Summary main features in tabular form

The aformentioned features of the discussed state-of-the-art wind turbine design codes are summarized in two tables, Table 2.1, and Table 2.2, on the next two pages. The tabular form enables the reader to get quick and comparable information. It should be noted that the design codes are listed in alphabetical order; i.e. the order does not express any rating.

S"

Wind turbine design codes

Component

Adams/wt

Bladed

Duwecs

Fast-ad

Flexlast

Flex5

Rotor aerodynamics

Loading

Modified BEM

BEM

BEM

BEM

BEM

BEM

Induced velocities

axial/tangential

axial/tangential

axial/tangential

axial/tangential

axial

axial/tangential

Tip effects

Prandtl

Prandtl

Prandtl

Prandtl

Prandtl

Prandtl

Root effects

-

Prandtl

Prandtl

-

-

-

Turbulent Wake State

Wilson

Garrad Hassan

Anderson

Wilson

Empirical

Glauert

Dynamic Inflow

Pitt and Peters

Pitt and Peters

FOS

Pitt and Peters

FOS

FOS

Dynamic Stall

Beddoes

Beddoes

Gormont

Beddoes

Stig 0ye

Stig 0ye

3D-correction

V&C

-

V&C

V&C

Snel et al.

Structural dynamics

Rotor blades

Hinge + MBS

Modal

Hinge

Modal

Hinge

Modal

Lead-lag

6

lst-mode

1

lst-mode

2

Flap

6

lst-mode

2

lst-mode

2

Torsion

-

-

-

-

-

Hub connection

Rigid + Teeter

Rigid + Teeter

Rigid + Teeter

Rigid + Teeter

Rigid + Teeter

Rigid + Teeter

Tower

MBS

Modal

Modal

Modal

MSD

Modal

Forward bending

3

2

1st

2

Sideward bending

3

2

1st

2

Torsion

-

-

-

1

Drive Train

Torsion

lst-mode

lst-mode

lst-mode

Generator description

Static

Static

Static

Static

Wind field description

Deterministic:

Wind shear

Linear, PL

PL, Log

Linear

Linear, PL

PL, Log, Lin

PL

Tower shadow

(1-cos2)

Dipole

(1-cos)

(1-cos2)

Dipole

Dipole

Stochastic:

Veers (Snlwind-3D)

Veers (Wind3D)

White noise

Veers (Snlwind-3D)

Swing , Swift

Veers

Wave field description

Deterministic:

Wave theory

-

Airy + Non-lin

Airy, Dean

-

-

Streamline

Stochastic:

Input spectrum

-

P-M, JONSWAP

P-M

-

-

P-M, JONSWAP

Wave theory

-

Airy

Airy

-

-

Airy

Force calculation

-

Morison

Morison

-

-

Morison

Control design

Linearization

-

-

-

-

Design code features, with •: implemented in the design code, —: not not implemented in the design code, BEM: Blade-Element-Momentum theory, FOS: First-Order-System, V&C: Viterna & Corrigan, MSD: Mass-Spring-Damper system, ISD: Inertia-Spring-Damper system, FO: First-Order, PL: Power Law, and P-M: Pierson-Moskowitz.

Wind turbine design codes

Component

Garos

Cast

Hawc

Phatas-IV

Twister

vldyn

Rotor aerodynamics

Modified BEM*

Loading

BEM

BEM

BEM

BEM

BEM

Induced velocities

axial

axial/tangential

axial/tangential

axial/tangential

axial/tangential

axial/tangential

Tip effects

Prandtl

Prandtl

Prandtl

Prandtl

Prandtl

Prandtl

Root effects

-

Prandtl

-

Prandtl

Prandtl

-

Turbulent Wake State

?

Empirical

Glauert

Wilson (oc = 0.38)

Glauert

Anderson

Dynamic Inflow

?

FOS

FOS

FOS

FOS

FOS

Dynamic Stall

?

Onera

Stig 0ye, B/L

Simple*

Simple

Stig 0ye

3D-correction

?

Snel et al.

Manual

Snel et al.

Snel et al.

-

Structural dynamics

Rotor blades

Modal

MBS/FES

FES

FES

FES ^ MSD

Modal

Lead-lag

lst-mode

Flap

lst-mode

Torsion

-

-

Hub connection

Arbitrary

Rigid + Teeter

Arbitrary

Rigid + Teeter

Rigid + Teeter

Rigid + Teeter

Tower

FES/Modal

MBS/FES

FES

Modal

FES ^ MSD/ISD

Modal

Forward bending

8

1st + 2nd

2

Sideward bending

8

1st

2

Torsion

1

1st

-

Drive Train

Torsion

lst-mode

lst-mode

Generator description

-

-

Static + FO

Static + FO

Static

Wind field description

Deterministic:

Wind shear

Power Law

Arbitrary

Arbitrary

Power Law, Log, Lin

Arbitrary

Linear, Power Law

Tower shadow

(1-cos)

Dipole

Dipole

Dipole

Dipole

Dipole

Stochastic:

Shinozuka/ Jan

Veers, Mann

Veers, Mann

Swift

EWS

Sosisw

Wave field description

Deterministic:

Non-linear

Wave theory

-

-

-

5th order Stokes

-

-

Stochastic:

ROWS wave field

Input spectrum

-

-

-

P-M, JONSWAP

-

-

Wave theory

-

-

-

Airy

-

-

Force calculation

-

-

-

Morison

-

-

Control design

Linearization

-

-

-

-

-

Design code features, with •: implemented in the design code, —: not not implemented in the design code, BEM: Blade-Element-Momentum theory, FOS: First-Order-System, B/L: Beddoes/Leishman, ISD: Inertia-Spring-Damper system, MSD: Mass-Spring-Damper system, FO: First-Order, P-M: Pierson-Moskowitz, Optional Vortex model, f: The dynamic stall model Onera is only implemented in a "garage" version.

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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