Urban Survival Secrets for Terrorist Attacks
The terrorist attacks of September 11 have exposed critical vulnerabilities in America's essential infrastructures Never again can the security of these fundamental systems be taken for granted. Electric power systems constitute the fundamental infrastructure of modern society. A successful terrorist attempt to disrupt electricity supplies could have devastating effects on national security, the economy, and the lives of every citizen. Yet power systems have widely dispersed assets that can never be absolutely defended against a determined attack. Because critical infrastructures touch us all, the growing potential for infrastructure problems stems from multiple sources. These sources include system complexity, deregulation, economic effects, power market impacts, terrorism, and human error. The existing power system is also vulnerable to natural disasters and intentional attacks. Ongoing efforts at NERC, DOE, and EPRI including EPRI's
Efficient Power Supply Suitable for Inductive Loads was patented by Mr. Edwin Gray in 1986. Mr. Gray passed away in 1989. Rumour has it from his wife, he disappeared. To my knowledge he still holds the rights to the patent If you are interested in manufacturing this device you should try to seek permission from any controlling interest of the patent. We all are aware of the fact that we now stand at the edge of a world war and or terrorist attacks motivated in part by the need for energy. It is definitely in the best interest of the United States of America to develop new energy sources as quickly as possible. Technological information travels so fast today that if we in the United States take a day off, an other country will bring this to market by tomorrow. 1 personally think that there is a social responsibility to bring this to market. If someone does hold the patent rights, then it would seem that a fair and
Although the earlier generations of reactors have effectively demonstrated the viability of nuclear power, the nuclear industry still faces a number of challenges that need to be overcome for nuclear power to achieve its full potential. Among these challenges are (1) public concern about the safety of nuclear power in the wake of the Three Mile Island accident in 1979 and the Chernobyl accident in 1986, (2) high capital costs and licensing uncertainties associated with the construction of new nuclear power plants, (3) public concern over potential vulnerabilities of nuclear power plants to terrorist attacks, and (4) issues associated with the accumulation of nuclear waste and the potential for nuclear material proliferation in an environment of expanding nuclear power production.
The specter of terrorism raises a profound dilemma for the electric power industry How to make the electricity infrastructure more secure without compromising the productivity advantages inherent in today's complex, highly interconnected electric networks Resolving this dilemma will require both short-term and long-term technology development and deployment, affecting some of the fundamental characteristics of today's power systems of control. For several years, there has been a trend toward centralizing control of electric power systems. Emergence of regional transmission organizations (RTOs) as agents of wide-area control, for example, offers the promise of greatly increased efficiency and improved customer service. But if terrorists can exploit the weaknesses of centralized control, security would seem to demand that smaller, local systems become the system configuration of choice. In fact, strength and resilience in the face of attack will increasingly rely upon the ability to...
Currency for trading in the global oil market, some have claimed that the true reason for U.S. opposition to Iran is not Iran's support of terrorism or possible nuclear weapons program, but its challenging of the supremacy of the U.S. dollar in the international oil market. Yet strained U.S.-Iranian relations have a long history and have been due to a series of energy-related conflicts, rather than to the nuclear issue or the euro issue alone. For example, when Mohammad Mossadegh was prime minister of Iran (1951-53), he nationalized Iran's oil industry, which was originally under British control. In response Britain enforced an economic blockade against Iran and, working with the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), helped to instigate Mossadegh's overthrow by Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. Mossadegh was sent to prison, where he died in 1967. The shah opened Iran's oil reserves to Western companies. Whereas Mossadegh's oil policies were antagonistic to the United States and Britain,...
(3)(A) The task force, in consultation with Federal, State, and local agencies, the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors, and the Organization of Agreement States, and after public notice and an opportunity for comment, shall evaluate, and provide recommendations relating to, the security of radiation sources in the United States from potential terrorist (i) a list of additional radiation sources that should be required to be secured under this Act, based on the potential attractiveness of the sources to terrorists and the extent of the threat to public health and safety of the sources, taking into consideration
OTHER EVENTS IMPACTING OIL PRICES Another event that threatened the stability of U.S. oil prices and supplies was the September 11, 2001, terrorist attack on the United States. After the attack the United States experienced record-high oil prices and a general insecurity over oil imported from the Middle Eastern region. Other challenges that have affected U.S. energy supply in immediate and substantial ways are hurricanes and other unpredictable natural events. In August 2005 Hurricane Katrina struck the Gulf of Mexico, damaging oil production facilities, terminals, pipelines, and refineries off the coasts of Texas and Louisiana, which are responsible for a quarter of all domestic oil production. Oil production throughout the region declined significantly, causing a severe drop in U.S. oil output. The disruptions in the supply of gasoline and other refined oil products that followed the hurricane caused oil prices to spike nationwide. The price of oil reached a record high of 70.82...
