Overview wind turbine design codes

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In the wind energy community the following design codes are commonly used to model and simulate the wind turbine dynamic behavior, as well as to carry out design calculations:

• ADAMS/WT (Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems - Wind Turbine) [57]. ADAMS/WT is an add-on package for the general-purpose, multibody package ADAMS. ADAMS/WT is developed by Mechanical Dynamics, Inc. (MDI) under contract to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), specifically for modeling horizontal-axis wind turbines of different configurations. The ADAMS-code is intended for detailed calculations in the final design stage [318]. Both the subroutine packages AeroDyn (computes the aerodynamic forces for the blades) and YawDyn (blade flap and machine yaw), developed at the University of Utah, can be incorporated in the package [102]. In the 2.0 release, ADAMS/WT is limited to fixed- or free yaw, horizontal-axis wind turbines with two-bladed teetering or 3, 4 or 5-bladed rigid hubs;

• BLADED for Windows - Offshore Upgrade [29, 74]. BLADED for Windows is an integrated software package offering the full range of performance and loading calculations required for the design and certification of both onshore and offshore wind turbines. This code is developed at Garrad Hassan & Partners Ltd., Bristol, England, and has been accepted by Germanischer Lloyd for the calculation of wind turbine loads for design and certification;

• DUWECS (Delft University Wind Energy Convertor Simulation program) [20, 21, 22, 23, 143]. The development of this code started in 1986 at the Mechanical Engineering Systems and Control Group of Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands, in order be able to optimize controlled, flexible horizontal-axis onshore wind turbines. In 1993 DUWECS has been extended to be able to deal with offshore wind turbines. Since 1994, this code is maintained by the Institute for Wind Energy, also from Delft University of Technology;

• FAST (Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures, and Turbulence) [66, 306, 309]. The design code FAST has been developed at Oregon State University under contract to the Wind Technology Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). There are two versions of FAST, notably: a two-bladed version called FAST-2, and a three bladed version called FAST-3. The FASTcode is intended to obtain loads estimates for intermediate design studies. The number of degrees of freedom is limited in order to reduce runtimes for a wind turbine model simulation. Typical runtimes with FAST-2 take about one-sixth the time required for a similar ADAMS/WT run for a similar wind turbine model [318]. In 1996, NREL has modified FAST to use the AeroDyn subroutine package developed at the University of Utah to calculate the aerodynamic forces along the blade. This version has been called FAST-AD;

• FLEX5 [48, 207, 208, 289, 297]. The design code FLEX5 has been developed at the Fluid Mechanics Department of the Technical University of Denmark. FLEX5 simulates the dynamic behavior of both onshore and offshore wind turbines wind turbines with 1 to 3 rotor blades, fixed or variable speed, pitch or stall controlled. The aero-elastic model is formulated in the time-domain, and uses a relatively limited number of degrees of freedom to describe rigid body motions and elastic deformations. In the present version FLEX5 is limited to monopile foundations;

• FLEXLAST (FLEXible Load Analysing Simulation Tool) [15, 299]. The development of FLEXLAST started at Stork Product Engineering, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, in 1982. Since 1990 the code has been used for the design and certification for Dutch companies as well as for foreign companies;

• FOCUS (Fatigue Optimization Code Using Simulations) [239, 240]. FOCUS is an integrated design tool for structural optimization of rotor blades. It is developed by Stork Product Engineering, the Stevin Laboratory, and the Institute for Wind Energy, the latter two from Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands. FOCUS consists of four main modules, SWING (stochastic wind generation), FLEXLAST (calculation load time cycles), FAROB (structural blade modeling), and Graph (output handling);

• GAROS (General Analysis of ROtating Structures) [235]. GAROS is a general purpose program for the dynamic analysis of coupled elastic rotating and non-rotating structures with special attention to horizontal-axis wind turbines. The development of GAROS started in 1979 at aerodyn Energiesysteme GmbH;

• GAST (General Aerodynamic and Structural Prediction Tool for Wind Turbines) [236, 302]. GAST is developed at the Fluids Section of the National Technical University of Athens, Greece for performing complete simulations of the behavior of wind turbines over a wide range of different operational conditions. It includes a simulator of turbulent wind fields, time-domain aero-elastic analysis of the full wind turbine configuration, and post-processing of loads for fatigue analysis;

• HAWC (Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Code) [150, 215]. The aero-elastic code HAWC is developed at the Wind Energy Department of Ris0 National Laboratory, Denmark. Besides acting as a "test stand" for improved aero-elastic modeling, this code is used for intermediate horizontal-axis wind turbine design studies;

• PHATAS-IV (Program for Horizontal Axis wind Turbine Analysis and Simulation, version IV) [160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 275]. The PHATAS code is developed at the Dutch Energy Research Foundation (ECN) unit Renewable Energy, Petten, The Netherlands for the calculation of the non-linear dynamic behavior and the corresponding loads of a horizontal-axis, wind turbine (both onshore and offshore) in time domain;

• TWISTER [145, 168]. The program TWISTER is developed at Stentec B.V., Heeg, The Netherlands, in order to analyse the behavior of horizontal-axis wind turbines. TWISTER is the successor of FKA;

• VIDYN [69, 70]. VIDYN is a simulation program for static and dynamic analysis of horizontal-axis wind turbines. The development of VIDYN began in 1983 at Teknikgruppen AB, Sollentuna, Sweden, as part of the evaluation projects concerning two large, Swedish prototypes Maglarp and Nassuden;

• YawDyn (Yaw Dynamics computer program) [97, 99]. YawDyn is developed at the Mechanical Engineering Department of University of Utah, United States of America with the support of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Wind Research Branch for the analysis of the yaw motions or loads of a horizontal-axis constant rotational speed wind turbine with a rigid or teetering hub, and two or three blades. The aerodynamic subroutines from YawDyn, i.e. AeroDyn, have been modified for use with the ADAMS/WT program. This code is intended to be used to obtain quick estimates of preliminary design loads [318], since the structural dynamics model contained in YawDyn is extremely simple [98].

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