## Literature review

The design of a robust frequency converter controller for high dynamic performance requires that the (synchronous) generator model parameters are known accurately. In principle, synchronous machine parameters may be determined either from design calculations or from measurements acquired at the factory or on site. For high dynamic performance control, however, the former approach is inadequate. A primary goal of this section is to address the latter issue.

Many papers have been published on synchronous machine parameter identification (see e.g. [18, 136, 153, 248, 291, 294] and references therein). Most papers address standstill frequency response (SSFR) methods following the protocols of IEEE Standard 115-1995 [111]. This standard focusses on identifying equivalent circuit parameters rather than on transfer functions. Two papers address methods for identifying the parameters from time-domain data. In both cases, the parameter estimation process generally consists of two parts. First, the time constants are extracted by applying a curve-fitting procedure to measured data. Next, the equivalent circuit parameters are determined by solving a set of non-linear equations through numerical optimization. The weakness of this approach is that the order of the model must be known a priori and that numerical optimization is a process fraught with numerical difficulties [104].

## Solar Stirling Engine Basics Explained

The solar Stirling engine is progressively becoming a viable alternative to solar panels for its higher efficiency. Stirling engines might be the best way to harvest the power provided by the sun. This is an easy-to-understand explanation of how Stirling engines work, the different types, and why they are more efficient than steam engines.

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