of the economic model of diffusion'.29
The move to a Third Industrial Revolution incorporating a social vision with an economic vision is considered by some world leaders to be essential if the future challenges of energy security and climate change mitigation are to be met. Major changes to the energy supply sector tend to only occur when a new energy regime happens to converge with a new communication regime (Rifkin et al., 2008). For example, in the 18th century the deployment of the coal-powered steam engine was aided by the printing press to disseminate its benefits and hence enable the rapid pace of the first industrial revolution to occur. In the late 19th and early-to-mid 20th centuries, the second industrial revolution occurred when first-generation electrical forms of communication, including the telegraph, radio, and telephone, enabled the necessary infrastructure development, organisation and marketing of millions of small vehicles powered by internal combustion engines and fuelled by oil products. Today, the...
At a time when only 10 of the chemical energy in coal was converted into mechanical energy in a steam engine, Ostwald (1894) perceived electrochemistry as the solution to the inefficient energy conversion process. Ostwald was dismayed that the only energy that could be harnessed in a steam engine was between the boiler and the condenser, and that the energy of burning the coal to raise the temperature was lost. Instead of losing this amount, he proposed that using electrochemistry was a better way one that converted energy without heat so that the entire energy content of coal could be won. His hope was to produce electricity from coal by electrochemical processes, but it was uncertain how the galvanic item would be created. Ostwald did refer to an attempt by Jablochkoff (1877 in Ostwald, 1894), who
Energy demand in the pre-industrial world was provided mostly by man and animal power and to a limited extent from the burning of wood for heating, cooking and smelting of metals. The discovery of abundant coal, and the concurrent technological advances in its use, propelled the industrial revolution. Steam engines, mechanized production and improved transportation, all fuelled directly by coal, rapidly followed. The inter-war years saw the rise of oil exploration and use. Access to this critical fuel became a key issue during the Second World War. Post-war industrial expansion and prosperity was increasingly driven by oil, as was the massive growth in private car use. More recently a new phase of economic growth has been underpinned to a great extent by natural gas.
James Watt (1736-1819) was a Scottish engineer and inventor whose improvements in the steam engine led to its wide use in industry. The power output of the steam engine was thus measured in watts. and, when applied to electricity, 1 watt (W) corresponds to the power generated by 1 amp of current flowing through 1 ohm of resistance.
Electricity production using solid biomass fuels is still a developing industry and as a consequence is not competitive on price with electricity from fossil fuels without some kind of government fiscal or policy support. However, it is competitive with nuclear power and possibly new-build clean coal power stations but not with modern gas-fired power stations within the current regulatory and economic climate. In the longer term, grid-connected biomass generation (using the full range of possible technologies) may become competitive the greatest potential is for small-scale embedded generation using gasification, pyrolysis or high-speed steam engine-based plant. In the short term, small-scale (100 to 500 kWe) dedicated plants for use on farms or by rural industry has the greatest potential. In the medium term, when increased demand for electricity could be causing the grid to become overloaded and unreliable, then larger (1 to 20 MWe) embedded biomass generation plant providing...
Dear Home Power When I eventually complete other more pressing projects I would like to use some of the abundant wood in my area for electricity production as a complement to my solar panels during extended periods of cloudy weather. I have just recently heard about a sterling engine which seems to have potential in this area. Apparently, the engine runs on temperature differentials. I know so little about this engine I'm not even certain the name is correct. Are any of your readers knowledgeable on this subject I would be especially interested in a critique of this engine vs the steam engine as a power source for driving an alternator. Thanks, Mason Hess, Tonasket, WA The best you could do is to contact Christopher Sheck, Stirling Technology Inc., 9 Factory St. Athens, OH 45701 (614) 594-2277. They are the makers of the engines and the answers you seek. KJS
Water mills and windmills (e.g. the vertical axis panemone type probably derived from waterwheels, or the sail-wing type presumably copied from sail-ships) also played a role from a certain stage in development. The earliest mention of windmills in actual use is from India about 2400 years ago (Wulff, 1966). Considering its low efficiency and overall size, it is unlikely that wind power has at any time accounted for a large proportion of the average energy use. On the other hand, windmills and water mills offered the only alternative to muscle power for high-quality (i.e. low-entropy) mechanical energy, until the invention of the steam engine.
CONCENTRATING PV COLLECTOR fully-tracking, cone type, water heating 500 watts, 17500 BTU hr 7 yrs old. 2500 offer BEST 24V 2500W inverter 700 offer AE experimenter surplus tanks, pumps, collectors, heat exchangers, steam engine, motors, etc. 12 VDC 8 cu. ft. Artic Kold refrig. George Helmholz 74550 Dobie Lane, Covelo, CA 95428 (707) 983-6525
Where To Download The Wise Generator
The Wise Generator will be instantly available for you to download right after your purchase. No shipping fees, no delays, no waiting to get started.