Although short-term weather-related events (e.g., hurricanes) and geopolitical instabilities (e.g., terrorist actions and attempts by some producers to withhold supply) could raise crude oil prices well above 100 per barrel in 2004 dollars for a few months or even years, the author believes that sustained crude oil prices which exceed 75 per barrel for the next 25 years are unlikely for technical reasons.+ Nevertheless, it is prudent to consider such a case for contingency planning purposes. This section evaluates the impacts
Like many other fluoropolymers, Nafion is quite resistant to chemical attack, but the presence of its strong perfluorosulfonic acid groups imparts many of its desirable properties as a proton exchange membrane. Fine dispersions (sometimes incorrectly called solutions) can be generated with alcohol water treatments.13 Such dispersions are often critical for the generation of the catalyst electrode structure and the MEAs. Films prepared by simply drying these dispersions are often called recast Nafion, and it is often not realized that its morphology and physical behavior are much different from those of the extruded, more crystalline form.
Quotation from Deffeyes in our Endnote 342 . With the present extreme volatility of the MidEast and the continuing war on terrorism, the probability is high of eventual severe disruption of oil supplies and the energy infrastructure of the U.S. If cheap, clean EM energy from the vacuum is rapidly developed, we may finally get the scientific community's head wrenched back out of the big nuclear power business, as a colossal waste of research manpower and taxpayer dollars as well as providing ticking time-bombs for the terrorist teams now already in the United States to attack and destroy. It is so easy for a person with appropriate technical knowledge to build a portable electromagnetic pulse (EMP) shooter that one shudders at the consequences of in-country terrorist teams that can do so. Try imagining what we would face when the electronic controls of one or more operating nuclear power plants are suddenly disabled and destroyed with the reactor on line and providing power. Chernobyl...
In order to prevent such damage, the local laws4) stipulate a quality- supervised concrete with high resistance to strong chemical attack (concrete B II) when the concrete is exposed to pH values below 4.5 over longer periods. The parts of structure can consist of water-repellent concrete with high frost resistance (class B 25).
Drawing from the SPR is one way the United States has attempted to minimize its vulnerability to oil shortages. However, because filling the SPR reduces the amount of oil available for current consumption, the SPR is controversial. For example, the Bush administration ordered the SPR filled to capacity in November 2001 in response to the threat to oil security posed by the September 11 terrorist attacks that year. When gas prices soared, 50 members of the U.S. House of Representatives requested that the president stop the filling of the SPR so that the amount of oil available for current use would increase and gas prices would stabilize. The president denied their request.
One of Saudi Arabia's key energy-related issues is that it is located in the politically unstable Middle East, a major concern to Saudi oil customers such as the United States. A related issue, one that directly impacts Saudi Arabia's economy, is that Saudi Arabia has needed to increase its security spending because of a number of terrorist attacks in the country since 2003. Of special concern is the threat posed to Saudi oil facilities and the 3,000 Western oil workers in the country. Saudi Arabia reportedly has ramped up security spending by 50 percent since 2004. Saudi Arabia's oil fields, refineries, estimated 10,000 miles of oil pipelines, and other oil facilities fall under the protection of the Saudi National Guard, regular Saudi military forces, and Interior Ministry officers.
Other sources of human-related risks are in the form of deliberate sabotage of a system from within a system or as threat from outside the system, such as a computer hacker or a terrorist. The hazard in this case is not simply random but intelligent. The methods introduced in earlier sections might not be fully applicable for this risk type. The threat scenarios to the system in this case have a dynamic nature that are affected by the defense or risk mitigation and management scenarios that would be implemented by an analyst. The use of game theory methods might be needed in this case in combination with other risk analysis and management methods. Game theory is introduced in the last subsection herein. An example of intelligent threats is terrorism and sabotage as an ongoing battle between coordinated opponents representing a two-party game, where each opponent seeks to achieve their own objectives within a system. In the case of terrorism, it is a game of a well-established...
One late night about a week into the project we were awakened by 2 earth shaking explosions. The next day we found that the Contras had blown the main power lines 15 miles from where we slept. These were no firecrackers. Much of Northern Nicaragua was down. When we left for Managua a week later, the only evidence of electricity I saw was at our project. A striking impression was that of hundreds of people hauling drinking water on their backs for miles. The city's water treatment plant is electrically operated. Two facts were evident 1) the real burden of terrorism is born by the common people, and 2) those of us that produce our own power are free indeed in times of civil strife.
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